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Education and Training in
Nuclear Science and Technology
Andrej Stritar
“Jožef Stefan” Institute
Nuclear Training Centre...
Education and Training in Nuclear
Science and Technology
• This is very broad subject!
• What should I be talking about?
–...
Education and Training in Nuclear
Science and Technology
• Why could I speak about that?
• I am
– Head of the Nuclear Trai...
Slovenia, the smallest
nuclear country
K o p e r
P o s t o j n a
C e l j e
L j u b lj a n a
N o v o
M e s t o
K o e v j e
...
How come we are Nuclear?
• Used to be Yugoslavia
• Nuclear program started in 1950
• Nuclear Institutes were formed in:
– ...
Jožef Stefan Institute
• First it was only nuclear
• In 1966 TRIGA reactor constructed
• It is still operable
Jožef Stefan Institute
• In mid sixties need for nuclear has
changed
• End of financing by federal
government
• Restructur...
Jožef Stefan Institute
today
T h e o r e t ic a l P h y s ic s
L o w a n d I n t e r m e d ia t e P h y s ic s
T h in F il...
Jožef Stefan Institute
today
About 100 in nuclear
T h e o r e t ic a l P h y s ic s
L o w a n d I n t e r m e d ia t e P h...
Jožef Stefan Institute
financing
• Institute
– ~80% from research projects
• Nuclear part
– ~50% from research projects
• ...
Why do we need nuclear
research?
• NPP Krško
• Medicine applications
• Industrial applications
• Support to regulatory bod...
NPP Krško
• Westinghouse PWR
• Two loop
• 656 MWe
• Commercial
operation 1983
NPP Krško role in Slovenian
electricity supply
Hydro
31%
Fossil
43%
NPP
26%
Power
2395 MW
Hydro
28%
Fossil
34%
NPP
38%
Ene...
Nuclear Education and
Training
• Slovenia never had undergraduate
nuclear education
• 2 Graduate Schools
• 4-6 Ms.C. per y...
W e e k ly
E x a m s
T h e o r e tic a l
T r a in in g
H ig h
S c h o o l o r
C o lle g e
G r a d u a te
I n t e r n a l E...
Nuclear Training Centre
Areas of activity
• Training for Krško NPP
• Radiological protection training
• International courses
• Public information
Staff and organization
• Only 12 people
• 7 professionals
• No financing from the government
• NPP finances just about 2/3...
Radiological protection
• Commercial:
– About 3000 people in Slovenia must be
licensed
– We are authorized to provide trai...
Public Information
• Central visitors centre
• Well recognized
• NPP approved additional funding
• Funding also by the Rad...
International Training
Courses
Vision of our Nuclear Training Centre:
To be internationally recognized as a
good source of...
IAEA - Outsourcing
• Long History of IAEA events in
Ljubljana (more than 70)
• Outsourcing – a method of sharing
the imple...
Outsourcing – why do it?
• Challenge
• Logical way towards the independent
competence of our NTC
• We wish to become inter...
Outsourcing - problems
• Finances
• Taxes
• Visas
• Transportation
• Hotels
• Insurance
Outsourcing – crucial things
• Internal implementation procedures
• Three implementing crews available
– (workshop coordin...
Outsourcing - results
• Improved capabilities of NTC
• Beneficial for everybody involved
– Labor cost in Slovenia is lower...
Outsourcing – friendly
advice
• It is not easy…
• …but it is fun!
• Do it, if you find it challenging
• Don't do it, if yo...
Outsourcing – friendly
advice
…because at some point you will be
asking yourself why you have
studied engineering,
when yo...
Why we have problems with the
sustainability of nuclear research?
• No major developments in research
• Most of nuclear ac...
Isn’t negative perception
also our fault?
• We are not aware of our
performance!
• We most of the time just complain
over ...
History of Primary Energy
World primary energy consumption growth
1990-2000
90%
95%
100%
105%
110%
115%
120%
125%
130%
199...
History of Primary Energy
World primary energy consumption growth
1990-2000
90%
95%
100%
105%
110%
115%
120%
125%
130%
199...
Future of Nuclear Power
World NPP power - future
300
325
350
375
400
1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 201...
Turkey: Change in primary energy sources and carbon
releases
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%
140%
160%
1990 1991 1992 1993 19...
BSEC: Change in primary energy sources and carbon
releases
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%
1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996...
Germany: Change in fossile fuels use,
carbon releases and nuclear energy use
0%
5000%
10000%
15000%
20000%
25000%
30000%
1...
World: Change in fossile fuels use,
carbon releases and nuclear energy use
0%
100000%
200000%
300000%
400000%
500000%
6000...
Silver lining!
• Energy program of president Bush.
• Import of waste to Russia!
• Finland – (waste repository, fifth
unit)...
For the end
• So, what to do with sustainability,
education and training in nuclear?
• Stress the benefits an facts to
pub...
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Education and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology (1,6 MB)

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Education and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology (1,6 MB)

  1. 1. 1 Education and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology Andrej Stritar “Jožef Stefan” Institute Nuclear Training Centre Ljubljana, Slovenia IAEA Seminar, Ankara, 1-3 November 2001
  2. 2. Education and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology • This is very broad subject! • What should I be talking about? – Need for the research and knowledge? – Decrease of governmental support for nuclear? – Negative public perception? – Grey hear of us? – No interest among young people? – Safety concerns because of the loss of competence?
  3. 3. Education and Training in Nuclear Science and Technology • Why could I speak about that? • I am – Head of the Nuclear Training Centre at – “Jožef Stefan” Institute in Ljubljana • I am also – President of the Nuclear Society of Slovenia – President-elect of the European Nuclear Society • …and I have substantial experience in co- operating with IAEA and other organizations
  4. 4. Slovenia, the smallest nuclear country K o p e r P o s t o j n a C e l j e L j u b lj a n a N o v o M e s t o K o e v j e Z a g r e b M a r ib o r K r a n j B l e d N o v a G o r i c a T r i e s t e A d r i a ti c S e a K l a g e n f u r t H R I A H
  5. 5. How come we are Nuclear? • Used to be Yugoslavia • Nuclear program started in 1950 • Nuclear Institutes were formed in: – Belgrade – Zagreb – Ljubljana – “Jožef Stefan” Institute
  6. 6. Jožef Stefan Institute • First it was only nuclear • In 1966 TRIGA reactor constructed • It is still operable
  7. 7. Jožef Stefan Institute • In mid sixties need for nuclear has changed • End of financing by federal government • Restructuring was a must! • NEW RESEARCH FIELDS WERE INTRODUCED
  8. 8. Jožef Stefan Institute today T h e o r e t ic a l P h y s ic s L o w a n d I n t e r m e d ia t e P h y s ic s T h in F ilm s a n d S u r f a c e s S o lid S t a t e P h y s ic s R e a c t o r P h y s ic s E x p e r im e n t a l P a r t ic le P h y s ic s P h y s ic s A u t o m a t io n , B io c y b e r n e t ic s a n d R o b o t ic s C o m p u t e r A u t o m a t io n a n d C o n t r o l O p e n S y s t e m s a n d N e t w o r k s C o m p u t e r S y s t e m s D ig it a l C o m m u n ic a t io n s a n d N e t w o r k s I n t e l lig e n t S y s t e m s E l e c t r o n ic s a n d IT P h y s ic a l a n d O r g a n ic C h e m is t r y I n o r g a n ic C h e m is t r y a n d T e c h n o lo g y C e r a m ic s B io c h e m is t r y a n d M o le c u la r B io lo g y E n v ir o n m e n t a l S c ie n c e s C h e m i s t r y a n d B io c h e m i s t r y R e a c t o r E n g in e e r in g T R I G A N u c le a r T r a in in g C e n t r e E n e r g y E f f ic ie n c y C e n t r e R e a c t o r T e c h n iq u e s a n d E n e r g y D ir e c t o r About 740 employees, out of that 300 PhDs
  9. 9. Jožef Stefan Institute today About 100 in nuclear T h e o r e t ic a l P h y s ic s L o w a n d I n t e r m e d ia t e P h y s ic s T h i n F i lm s a n d S u r f a c e s S o l id S t a t e P h y s ic s R e a c t o r P h y s ic s E x p e r im e n t a l P a r t ic l e P h y s i c s P h y s ic s A u t o m a t io n , B io c y b e r n e t i c s a n d R o b o t ic s C o m p u t e r A u t o m a t i o n a n d C o n t r o l O p e n S y s t e m s a n d N e t w o r k s C o m p u t e r S y s t e m s D i g it a l C o m m u n i c a t io n s a n d N e t w o r k s I n t e ll ig e n t S y s t e m s E le c t r o n ic s a n d IT P h y s ic a l a n d O r g a n i c C h e m is t r y I n o r g a n i c C h e m is t r y a n d T e c h n o lo g y C e r a m i c s B i o c h e m is t r y a n d M o le c u l a r B io lo g y E n v ir o n m e n t a l S c ie n c e s C h e m is t r y a n d B io c h e m is t r y R e a c t o r E n g i n e e r i n g T R I G A N u c l e a r T r a i n in g C e n t r e E n e r g y E f f i c ie n c y C e n t r e R e a c t o r T e c h n iq u e s a n d E n e r g y D ir e c t o r
  10. 10. Jožef Stefan Institute financing • Institute – ~80% from research projects • Nuclear part – ~50% from research projects • Nuclear Training Centre – 0% from the state budget
  11. 11. Why do we need nuclear research? • NPP Krško • Medicine applications • Industrial applications • Support to regulatory bodies
  12. 12. NPP Krško • Westinghouse PWR • Two loop • 656 MWe • Commercial operation 1983
  13. 13. NPP Krško role in Slovenian electricity supply Hydro 31% Fossil 43% NPP 26% Power 2395 MW Hydro 28% Fossil 34% NPP 38% Energy 11475 GWh
  14. 14. Nuclear Education and Training • Slovenia never had undergraduate nuclear education • 2 Graduate Schools • 4-6 Ms.C. per year • Training for NPP Krško well developed What is the difference between education and training? You probably don’t react if your child comes from school and says: “We had education about sex today.” You react differently if he says: “We had training in sex today!”
  15. 15. W e e k ly E x a m s T h e o r e tic a l T r a in in g H ig h S c h o o l o r C o lle g e G r a d u a te I n t e r n a l E x a m W e e k ly E x a m s T r a in in g a b o u t N P P S y s t e m s I n t e r n a l E x a m 1 6 w e e k s o f S im u la t o r T r a in in g I n t e r n a l S im u la t o r E x a m O n - t h e jo b T r a in in g a n d S e lf s t u d y ( 6 m o n t h s t o 1 y e a r ) 2 w e e k s R e f r e s h e r C o u r s e R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r S t a t e E x a m A t le a s t 1 m o n th s e lf tr a in in g D u b b in g in t h e M C R ( 2 - 3 m o n t h s ) W o r k a s R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r 1 y e a r R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r S t a t e E x a m 7 d a y S im u la t o r R e f r e s h e r S im u la t o r E x a m 1 - 2 w e e k s R e f r e s h e r C o u r s e S e n io r R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r S t a t e E x a m W o r k a s R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r 7 d a y S im u la to r R e f r e s h e r S im u la t o r E x a m 1 y e a r 1 - 2 w e e k s R e f r e s h e r C o u r s e 3 d a y s R a d io lo g ic a l P r o t e c t io n S t a t e E x a m 5 y e a r s 1 - 4 y e a r s W o r k a s S e n io r R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r 7 d a y S im u la t o r R e f r e s h e r S im u la to r E x a m 1 y e a r 3 d a y s R a d io lo g ic a l P r o t e c t io n S t a t e E x a m 5 y e a r s 1 - 4 y e a r s S e n io r R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r S t a t e E x a m W o r k a s S e n io r R e a c t o r O p e r a t o r ( 1 y e a r ) 1 - 2 w e e k s R e fr e s h e r C o u r s e A t le a s t 1 m o n t h s e lf t r a in in g A t le a s t 1 m o n th s e lf t r a in in g Selectionof MCR Personnel O th e r d u t ie s 4 , 5 m o n t h s 4 , 5 m o n t h s S t a t e E x a m in R P Control Room Operator Training in Slovenia Complete System
  16. 16. Nuclear Training Centre
  17. 17. Areas of activity • Training for Krško NPP • Radiological protection training • International courses • Public information
  18. 18. Staff and organization • Only 12 people • 7 professionals • No financing from the government • NPP finances just about 2/3 of activities • We were forced to find new sources.
  19. 19. Radiological protection • Commercial: – About 3000 people in Slovenia must be licensed – We are authorized to provide training
  20. 20. Public Information • Central visitors centre • Well recognized • NPP approved additional funding • Funding also by the Radwaste Agency • About 7500 visitors per year
  21. 21. International Training Courses Vision of our Nuclear Training Centre: To be internationally recognized as a good source of knowledge in the nuclear area
  22. 22. IAEA - Outsourcing • Long History of IAEA events in Ljubljana (more than 70) • Outsourcing – a method of sharing the implementation burden for IAEA activities: – Most of organizational work is done by us.
  23. 23. Outsourcing – why do it? • Challenge • Logical way towards the independent competence of our NTC • We wish to become internationally recognized • At some point we wish to become independent from IAEA
  24. 24. Outsourcing - problems • Finances • Taxes • Visas • Transportation • Hotels • Insurance
  25. 25. Outsourcing – crucial things • Internal implementation procedures • Three implementing crews available – (workshop coordinator, workshop administrator) • Strong cooperation with authorities • QA/QC procedures • Computerized support
  26. 26. Outsourcing - results • Improved capabilities of NTC • Beneficial for everybody involved – Labor cost in Slovenia is lower than at IAEA – IAEA has more time and funds for other things
  27. 27. Outsourcing – friendly advice • It is not easy… • …but it is fun! • Do it, if you find it challenging • Don't do it, if you hate organizational work…
  28. 28. Outsourcing – friendly advice …because at some point you will be asking yourself why you have studied engineering, when you have to deal with bureaucrats most of your time!
  29. 29. Why we have problems with the sustainability of nuclear research? • No major developments in research • Most of nuclear activities are routine • Other, more challenging technologies • No nuclear power expansion • NEGATIVE PUBLIC PERCEPTION!
  30. 30. Isn’t negative perception also our fault? • We are not aware of our performance! • We most of the time just complain over bad destiny. • But facts are on our side!
  31. 31. History of Primary Energy World primary energy consumption growth 1990-2000 90% 95% 100% 105% 110% 115% 120% 125% 130% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 comparedto1990 Coal Nuclear Oil Hydro Gas Total
  32. 32. History of Primary Energy World primary energy consumption growth 1990-2000 90% 95% 100% 105% 110% 115% 120% 125% 130% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 comparedto1990 Coal Nuclear Oil Hydro Gas Total
  33. 33. Future of Nuclear Power World NPP power - future 300 325 350 375 400 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 TW
  34. 34. Turkey: Change in primary energy sources and carbon releases 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% 160% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 80% 90% 100% 110% 120% 130% 140% 150% Coal Oil Gas Hydro Ceq release
  35. 35. BSEC: Change in primary energy sources and carbon releases 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 120% 140% Coal Oil Gas Hydro Ceq release Nuclear
  36. 36. Germany: Change in fossile fuels use, carbon releases and nuclear energy use 0% 5000% 10000% 15000% 20000% 25000% 30000% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 80% 85% 90% 95% 100% 105% 110% 115% Coal Oil Gas Ceq release Nuclear
  37. 37. World: Change in fossile fuels use, carbon releases and nuclear energy use 0% 100000% 200000% 300000% 400000% 500000% 600000% 700000% 800000% 900000% 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 95% 100% 105% 110% 115% 120% 125% 130% Coal Oil Gas Ceq release Nuclear
  38. 38. Silver lining! • Energy program of president Bush. • Import of waste to Russia! • Finland – (waste repository, fifth unit) • UK • PBMR • Generation IV
  39. 39. For the end • So, what to do with sustainability, education and training in nuclear? • Stress the benefits an facts to public! • Find challenging and commercial applications • Think and act globally.

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