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  • The more carbon atoms a compound contains, the greater the number of structural isomers that can exist. For example, octane has 18 different structural isomers, decane has 75, pentadecane (a 15 carbon alkane) has 4 347, and eicosane (a 20 carbon alkane) has 366 319 isomers!
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Saturated hydrocarbons tend to have higher melting points and boiling points. Oils that are largely saturated fats are usually solid at room temperature. Butter and lard are high in saturated fats. These types of fats are not healthy in that they promote the body's production of cholesterol, which is a risk factor for heart disease and stroke. The saturated hydrocarbons, because of their higher melting point, are more likely to be solid at room temperature and are good as a spread on bread. You will often see food products advertised as low in saturated fats and high in polyunsaturated fats. Polyunsaturated means the fat has many double and/or triple bonds. Unsaturated fats are required by the body for cell membranes and hormone production.
  • Notes

    1. 1. Chemistry 30S Unit 5 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
    2. 2. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Carbon comprises only about one percent of all elements found in the Earth’s crust, yet makes more different compounds than any other single element. Organic compounds are compounds containing the element carbon. Plastics, gasoline, drugs, natural gas, car tires and the clothes you wear are just examples of the many things that are made of organic compounds. Even the foods you eat are largely made of carbohydrates, fats and proteins – all organic compounds. Organic compounds are found everywhere. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Chemists divide all known compounds into two classes, organic and inorganic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic compounds are all carbon-containing compounds, with the exception of CO, CO 2 , CS 2 , carbonates (CO 3 2– ), bicarbonates (HCO 3 – ) and cyanides (CN – ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganic compounds are all other compounds. Of the over 13 million known compounds, only about 100 000 are classified as inorganic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, composition properties and reactions of organic compounds. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Organic Chemistry Chemistry of Carbon
    5. 5. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Carbon has 4 valence electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>This means, in its effort to fill its valence shell with 8 electrons, it will always form 4 covalent bonds, or share 4 pairs of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>Because carbon is a small atom, it can share 1, 2 or 3 pairs of electrons with other carbon atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon atoms are unique in that they will even form bonds with other carbons while they are covalently bound to other atoms like hydrogen. </li></ul><ul><li>These properties of carbon lead to the formation of many different compounds with different properties. </li></ul>Chemistry of Carbon
    6. 6. Organic Chemistry Hydrocarbons
    7. 7. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Hydrocarbons are a class of organic compounds that, as the name suggests, are made of only carbon and hydrogen atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>All hydrocarbons are non-polar molecules. As a result, they are insoluble in water. The non-polar nature of the hydrocarbons results in very low intermolecular forces, thus these substances have very low melting and boiling points, in relation to their mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons will burn in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water. </li></ul>Hydrocarbons
    8. 8. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Hydrocarbons can be divided into several groups, as shown in the diagram below: </li></ul>Hydrocarbons
    9. 9. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Aliphatic hydrocarbons have carbon atoms arranged in straight or branched chains or as ring structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Aromatic hydrocarbons contain a benzene ring. Aliphatic hydrocarbons do not contain benzene ring structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Aliphatic hydrocarbons can be divided into alkanes, alkenes and alkynes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkanes contain only single carbon-carbon bonds, that is, the carbon atoms share only one pair of electrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkenes are a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons that contain one or more double carbon-carbon bonds, that is, the carbons share 2 pairs of electrons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alkynes are hydrocarbons that contain one or more triple carbon-carbon bonds. </li></ul></ul>Hydrocarbons
    10. 10. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>The molecular formula of an organic compound shows the kind of atoms and the number of each kind of atom in the compound. </li></ul><ul><li>Example, C 4 H 10 , Butane has 4 carbon atoms and 10 hydrogen atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>The structural formula shows the arrangement of these atoms, often using a straight line, like C—H, to indicate a bond between two atoms. </li></ul>Formulas Molecular & Structural
    11. 11. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Example: C 4 H 10 </li></ul><ul><li>From this structure we notice that all carbons have 4 bonds and all hydrogens have one. According to its nature, carbon must always form 4 bonds. When drawing structural formulas, we must always ensure that every carbon has 4 bonds. Hydrogen can only make one bond, since it only needs one electron to complete its valence shell. Hydrogen can only share one pair of electrons. </li></ul>Formulas Molecular & Structural
    12. 12. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>The condensed structural formula saves space and time without sacrificing any of the information contained in the structural formula. When we write the condensed structural formula, the C—H is understood. If a carbon atom is joined to 3 hydrogen atoms, we write CH 3 . </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 –CH 2 –CH 2 –CH 3 or CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 </li></ul>Formulas Molecular & Structural
    13. 13. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>To further condense a long chain of carbons, the following notation is used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If we wish to draw decane (a hydrocarbon with 10 carbons), we can write a long chain of carbons likeCH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or we can indicate the eight repeating CH 2 's by </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CH 3 (CH 2 ) 8 CH 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The (CH 2 ) 8 means a 8 repeating CH 2 's in a row, with no branches. </li></ul></ul>Formulas Molecular & Structural
    14. 14. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Structural Isomers refer to Hydrocarbons with the same molecular formula but different arrangements. </li></ul><ul><li>Recall, C 4 H 10 : </li></ul>Formulas Molecular & Structural
    15. 15. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Alkanes are known as saturated hydrocarbons because they contain the most hydrogen atoms that can bond with the given number of carbon atoms. The general molecular formula for alkanes is </li></ul><ul><li>C n H 2n+2 </li></ul><ul><li>where n is the number of carbon atoms, that is, 1, 2, 3, …. producing formulas C 2 H 6 , C 3 H 8 , etc.. </li></ul>Alkanes
    16. 16. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>We will go through the naming rules by trying to name the following structure </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH(C 2 H 5 )CH 2 C(CH 3 ) 2 CH 3 </li></ul>Naming Alkanes
    17. 17. Organic Chemistry Naming Alkanes 4-ethyl-2,2-dimethylheptane
    18. 18. Organic Chemistry 2,4-dimethylpentane Example 1. Name the following organic structure. CH 3 CH(CH 3 )CH 2 CH(CH 3 )CH 3
    19. 19. Organic Chemistry 3,3,5-trimethyloctane Example 2. Give the IUPAC name for the following compound.
    20. 20. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>When drawing a compound from its name, we use the same principles as writing its name. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw the carbons for the parent chain and number the carbons. You can draw the carbons in line and number from left to right, if you choose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw in the alkyl groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in hydrogens so every carbon has 4 bonds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In your assignments, you will probably want to condense the structural formula at this point. Putting the alkyl groups in brackets following the carbon to which it is attached.. </li></ul></ul>Drawing Structural Formulas from Name
    21. 21. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Example 1: Draw the structural formula for 2-methylhexane . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 1: Draw the parent chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Draw in the alkyl groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3: Add hydrogens to give each carbon 4 bonds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 4: Condense for an assignment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CH 3 CH(CH 3 )CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 </li></ul>Drawing Structural Formulas from Name
    22. 22. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Molecules, like the two below, that have the same molecular formula but different structural formulas are called structural isomers . </li></ul>Structural Isomers butane methyl propane
    23. 23. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>When constructing structural isomers, it is always a good practice to begin by drawing the carbon chains without the hydrogen atoms, then rearranging to find new patterns or arrangements. You should also try naming them to ensure they are different. Once you have structural isomers drawn, fill in the hydrogen atoms to give each carbon 4 bonds. </li></ul>Constructing Structural Isomers
    24. 24. Organic Chemistry <ul><li>Draw and name all the structural isomers of hexane. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw and name all the structural isomers of heptane. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate which straight-chain alkane is a structural isomer of each of the following. a) 3-propylheptane b) 3-methylpentane c) 2,2,3,3-tetramethylpentane d) 2-methylbutane e) 3-ethylhexane f) 2-methylhexane g) 2,2-dimethylpentane </li></ul>Constructing Structural Isomers
    25. 25. <ul><li>Saturated hydrocarbons have the most hydrogens that the given number of carbons can hold. </li></ul><ul><li>An unsaturated hydrocarbon does not contain the maximum number of hydrogens. </li></ul><ul><li>A double carbon-carbon bond is shown by two lines, rather than one: </li></ul><ul><li>– C=C– </li></ul><ul><li>A triple bond is shown with three lines rather than one: </li></ul><ul><li>– C≡C– </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Saturated & Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
    26. 26. <ul><li>An alkene has at least one double carbon-carbon bond. The general molecular formula for and alkene is C n H 2n </li></ul><ul><li>When naming alkenes, the process is similar to alkanes, except alkenes substitute the ending – ene for – ane . </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to follow when naming alkenes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If condensed, expand the structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find the longest chain that contains the double bond. Number the carbons, this time ensuring the carbon containing the double bond has the lowest number. Name the parent chain (ending in – ene ), giving the number of the carbon with the double bond separated with a hyphen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name any alkyl group branches as you did for the alkanes. </li></ul></ul>Organic Chemistry Alkenes
    27. 27. <ul><li>Example 1. Name the following structure. </li></ul><ul><li>CH 2 =CHCH 2 CH 2 CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Expand the structure. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a straight-chained alkene, so we don't need to expand it. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Find the longest chain that contains the double bond. </li></ul><ul><li>The double bond begins on carbon #1. </li></ul><ul><li>The compound is 1-pentene. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry
    28. 28. <ul><li>Example 2. Name the following structure. </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 CH=CHCH 2 CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Expand the structure. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a straight-chained alkene, so we don't need to expand it. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Find the longest chain that contains the double bond. </li></ul><ul><li>The double bond begins on carbon #2.The compound is 2-pentene. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry
    29. 29. <ul><li>Example 3. Name the following structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Expand the structure. </li></ul><ul><li>This hydrocarbon has a double bond so it is an alkene. It is already in an expanded form. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Find the longest chain that contains the double bond. </li></ul><ul><li>The double bond begins on carbon #2. The compound is a 2-pentene. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Name the alkyl branches. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a methyl group on carbon #4. </li></ul><ul><li>The name of the compound is 4-methyl-2-pentene. (Note, the lowest number goes to the double bond) </li></ul>
    30. 30. <ul><li>Example 4. Name the following structure. </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 CH 2 CH(CH 3 )CH=C(C 2 H 5 )CH 2 CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Expand the structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Find the longest chain that contains the double bond. </li></ul><ul><li>We number this 7-carbon alkene from right to left to give the double bond the lowest number, 3. The compound is a 3-heptene. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Name the alkyl branches. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a methyl group on carbon #5 and an ethyl on carbon #3.The name of the compound is 3-ethyl-5-methyl-3-heptene. </li></ul>
    31. 31. <ul><li>The process of drawing alkenes is very similar to drawing alkanes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw the carbons for the parent chain and number the carbons and insert the double bond. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw in the alkyl groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in hydrogens so every carbon has 4 bonds. A reminder that the double bond counts as 2 bonds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In your assignments, you will probably want to condense the structural formula at this point. Putting the alkyl groups in brackets following the carbon to which it is attached. </li></ul></ul>Organic Chemistry Drawing Alkenes
    32. 32. <ul><li>Example 1. Draw the structural formula for 1-butene. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Draw the carbons for the parent chain and number the carbons and insert the double bond. The ending is –ene, so the structure is an alkene. The parent chain is butene, 4 carbons. The double bond goes on the first carbon (that is, between carbons 1 and 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Step2: Draw in the alkyl groups. There are no alkyl groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Fill in hydrogens so every carbon has 4 bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>CH 2 =CH–CH 2 –CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Condense for assignments. This is sufficiently condensed. The structural formula of 1-butene is </li></ul><ul><li>CH 2 =CH–CH 2 –CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, when the double bond is on the first carbon, to further accentuate that the carbons are double bonded, we can lead the structural formula with the hydrogens as below:H 2 C=CH–CH 2 –CH 3 </li></ul>
    33. 33. <ul><li>Example 2 . Draw the structural formula for 2,5,5-trimethyl-2-hexene. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Draw the carbons for the parent chain and number the carbons and insert the double bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Step2: Draw in the alkyl groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Fill in hydrogens so every carbon has 4 bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Condense for assignments. </li></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>Alkynes have one or more triple carbon-carbon bonds. The general molecular formula for alkynes is C n H 2n-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Naming alkynes is similar to naming alkanes, except alkynes end in – yne . </li></ul><ul><li>The steps in naming alkynes are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If condensed, expand the structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find the longest chain that contains the triple bond. Number the carbons, this time ensuring the carbon containing the triple bond has the lowest number. Name the parent chain (ending in – yne ), giving the number of the carbon with the triple bond separated with a hyphen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name any alkyl group branches as you did for the alkanes. </li></ul></ul>Organic Chemistry Alkynes
    35. 35. <ul><li>Example 1. Name the following structure </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 –C≡C–CH 2 –CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Expand the structure. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a straight-chained alkyne, so we don't need to expand it. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Find the longest chain that contains the triple bond. </li></ul><ul><li>The triple bond begins on carbon #2. The compound is a 2-pentyne. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Name the alkyl branches. There are no branches . The name of the compound is 3-pentyne. </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>Example 2. Name the following structure </li></ul><ul><li>HC≡CCH 2 C(C 2 H 5 ) 2 CH 2 C(CH 3 )CH(CH 3 )CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Expand the structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Find the longest chain that contains the triple bond. </li></ul><ul><li>The triple bond begins on carbon #1 and the parent chain is 8 carbons long. The compound is a 1-octyne. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Name the alkyl branches. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two ethyl groups on the #4 carbon and one methyl on the #6 carbon and another on the #7 carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>The name of the compound is 4,4-diethyl-6,7-dimethyl-1-octyne. </li></ul>
    37. 37. <ul><li>As with alkenes, when drawing alkynes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw the carbons for the parent chain and number the carbons and insert the triple bond. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw in the alkyl groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in hydrogens so every carbon has 4 bonds. A reminder that the triple bond counts as 3 bonds. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In your assignments, you will probably want to condense the structural formula at this point. Putting the alkyl groups in brackets following the carbon to which it is attached. </li></ul></ul>Organic Chemistry Drawing Alkynes
    38. 38. <ul><li>Example 1. Draw the structural formula for 1-but y ne. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Draw the carbons for the parent chain and number the carbons and insert the triple bond. The ending is –yne, so this is an alkyne. The parent chain is butyne, 4 carbons. The triple bond goes on the first carbon (that is, between carbons 1 and 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Step2: Draw in the alkyl groups. There are no alkyl groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Fill in hydrogens so every carbon has 4 bonds. CH≡C–CH 2 –CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Condense for assignments. This is sufficiently condensed. </li></ul><ul><li>The structural formula of 1-butyne isCH≡C–CH 2 –CH 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, when the triple bond is on the first carbon, as with the alkene structures, we can lead the structural formula with the hydrogen as below:HC≡C–CH 2 –CH 3 </li></ul>
    39. 39. <ul><li>Example 2 . Draw the structural formula for 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-hexyne. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Draw the carbons for the parent chain and number the carbons and insert the double bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Step2: Draw in the alkyl groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3: Fill in hydrogens so every carbon has 4 bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 4: Condense for assignments. </li></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>Aromatic hydrocarbons are unsaturated compounds associated with benzene, C 6 H 6 . They are called aromatic because some of those first discovered had pleasant odours. Cinnamon, wintergreen, vanilla, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of benzene is represented in a number of ways: </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    41. 41. <ul><li>Aromatic compounds can have the benzene as a central group or as a branch in the middle of another hydrocarbon chain. </li></ul><ul><li>If the benzene exists as a branch, it is called a phenyl group. The phenyl is used in names like any other alkyl group. </li></ul><ul><li>If the benzene ring is the central group, it is considered to be the parent chain and the name of the compound will end in –benzene. If more than one alkyl group is joined to the benzene ring, the carbons are numbered in a clockwise or counter-clockwise manner so that the alkyl groups have the lowest possible numbers. The alkyl groups are named as with the other hydrocarbons. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Naming Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    42. 42. <ul><li>Example 1. Name the following structure </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: The benzene is the parent chain.There is a single methyl group on the benzene. Since no other alkyl groups are present, no numbering is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>The IUPAC name for this compound is methylbenzene (all one word). The common name for this compound is toluene . Toluene is a common organic solvent used in various industries, including dry cleaning clothing. </li></ul>
    43. 43. <ul><li>Example 2. Name the following structure </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: The benzene ring is the parent chain.There is a methyl group and an ethyl group. We can number the carbons in two ways </li></ul><ul><li>This gives two possible names: 4-ethyl-1-methylbenzene or 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene. </li></ul><ul><li>The second numbering is correct, since the longer alkyl group gets the lower number. When two possible equal numberings are possible, choose the order that gives the longer chain the lower number. </li></ul><ul><li>The name of this compound is 1-ethyl-4-methylbenzene </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>Example 3. Name the following structure </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: </li></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>Example 4. Name the following structure </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: The benzene ring is in the middle of the hydrocarbon chain. The parent chain is 3 carbons, and it has single bonds, so it is an alkane.The parent chain is propane. </li></ul><ul><li>The phenyl is on the number 2 carbon.The name of the compound 2-phenylpropane. </li></ul>
    46. 46. <ul><li>Example 4. Name the following structure </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: The parent chain has a double bond so it is an alkene. There are 5 carbons in the parent chain so this compound is a pentane. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a phenyl on the number 3 carbon and a methyl on the number 4 carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>The name of the compound is 4-methyl-3-phenyl-1-pentene. </li></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>When drawing an aromatic hydrocarbon with benzene as the parent chain. First draw the benzene, then draw in the alkyl groups. </li></ul><ul><li>When drawing a hydrocarbon with a phenyl group, follow the rules for drawing an aliphatic hydrocarbon. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1. Draw the structural formula for 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Drawing Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    48. 48. What is the name of this compound?
    49. 49. <ul><li>N ext we are going to study substituted derivatives. These are organic compounds that replace one or more hydrogen atoms with another non-hydrocarbon group, called a functional group . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Alcohols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Carboxylic Acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Halocarbons </li></ul></ul>Substituted Derivatives
    50. 50. Substituted Derivatives
    51. 51. <ul><li>The functional group that makes alcohols is called the hydroxyl group , –OH. </li></ul><ul><li>The hydroxyl group in an organic compound is covalently bound to a carbon atom in the parent chain. </li></ul><ul><li>The general molecular formula for an alcohol is R–OH , where the R represents a hydrocarbon chain. </li></ul>Alcohols
    52. 52. <ul><li>T he hydroxyl group is polar. </li></ul><ul><li>The polarity of the hydroxyl group increases the boiling point and melting points of alcohols . </li></ul><ul><li>The polar nature of the hydroxyl group allows smaller alcohols to dissolve in water. </li></ul><ul><li>As the hydrocarbon chain in larger alcohols gets larger, the non-polar nature of the hydrocarbon chain begins to overcome the polar nature of the hydroxyl group making the larger alcohols insoluble in water. Generally, only alcohols with up to four carbons are soluble. </li></ul>Properties of Alcohols
    53. 53. <ul><li>All alcohols end in –ol. The –ol replaces the –e at the end of the name of the hydrocarbon parent chain. The parent chain of the alcohol is the longest chain containing the carbon joined to the hydroxyl group. The parent chain is numbered such that the carbon containing the hydroxyl group is given the lowest number. Steps for naming alcohols: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the parent chain, replace the –e at the end with –ol. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number the carbons so the carbon containing the hydroxyl has the lowest number. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name any alkyl branches (alphabetically). </li></ul></ul>Naming Alcohols
    54. 54. <ul><li>Alcohols are divided into 3 classes based on the carbon the hydroxyl is joined to. A primary alcohol has the hydroxyl group joined to a carbon that is joined to just one other carbon. In other words, a primary alcohol has the hydroxyl at the end of a chain. </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 –CH 2 –CH 2 OH </li></ul>Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Alcohols
    55. 55. <ul><li>A secondary alcohol has the hydroxyl group joined to a carbon atom that is joined to just two other carbons. The structure below shows and example of a secondary alcohol, 2-propanol. 2-propanol is commonly known as isopropyl alcohol or rubbing alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>A tertiary alcohol has the hydroxyl joined to a carbon atom that is joined to (you guessed it) three other carbon atoms. The diagram below shows an example of a tertiary alcohol, 2-methyl-2-propanol. </li></ul>Primary, Secondary & Tertiary Alcohols
    56. 56. <ul><li>The functional group of carboxylic acids, is the carboxyl group, –COOH . The carboxyl group can be condensed as in the previous sentence or it can be drawn as </li></ul><ul><li>Carboxylic acids contain one or more carboxyl groups. The general form for a carboxylic acid is R–COOH , where R represents a hydrocarbon chain. </li></ul>Carboxlic Acids
    57. 57. <ul><li>The carboxyl group is very polar. </li></ul><ul><li>The polar nature of the carboxyl group overcomes the non-polar hydrocarbon parent chain, allowing smaller organic acids to be soluble in water. Like larger alcohols, the larger carboxylic acids are not soluble because the non-polar nature of the large hydrocarbon parent chain overcomes the polar carboxyl group. </li></ul><ul><li>The polar nature of the carboxylic acids gives them high boiling points and melting points. </li></ul><ul><li>Like inorganic acids, organic acids release hydrogen ions in water. </li></ul>Properties of Carboxylic Acids
    58. 58. <ul><li>When naming carboxylic acids with the IUPAC system, the parent hydrocarbon chain is named, replacing the –e ending with –oic acid . </li></ul><ul><li>Numbering the parent chain always begins with the carbon containing the carboxyl group, but since the functional group is always attached to the 1st carbon, we do not write the “1”. </li></ul>Naming Carboxylic Acids
    59. 59. <ul><li>Many fruity flavors and scents are esters. </li></ul><ul><li>Esters are formed from a reaction of an organic acid and an alcohol. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Esters
    60. 60. <ul><li>The process of forming an ester from a reaction between an organic acid and an alcohol is called esterification . </li></ul><ul><li>The acid and alcohol are heated in the presence of a catalyst, usually concentrated sulphuric acid. </li></ul><ul><li>During the reaction the OH from the acid combines with the H from the alcohol to form water. The molecular formula for an ester is R–COOR' where the R represents the hydrocarbon chain from the acid and the R' represents the hydrocarbon chain from the alcohol. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Esterification
    61. 61. <ul><li>When naming esters, the alkyl group from the alcohol (R’), joined to the oxygen, is named first, replacing the –ol with –yl . In a separate word, the acid is named with the –oic acid ending from the acid replaced with –oate . </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1. Give the IUPAC name for the following structure. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Naming Esters
    62. 62. <ul><li>Solution. </li></ul><ul><li>This compound is of the form RCOOR', so it is an ester. Identify the groups from the acid and the alcohol. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the alkyl group from the alcohol replacing the –ol with –yl. </li></ul><ul><li>The alcohol portion has 3 carbons so we name it propyl </li></ul><ul><li>Name the acid portion replacing the –oic acid ending with –oate . </li></ul><ul><li>The acid portion has 2 carbons so we name it ethanoate. </li></ul><ul><li>The name of the compound is propyl ethanoate . </li></ul><ul><li>Note, once again, that the name for an ester is two words . </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Naming Esters
    63. 63. <ul><li>Example. Give the IUPAC name for the following structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution. </li></ul><ul><li>This compound is of the form RCOOR', so it is an ester. Identify the groups from the acid and the alcohol. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Naming Esters
    64. 64. <ul><li>Solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the alkyl group from the alcohol replacing the –ol with –yl . </li></ul><ul><li>The alcohol portion has 4 carbons so we name it butyl </li></ul><ul><li>Name the acid portion replacing the –oic acid ending with –oate . </li></ul><ul><li>The acid portion has 6 carbons so we name it hexanoate. </li></ul><ul><li>The name of the compound is butyl hexanoate . </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Naming Esters
    65. 65. <ul><li>Example 3. Write the esterification reaction for the reaction between pentanoic acid and 1-butanol. Label and draw the structures for all reactants and products. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Draw structures for reactants. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Esterification Reactions
    66. 66. <ul><li>Solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Remove the OH on the acid and the H on the OH of the alcohol and join the two structures and add water. </li></ul><ul><li>CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOH + HOCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3  CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 COOCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 + H 2 O </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Esterification Reactions
    67. 67. Organic Chemistry Esterification Reactions
    68. 68. <ul><li>The most significant properties of esters is their odour. Many fruit flavours and odours in flowers are esters. For example,   </li></ul><ul><li>Esters are polar molecules, but do not form hydrogen bonds like water, alcohols and carboxylic acids. This means the boiling points and melting points of esters are higher than hydrocarbons, but lower than the organic acids and alcohols. Their polar nature means esters are soluble in water. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Properties of Esters
    69. 69. <ul><li>When another atom or group of atoms is substituted into a hydrocarbon the reaction is known a substitution reaction . </li></ul><ul><li>Alkanes react easily with halogen molecules, in the presence of ultraviolet light, to form a halogenated hydrocarbon, or halocarbon. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, </li></ul><ul><li>In this reaction the chlorine replaces, or substitutes, for the hydrogen in the alkane. The substituted hydrogen combines with the remaining halogen atom to form hydrogen chloride. The name of the substituted compound is chloroethane . </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Organic Chemcial Reactions
    70. 70. <ul><li>Unsaturated hydrocarbons, those with double or triple bonds, tend to be more chemically reactive than alkanes. Most of the reactions that occur with the unsaturated hydrocarbons occur on the carbons with the double or triple bonds. These reactions tend to remove one of the carbon-carbon bonds, replacing it with one atom bonded to each carbon. For example, if we mix chlorine gas and ethene gas, the following reaction occurs. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Halogenation of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
    71. 71. <ul><li>The double bond is replaced by a single bond and chlorine atoms joined to the carbons on either side of the double bond. Notice that there is a single product formed from this reaction and two products formed from the reaction of an alkane with chlorine. This type reaction is called an addition reaction , since the entire halogen molecule is added to the hydrocarbon. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Halogenation of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
    72. 72. <ul><li>Just as halogens can be added to alkenes and alkynes, so can hydrogens. We can bubble hydrogen gas through the unsaturated hydrocarbon, in the presence of a catalyst, and eventually saturate the hydrocarbon. The process of adding hydrogen to an unsaturated hydrocarbon is called hydrogenation . The hydrogenation of ethene is shown below. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Hydrogenation
    73. 73. <ul><li>Combustion is burning in the presence of oxygen. It also known as burning or oxidation or combining with oxygen. The combustion of most organic compounds results in the production of carbon dioxide and water. In fact, every combustion reaction we do in this course results in carbon dioxide and water, whether the compound is an alkane, alkene, alkyne or alcohol. </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Combustion Reactions
    74. 74. <ul><li>Example 1. Propane is used as a fuel in many barbeques. Write a balanced equation for the burning of propane. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a combustion reaction, so the reactants will be propane and oxygen gas and the products will be carbon dioxide and water. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: Write the molecular formula of all reactants and products. </li></ul><ul><li>propane = C 3 H 8 </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen gas = O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide = CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>water = H 2 O </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Combustion Reactions
    75. 75. <ul><li>Example 1. Propane is used as a fuel in many barbeques. Write a balanced equation for the burning of propane. </li></ul><ul><li>Solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2: Write the equation and balance. </li></ul><ul><li>C 3 H 8 + O 2  CO 2 + H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Balance. </li></ul><ul><li>C 3 H 8 + 5 O 2  3 CO 2 + 4 H 2 O </li></ul>Organic Chemistry Combustion Reactions

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