Short power point showing the various styles and transitions of architecture. Also includes models built by architects. This is a good piece to introduce a model building project with high school or college age students.
American Architecture Styles A beginner’s guide to architecture for students. Presented by : Bruce Black Art.com
THE 3 BASICS OF DESIGN INARCHITECTURE: Style Form Structure
STYLES & TIME PERIODS FOR AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE Colonial Architecture 1600-1820 Dutch Colonial Architecture Between Wars c. 1920-1940 French Colonial Prairie Style Spanish Colonial Modernistic Georgian Colonial Romantic Architecture c.1820-1880 Craftsman Greek Revival Art Deco Style c. 1923-1940 ** Gothic Revival Post WWII Architecture c. 1945-1965 Italianate Formalism Exotic Revival International II Octagon Victorian Architecture c. 1870-1900 Late Twentieth-Century 1965-present Second Empire Late Modernism Stick Post-Modernism Queen Anne Shingle Richardson Romanesque Folk Victorian ** Art Nouveau (1890-1914)** Early 20th-Century 1900-1920 Colonial Revival Neoclassical Tudor Chateauesque Beaux Arts French Eclectic International I
COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE Stately, Symmetrical appearance being rectangular shape with two stories. Gables on the side and an entry door at the center. To conserve heat, a massive chimney ran through the center. An orderly arrangement of windows around a central front door. Double-hung windows usually have many small, equally sized square panes or “candles” separated with “mutton-bars.” GEORGIAN COLONIAL
ROMANTIC ARCHITECTURE Elaborate wooden millwork after the Industrial Revolution fueled the construction. "Gothic" windows with distinctive pointed arches Exposed framing timbers Steep, vaulted roofs with cross- gables. Extravagant features may include towers and verandas. Ornate wooden detailing is GOTHIC REVIVAL generously applied as gable, window, and door trim.
VICTORIAN ARCHITECTURE Use of mass-produced ornamentation such as brackets, spindles, and patterned shingles. The last true Victorians were constructed in the early 1900s. These homes combine modern materials with 19th century details, such as curved towers and spindled porches. Elaborate exterior trim (“gingerbread”) and carved oak moldings. New machines made it possible to mass- produce ornamental features such as moldings, columns, and brackets. The expansion of the railroad meant that building VICTORIAN parts could be sent to far corners of the country so people in remote rural areas could build fancier homes.
ART NOUVEAU ** a world-wide movement Dynamic, undulating, and flowing, with curved http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikip whiplash lines which characterized much of Art Nouveau movement. Conventional moldings seem to spring to life and GRAND PALAIS INTERIEUR grow into plant-derived PARIS FRANCE forms.
Gaudí devoted his last years to the project, and at the time of hisdeath in 1926, less than a quarter of the project wascomplete. Sagrada Famílias construction progressed slowly, as itrelied on private donations and was interrupted by the Spanish CivilWar—only to resume intermittent progress in the 1950s. Constructionpassed the midpoint in 2010 with some of the projects greatestchallenges remaining and an anticipated completion date of 2026—the centennial of Gaudís death.
EARLY 20TH CENTURY ARCHITECTURE (contemporary) Exposed functional building elements, such as ground-to-ceiling plate glass windows, and smooth facades. The style was molded from modern materials--concrete, glass, and steel. Characterized by an absence of decoration. INTERNATIONAL Interior and exterior walls merely act as design and layout elements, and often feature dramatic, but nonsupporting projecting beams and columns
ARCHITECTURE BETWEEN WARS Boxy and symmetrical or low- slung and asymmetrical. Roofs are low-pitched, with wide eaves. Brick and clapboard are the most common building materials Rows of casement windows One-story porches with massive square supports. PRAIRIE STYLE Stylized floral and circular geometric terra-cotta or masonry ornamentation around doors, windows, and cornices.
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) Flat planes to accent the parries of the Midwest. Designed around centralized fireplace Attempted to create a complete environment out the conviction that buildings have a profound influence on their inhabitants, making architects molders of people.
ART DECO STYLE Echoed the Machine Age Geometric decorative elements & a vertically oriented design. This distinctly urban style was never widely used in residential buildings Towers and other projections above the roofline enhance the vertical emphasis of this style. Flat roofs, metal window casements, and smooth stucco walls with rectangular cut-outs mark the exteriors of Art Deco homes. Facades are typically flush with zigzags and other stylized floral, geometric, and "sunrise" motifs. ART DECO By 1940 the Art Deco style had evolved into "Art Moderne," which features curved corners, rectangular glass-block windows, and a boat- like appearance.
POST WWII ARCHITECTURE Two versions: the flat-roof and gabled types. The latter is often characterized by exposed beams. Both types tend to be one- story tall and were designed to incorporate the surrounding landscape into their overall CONTEMPORARY look.
Seagram Building 1954-58 (Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and PhilipJohnson. This structure, and On completion, the construction the International style in which it costs of Seagram made it the was built, had enormous worlds most expensive influences on skyscraper at the time, due to American architecture. the use of expensive, high-quality materials and lavish interior A buildings structural elements decoration. The interior was should be visible, Mies thought. designed to assure cohesion with I beams were sheathed internally the external features, repeated with concrete (fire code) but in the glass and bronze duplicated outside for aesthetics. furnishings and decorative As designed, the building used scheme. 1,500 tons of bronze in its Another interesting feature of the construction. Seagram Building is the window blinds. The blinds were made to be– fully open, halfway open/closed, or fully closed to reduce cluttered look.
LATE 20TH CENTURYARCHITECTURE The walls of the building create planes, which enclose the building. The walls tend to be very smooth with little interruption including windows that are level with the walls themselves. These smooth-surfaced buildings define a volume enclosed by the building. SPLIT LEVEL Symmetry is rejected in favor of regularity. Under these principals, the facade of buildings were designed with windows and doors spaced at regular intervals.
Project: Design a building and createan architectural model. Blue Print Model
End Slide Show Presented by: bruceblackart.com