Benefits of RadiationinEveryDayLife
Presented by:
Be ne ficialUse s o f
Radiatio n
Medical Diagnoses and Treatment
Research Applications
Industrial/Manufacturing Applicatio...
Me dicalUse s
Diagnostic
Generally low doses
Short-time exposures
Therapeutic
Generally high doses
Short to long time ...
Diag no stic Use s
X-radiation
Radiographs
Fluoroscopy
CT scan
Nuclear Medicine
X-Radiatio n:
Radio g raphs
Short time exposures (much less
than a second)
Low doses
Dental: 0.08 - 0.10 mSv (8 - 10 mrem...
X-Radiatio n:
Fluo ro sco py
Long time exposures
(minute or longer)
Higher doses
Barium Enema: 6 - 9 mSv (600 - 900 mrem)...
X-Radiatio n:
CT-Scan
Series of short exposures at different
angles
Computer analysis and display
Gives cross-section view...
Nucle ar Me dicine
Radioactive material injected into the
patient
Gamma radiation detected to give
image - computer analys...
Skeletal Scan
of Person After
a Tc-99m
nuclear
Medicine
Injection
The rape utic Use s
Radiotherapy (Direct radiation beam)
Gamma rays
Electron beams
X-radiation
Brachytherapy (Radiation...
The rape utic Use s
(Co ntinue d)
Internal Unsealed Sources
Biological uptake (Iodine)
Direct injection
Very High Local ...
Therapy
Machine
used for
Targeting
Cancerous
Tissue
Characte ristics o f Ide al
Brachythe rapy
Radio nuclide s
Half life should not cause extended stay
in hospital
Radioisoto...
Characte ristics o f Ide al
The rape utic Radio nuclide s
Half life should not cause extended stay
in hospital
Radioisotop...
Re se arch Use
Biological and Genetic research
Agricultural research
Space research
Pharmaceutical research
Manufacturing Te sting and
Me asure m e nts
Monitor thickness of materials during
production
Sheet metal, aluminum foil
...
IndustrialUse
Well logging
Moisture/density gauges
Radiography
Sterilization
Medical instruments
Cosmetics
Food/Spices
Le ve lG aug e
Gam m a Switching Te chniq ue
source
NaI detector
High signal reject
Can/package content monitor
Storage ho...
Thickne ss G aug e
Transm issio n Thickne ss Te chniq ue
load
conveyor
source
Belt weigher
NaI detector
Thickne ss Gaug e
Source
Detector
No n-co ntact m e asure m e nt and co ntro lo f liq uids, so lids o r slurr
pipe line s....
Thickne ss G aug e
Be ta backscatte ring te chniq ue
Thickne ss G aug e
Gam m a Backscatte ring Te chniq ue
Coal
glass
Source
NaI
detector
Sampled volume
Fo o d Irradiatio n
Food treatment comparable to
pasteurization
Kills pests/microorganisms without food
degradation
Cont...
Co nsum e r Pro ducts
Safe ty and Se curity
Smoke Detection Equipment
Self-powered Lighting in Exit Signs
Lighted Aircraft...
Space craft Po we r Supplie s
Small radioactive sources have
provided heat and electrical power for
space probes for decad...
Ele ctric Po we r Ge ne ratio n
Nuclear Power
supplies about 20%
of the country’s
electric power
Unlike fossil fuels,
nucl...
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Benefits in Everyday Life

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Benefits in Everyday Life

  1. 1. Benefits of RadiationinEveryDayLife Presented by:
  2. 2. Be ne ficialUse s o f Radiatio n Medical Diagnoses and Treatment Research Applications Industrial/Manufacturing Applications Food Irradiation Consumer Products/Safety and Security Spacecraft Power Supply Electric Power Generation
  3. 3. Me dicalUse s Diagnostic Generally low doses Short-time exposures Therapeutic Generally high doses Short to long time exposures
  4. 4. Diag no stic Use s X-radiation Radiographs Fluoroscopy CT scan Nuclear Medicine
  5. 5. X-Radiatio n: Radio g raphs Short time exposures (much less than a second) Low doses Dental: 0.08 - 0.10 mSv (8 - 10 mrem) Chest: 0.06 - 0.10 mSv (6 - 10 mrem) Mammogram: 0.3 - 0.5 mSv (30 - 50 mrem) Hip: 0.4-0.8 mSv (40-80 mrem)
  6. 6. X-Radiatio n: Fluo ro sco py Long time exposures (minute or longer) Higher doses Barium Enema: 6 - 9 mSv (600 - 900 mrem) Upper GI: 3.5 - 5.5 mSv (350 - 550 mrem)
  7. 7. X-Radiatio n: CT-Scan Series of short exposures at different angles Computer analysis and display Gives cross-section view of anatomy Medium doses: Head: 2 - 3 mSv (200 - 300 mrem) Body: 3 - 4 mSv (300 - 400 mrem)
  8. 8. Nucle ar Me dicine Radioactive material injected into the patient Gamma radiation detected to give image - computer analysis Used to: Locate tumors Determine organ function
  9. 9. Skeletal Scan of Person After a Tc-99m nuclear Medicine Injection
  10. 10. The rape utic Use s Radiotherapy (Direct radiation beam) Gamma rays Electron beams X-radiation Brachytherapy (Radiation from internally deposited radioactivity) Removable seeds (long half-life) Permanent seeds (short half-life)
  11. 11. The rape utic Use s (Co ntinue d) Internal Unsealed Sources Biological uptake (Iodine) Direct injection Very High Local Doses for Therapeutic Uses 50 to several hundred Sieverts, depending on the type, location, and size of the tumor
  12. 12. Therapy Machine used for Targeting Cancerous Tissue
  13. 13. Characte ristics o f Ide al Brachythe rapy Radio nuclide s Half life should not cause extended stay in hospital Radioisotope should emit alpha or beta radiation Radioisotope should also emit gamma rays to ensure targeted area is treated
  14. 14. Characte ristics o f Ide al The rape utic Radio nuclide s Half life should not cause extended stay in hospital Radioisotope should emit alpha or beta radiation Radioisotope should also emit gamma rays to ensure targeted area is treated
  15. 15. Re se arch Use Biological and Genetic research Agricultural research Space research Pharmaceutical research
  16. 16. Manufacturing Te sting and Me asure m e nts Monitor thickness of materials during production Sheet metal, aluminum foil Newspaper Measure wear on cutting/drilling tools Other measurements Amount of glue on postage stamp Level of liquid in canned beverages
  17. 17. IndustrialUse Well logging Moisture/density gauges Radiography Sterilization Medical instruments Cosmetics Food/Spices
  18. 18. Le ve lG aug e Gam m a Switching Te chniq ue source NaI detector High signal reject Can/package content monitor Storage hopper level control detector Low level alarm High level alarm source
  19. 19. Thickne ss G aug e Transm issio n Thickne ss Te chniq ue load conveyor source Belt weigher NaI detector
  20. 20. Thickne ss Gaug e Source Detector No n-co ntact m e asure m e nt and co ntro lo f liq uids, so lids o r slurr pipe line s. Spe cific so urce siz e is se le cte d fo r e ach applicatio n. This is also re fe rre d to as g am m a g aug ing o r be lt we ig hing
  21. 21. Thickne ss G aug e Be ta backscatte ring te chniq ue
  22. 22. Thickne ss G aug e Gam m a Backscatte ring Te chniq ue Coal glass Source NaI detector Sampled volume
  23. 23. Fo o d Irradiatio n Food treatment comparable to pasteurization Kills pests/microorganisms without food degradation Controls sprouting Does not make the food radioactive FDA Approved Must be labeled
  24. 24. Co nsum e r Pro ducts Safe ty and Se curity Smoke Detection Equipment Self-powered Lighting in Exit Signs Lighted Aircraft Instrumentation Pharmaceutical Detection Bomb/Weapons Detection Scanning and Surveillance Equipment Theft Deterrent Systems
  25. 25. Space craft Po we r Supplie s Small radioactive sources have provided heat and electrical power for space probes for decades Radioactive power supplies have allowed space craft to explore the outer solar system, too far from the sun for solar panels to be effective
  26. 26. Ele ctric Po we r Ge ne ratio n Nuclear Power supplies about 20% of the country’s electric power Unlike fossil fuels, nuclear power does not release greenhouse gasses

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