Unit 5 Immune System


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  • Colloids Colloids are mixtures with particle sizes that consist of clumps of molecules. The particles have dimensions between 2 to 1000 nanometers. The colloid looks homogeneous to the naked eye. Fog and milk are examples of colloids. Colloids frequently appear "murky" or "opaque". The particles are large enough to scatter light. You have experience with the way fog interacts with the light from car headlights. Colloids generally do not separate on standing. They are not separated by filtration. Suspensions Suspensions are homogeneous mixtures with particles that have diameters greater than 1000 nm, 0.000001 meter. The size of the particles is great enough so they are visible to the naked eye. Blood and aerosol sprays are examples of suspensions. Suspensions are "murky" or "opaque". They do not transmit light. Suspensions separate on standing. The mixture of particles can be separated by filtration.
  • Unit 5 Immune System

    1. 1. Unit 5 PROTECTION & CONTROL
    2. 2. Your assignment is to describe the “Super Human” powers this superhero possesses. These powers protect him from accident or injury. Super Hero
    3. 3. Skeletal System Fight or Flight Response Instinct Muscular System Reflexes Super Hero
    4. 4. Immune System <ul><li>Our immune system is our body's natural defense against disease. It includes our lymphatic system and all the various types of white blood cells that recognize, engulf and destroy pathogenic (disease-causing) viruses, fungi, bacteria, and parasites. </li></ul>
    5. 5. The “Bubble Boy ”
    6. 6. The Body's Natural Defenses <ul><li>When you get a cut </li></ul><ul><li>When a mosquito bites you </li></ul><ul><li>Each day you inhale thousands of germs </li></ul><ul><li>Each day you also eat hundreds of germs </li></ul><ul><li>Allergies </li></ul><ul><li>Organ transplants </li></ul>
    7. 7. Lines of Defense <ul><li>We are equipped with special defenses against such opportunistic invaders. These defenses include the skin ; mucous in such places as the lungs, nasal passages, etc.; acids and enzymes in the digestive tract; and when these mechanisms fail, the immune system . </li></ul><ul><li>The immune system can be divided into two categories: nonspecific defenses and specific defenses . </li></ul>
    8. 8. The Immune Response
    9. 9. Nonspecific Defenses <ul><li>Nonspecific defenses are effective against a wide variety of pathogens. They are subdivided into </li></ul><ul><ul><li>first-line defenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>second-line defenses. </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. First Line of Defense <ul><li>Physical and Chemical Barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The skin is a passive barrier to infectious agents such as bacteria and viruses. Skin glands (oil and sweat) secrete chemicals that produce a pH of 3-5 and retard the growth of bacteria. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many microorganisms are trapped by the mucous that lines the openings to the body such as the nasal passages, lungs, digestive system, urinary system and reproductive system. Organisms are trapped by this mucous and ejected from the body by mechanisms such as a cough or a sneeze. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cilia that line our respiratory tract also act by sweeping away foreign particles that enter. </li></ul></ul>Non-Specific
    11. 11. First Line of Defense <ul><li>Physical and Chemical Barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tears and saliva secrete enzymes called lysozymes that breakdown bacterial cell walls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisms that enter through the mouth in our food or drink are usually killed by the acids in the stomach. </li></ul></ul>Non-Specific
    12. 12. First Line of Defense Non-Specific
    13. 13. First Line of Defense Non-Specific
    14. 14. Second Line of Defense <ul><li>Inflammatory response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When microorganisms penetrate the skin or the epithelium lining the respiratory, digestive, or urinary tracts, it results in inflammation. This reaction is called the inflammatory response . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged cells release chemical signals such as histamine that increase capillary blood flow into the affected area (causing the areas to become heated and reddened). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The heat makes the environment unfavorable for microbes and raises the mobility of white blood cells. It also increases the metabolic rate of nearby cells. Capillaries pass fluid into interstitial areas, causing the infected/injured area to swell. Platelets move out of the capillary to seal the wounded area . </li></ul></ul>Non-Specific
    15. 15. Second Line of Defense <ul><li>Inflammatory response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogens (disease causing organisms) are attacked by phagocytes , a type of white blood cell that acts by ingesting invading microbes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The most common type of phagocyte is the neutrophil . Neutrophils circulate freely through blood vessels, and they can squeeze between cells in the walls of a capillary to reach the site of infection. They then engulf and destroy any pathogens they encounter. </li></ul></ul>Non-Specific
    16. 16. Second Line of Defense <ul><li>Inflammatory response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another type of phagocyte is the macrophage , a type of monocyte. Macrophages consume and destroy any pathogens they encounter and rid the body of worn out cells and cellular debris. Some macrophages are stationed in the tissues of the body, awaiting pathogens, while others move through the tissues and seek out pathogens. Finally, macrophages clean up dead microbes, cells, and debris. </li></ul></ul>Non-Specific
    17. 17. Second Line of Defense <ul><li>Inflammatory response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A serious infection may allow pathogen to spread throughout the body. The immune system now responds in two ways. It produces more WBC’s and phagocytes release chemicals such as histamine that stimulate the actions of these WBC’s by increasing body temperature. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Widespread heating of the tissue causes a fever , an increase in body temperature. Body temperatures above 37 o C offer powerful protection against the spread of pathogens by slowing or stopping the growth of some microbes. </li></ul></ul>Non-Specific
    18. 18. Second Line of Defense <ul><li>Inflammatory Response </li></ul>Non-Specific
    19. 19. Second Line of Defense <ul><li>Inflammatory Response </li></ul>Non-Specific
    20. 20. Second Line of Defense <ul><li>Natural Killer Cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, granular lymphocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kill virus infected cells and tumor cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kill by cell to cell contact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect antigenic changes in cancerous cells and infected cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonspecific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have no memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not increase in number upon antigen exposure </li></ul></ul>Non-Specific
    21. 21. Second Line of Defense <ul><li>Complement System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The complement system, like antibodies, is a series of proteins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are only a handful of proteins in the complement system, and they are floating freely in your blood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complements are manufactured in the liver. The complement proteins are activated by and work with (complement) the antibodies, hence the name. They cause lysing (bursting) of cells and signal to phagocytes that a cell needs to be removed. </li></ul></ul>Non-Specific
    22. 22. Specific Defenses <ul><li>The immune system also generates specific responses to specific invaders. A specific defense mechanism builds up resistance against a specific pathogen or antigen. </li></ul><ul><li>This system is more effective than the nonspecific methods as it has a memory component that improves response time when an invader of the same type (or species) is again encountered. Specific defenses are tailored to an individual threat. Two types of specific defenses are antibody-mediated and cell-mediated responses. </li></ul>
    23. 23. Antibody-Mediated (Humoral) Immunity <ul><li>Results from the production of antibodies specific to a given antigen. </li></ul><ul><li>Antibodies bind to the antigens on invaders and kill or inactivate them in several ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Antigens can be any molecule that causes antibody production. </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody-mediated immunity is provided by the B cells. Within a few days after an infection, an antigen causes the production of large amounts of the antibody capable of interacting with it. </li></ul>Specific
    24. 24. Cell-Mediated Immunity <ul><li>Requires direct physical contact with antigens. </li></ul><ul><li>It is provided by T cells and does not involve the secretion of antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>T cells are involved in the attacking of certain bacteria, viruses, fungi and immunity to cancer cells. </li></ul>Specific
    25. 25. Cell-Mediated Immunity <ul><li>There are four kinds of T cells: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytotoxic (Killer) T cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helper T cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppressor T cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory T cells </li></ul></ul>Specific
    26. 26. Cell-Mediated Immunity <ul><li>Cytotoxic (Killer) T cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defends the body by destroying foreign, infected, and cancerous cells. A cell infected with a virus will display viral antigens on its plasma membrane. Killer T cells recognize the viral antigens and attach to that cell's plasma membrane. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The T cells secrete proteins that punch holes in the infected cell's plasma membrane. The infected cell's cytoplasm leaks out, the cell dies, and is removed by phagocytes. Killer T cells may also bind to cells of transplanted organs. </li></ul></ul>Specific
    27. 27. Cell-Mediated Immunity <ul><li>Helper T cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulate immune responses, enabling the other T cells and B cells to perform their functions by secreting messenger proteins or by direct contact with other cells. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is this cell that is destroyed by the HIV virus in patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) . Destruction of helper T cells results in a depressed immune response allowing infection by a variety of microorganisms and the growth of certain kinds of tumors. </li></ul></ul>Specific
    28. 28. Cell-Mediated Immunity <ul><li>Suppresor T cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce the immune response of B cells and T cells to keep them in check. </li></ul></ul>Specific <ul><li>Memory T cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remain in the body awaiting the reintroduction of the antigen . </li></ul></ul>
    29. 30. Primary vs Secondary Immune Response <ul><li>Primary Immune Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The production of antibodies from the first exposure to an antigen is known as the primary immune response . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Immune Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person who is resistant to a specific pathogen is said to have immunity to that pathogen. Once the body has been exposed to a disease, a large group of B cells and T cells remain capable of producing a secondary immune response if the pathogen re-appears in the body. </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Primary vs Secondary Immune Response <ul><li>Secondary Immune Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The secondary immune response is a naturally acquired immunity . A secondary immune response is more powerful than a primary immune response, producing antibodies so quickly that the disease never gets a chance to develop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In secondary immunity, the resistance to certain diseases after having had them once, results from production of Memory B and T cells during the first exposure to the antigen. The secondary response is the basis for vaccination. </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. IMMUNE ATTACK
    33. 34. What is a vaccination? <ul><li>A vaccine is a suspension of pathogens or portions of pathogens that is used to induce artificially acquired active immunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccines are made from killed pathogens or weakened strains that cause antibody production but not the disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaccinations work in general by stimulating an immune response, and rely on the formation of memory cells of all kinds to be produced. </li></ul>
    34. 35. Vaccines help your body prepare to fight deadly diseases. Here's how . . . it takes practice <ul><li>First: Vaccine is given by shot or as a liquid by mouth--vaccines contain a weak or dead disease germ. </li></ul><ul><li>Next: The body makes antibodies to fight the weak or dead germs in the vaccine. </li></ul><ul><li>Then: These antibodies practice on the weak germs so when the real, strong disease germs--which can be lurking all around--invade the child's body, the antibodies will know how to destroy them and the child will not become ill. </li></ul><ul><li>Finally: Protective antibodies stay on guard in the child's body to safeguard it from the real disease germs. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Vaccines & Active Immunity <ul><li>Active immunity develops after an illness or vaccine. Vaccines are weakened (or killed) viruses or bacteria that prompt the development of antibodies. Application of biotechnology allows development of vaccines that are the protein (antigen) which in no way can cause the disease. </li></ul>
    36. 37. Passive Immunity <ul><li>Passive immunity is the type of immunity when the individual is given antibodies to combat a specific disease. Passive immunity is short-lived, usually only lasting for few weeks. Examples of passive immunity include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk from a mother's breast contains antibodies received by the baby. These antibodies will only last several weeks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Gamma Globin shot is purely an injection of antibodies to provide temporary immunity. You might receive a Gamma Globin shot if you travel outside of the country. </li></ul></ul>
    37. 38. Lymphatic System
    38. 39. Lymphatic System <ul><ul><li>Functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Return excess tissue fluid to bloodstream </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lacteals absorb fats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defense against disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphatic vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One-way system (vessels contain valves) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begins with capillaries in tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not a closed circulatory system. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not have a central pump. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network of thin-walled vessels that carry a clear fluid. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    39. 40. Lymphatic System <ul><li>Lymphatic vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid inside is lymph </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electrolytes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell products like hormones </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    40. 41. Lymphatic System <ul><ul><li>Lymph Nodules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>area of loose connective tissue containing densely packed lymphocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Located along lymphatic vessels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into nodules by connective tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nodules packed with B and T lymphocytes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lymph filters through nodules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macrophages phagocytize pathogens and debris </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    41. 42. Lymphatic System
    42. 43. Lymphatic System <ul><ul><li>Tonsils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The tonsils are patches of lymphatic tissue located at the back of the throat. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They function to trap and dispose of the harmful materials which enter the throat through breathing, eating, and drinking. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They produce lymphocytes and antibodies. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    43. 44. Lymphatic System <ul><ul><li>Thymus Gland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The thymus is a soft bilobed structure. It is located in front of the aorta. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It contains a large number of lymphocytes. The majority of these lymphocytes remain inactive, but some develop into T-lymphocytes. They leave the thymus to provide for immunity. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    44. 45. Lymphatic System
    45. 46. Lymphatic System <ul><ul><li>Spleen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The spleen is a large, reddish organ located in the abdominal cavity. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Though it is considered to be a part of the lymphatic system, it filters blood, not lymph. It searches for old, degenerating red blood cells, and breaks them down into their component chemicals for use elsewhere in the body. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It also manufactures and releases lymphocytes, which have been previously mentioned. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    46. 47. Lymphatic System
    47. 48. Lymphatic System <ul><ul><li>Bone Marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network of connective tissue fibers with sinuses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stem cells produce blood cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most bones in children contain red marrow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adults- ends of long bones, skull, pelvis, clavicle, vertebrae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B lymphocytes mature in red marrow </li></ul></ul></ul>
    48. 49. Lymphatic System