Digital Image Processing

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Digital Image Processing

  1. 1. 01/30/1501/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image ProcessingDuong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing 11 Digital Image Processing What is a digital image?
  2. 2. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing2 What is a digital image?  What is an image? – Picture, Photograph – Visual dataVisual data – Usually two- or three-dimensionalUsually two- or three-dimensional  What is a digital image?What is a digital image? – An image which is “discretized,” i.e., defined on aAn image which is “discretized,” i.e., defined on a discrete grid (ex. scanner)discrete grid (ex. scanner) – Two-dimensional collection of light intensity valuesTwo-dimensional collection of light intensity values (or gray values)(or gray values) – Matrix, two-dimensional functionMatrix, two-dimensional function
  3. 3. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing3 What is digital image processing?What is digital image processing?  What is digital image processing?What is digital image processing? – Digital image processing deals with theDigital image processing deals with the manipulation and analysis of pictures by amanipulation and analysis of pictures by a computer.computer. – Improve pictorial information for better clarityImprove pictorial information for better clarity (human interpretation).(human interpretation). – Automatic machine processing of scene dataAutomatic machine processing of scene data (interpretation by a machine/non-human,(interpretation by a machine/non-human, storage, transmission).storage, transmission).
  4. 4. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing4 Important steps in a typical imageImportant steps in a typical image processing systemprocessing system Image Acquisition Discretization/Digitization Quantization Compression Image enhancement and restoration Image Segmentation Feature Selection Image Representation Image Interpretation Partition image into objects or constituent parts Extracting pertinent features (or descriptors) from an image that are important for differentiating one class of objects from another Assigning labels to an object based on information provided by descriptors Assigning meaning to an ensemble of recognized objects Capturing visual data by an imaging sensor Convert data into discrete form Compress for efficient storage/transmission Improving image quality (low contrast, blur, noise)
  5. 5. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing5 Image Processing and AnalysisImage Processing and Analysis TransformationsTransformations  Level 0:Level 0: Image representation (acquisition,Image representation (acquisition, sampling, quantization, compression)sampling, quantization, compression)  Level 1:Level 1: Image-to-image transformationsImage-to-image transformations (enhancement, restoration, segmentation)(enhancement, restoration, segmentation)  Level 2:Level 2: Image-to-parameter transformationImage-to-parameter transformation (feature selection)(feature selection)  Level 3:Level 3: Parameter-to-decision transformationParameter-to-decision transformation (recognition and interpretation)(recognition and interpretation)
  6. 6. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing6 Image Processing and AnalysisImage Processing and Analysis TransformationsTransformations  Image Processing:Image Processing: Levels 0 and 1Levels 0 and 1  Image Analysis:Image Analysis: Levels 1 and 2Levels 1 and 2  Computer/Robot VisionComputer/Robot Vision:: Levels 2 and 3Levels 2 and 3  Computer Graphics/Animation ?Computer Graphics/Animation ? – This mainly involves “creating images” or “visualThis mainly involves “creating images” or “visual effects” from a given description.effects” from a given description.  Image processing and analysis is mainlyImage processing and analysis is mainly concerned with “interpreting” a givenconcerned with “interpreting” a given image.image.
  7. 7. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing7 Images come from variousImages come from various applicationsapplications Engineering --- Circuit board
  8. 8. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing8 Images come from variousImages come from various applicationsapplications Medicine --- MR Scan
  9. 9. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing9 Images come from variousImages come from various applicationsapplications Photography
  10. 10. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing10 Images come from variousImages come from various applicationsapplications Astronomy
  11. 11. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing11 Some Image ProcessingSome Image Processing Examples - Gamma-Ray ImagingExamples - Gamma-Ray Imaging  Gamma-ray imaging is used in manyGamma-ray imaging is used in many applications like nuclear medicine andapplications like nuclear medicine and astronomy.astronomy.  Positron emission tomography (PET imaging) isPositron emission tomography (PET imaging) is commonly used in medical diagnostic imaging.commonly used in medical diagnostic imaging.  Radioactive isotope administered to patient,Radioactive isotope administered to patient, which emits positrons.which emits positrons.  Positron and electron meet and annihilate,Positron and electron meet and annihilate, giving out gamma-rays, which are detected bygiving out gamma-rays, which are detected by sensors.sensors.  Prominent bright spots indicate white massesProminent bright spots indicate white masses corresponding to tumors in lung and brain.corresponding to tumors in lung and brain.
  12. 12. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing12 X-Ray ImagingX-Ray Imaging
  13. 13. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing13 Basic Chest X-RayBasic Chest X-Ray  X-ray imaging is used in a number of areasX-ray imaging is used in a number of areas like medical diagnostics, astronomy, and industriallike medical diagnostics, astronomy, and industrial applications.applications.  X-rays generated by a X-ray tube (vacuumX-rays generated by a X-ray tube (vacuum tube) pass through the object to be imaged andtube) pass through the object to be imaged and is then captured by a sensor.is then captured by a sensor.  If an X-ray film is used as the sensor, it isIf an X-ray film is used as the sensor, it is typically digitized to get a digital image.typically digitized to get a digital image.  Alternatively, the X-rays are captured byAlternatively, the X-rays are captured by devices that convert it into light energy whichdevices that convert it into light energy which is then sent to a lightsensitivedigitizing system.is then sent to a lightsensitivedigitizing system.
  14. 14. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing14 Contrast EnhancementContrast Enhancement radiographyradiography  A catheter is inserted in aA catheter is inserted in a blood vessel to beblood vessel to be studied.studied.  X-ray contrast mediumX-ray contrast medium is injected through theis injected through the catheter to enhance thecatheter to enhance the contrast of the bloodcontrast of the blood vessels.vessels. Aortic angiogramAortic angiogram
  15. 15. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing15 Industrial ApplicationIndustrial Application Circuit Board
  16. 16. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing16 Remote SensingRemote Sensing
  17. 17. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing17 Band no.Band no. NameName WavelengthWavelength (mm)(mm) Characteristic and UseCharacteristic and Use 11 Visible BlueVisible Blue 0.45-0.520.45-0.52 Maximum water penetrationMaximum water penetration 22 Visible GreenVisible Green 0.52-0.600.52-0.60 Good for measuring plant vigorGood for measuring plant vigor 33 Visible RedVisible Red 0.63-0.690.63-0.69 Vegetation DiscriminationVegetation Discrimination 44 Near infraredNear infrared 0.76-0.900.76-0.90 Biomass and shoreline mappingBiomass and shoreline mapping 55 Middle infraredMiddle infrared 1.55-1.751.55-1.75 Moisture content of soil andMoisture content of soil and vegetationvegetation 66 Thermal infraredThermal infrared 10.4-12.510.4-12.5 Soil moisture; thermal mappingSoil moisture; thermal mapping 77 Middle infraredMiddle infrared 2.08-2.352.08-2.35 Mineral mappingMineral mapping
  18. 18. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing18 Other Applications –Other Applications – Finger print imageFinger print image
  19. 19. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing19 License Plate readerLicense Plate reader
  20. 20. 01/30/15 Duong Anh Duc - Digital Image Processing20 Application AreasApplication Areas  Biological SciencesBiological Sciences  Meteorology/Satellite ImagingMeteorology/Satellite Imaging  Material SciencesMaterial Sciences  MedicineMedicine  Industrial inspection/Quality ControlIndustrial inspection/Quality Control  GeologyGeology  AstronomyAstronomy  MilitaryMilitary  Physics/ChemistryPhysics/Chemistry  PhotographyPhotography

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