Cloud Computing - A Primer

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Cloud Computing - A Primer

  1. 1. Presentation by Raden Sucalit<br />Cloud Computing: A Quick Snapshot<br />
  2. 2. 2<br />During the course of <br />this presentation<br /><ul><li> Motivations of Cloud Computing
  3. 3. What really is it?
  4. 4. Architecture/Taxonomy
  5. 5. Delivery Models/Layers
  6. 6. Deployment Models/Types
  7. 7. Challenges and Opportunities
  8. 8. Summary
  9. 9. Image Credits & References</li></li></ul><li>3<br />IT infrastructure is reaching a breaking point.<br />70¢ per $1<br />85% idle<br />1.5x<br />In distributed computing environments, up to 85% of computing capacity sits idle.<br />Explosion of information driving 54% growth in storage shipments every year. <br />70% on average is spent on maintaining current IT infrastructures versus adding new capabilities.<br />2 billion<br />3.3 billion<br />An estimated 2 billion people<br />will be on the web by 2011<br />Worldwide mobile telephone subscriptions reached 3.3 billion in 2007 – one for every two people on the planet<br />
  10. 10. 4<br />As the world gets smarter, demands on IT will grow <br />Intelligent oil field technologies <br />Smart retail<br />Smart energy grids<br />Smart traffic systems <br />Smart healthcare<br />Smart food systems <br />Smart water management <br />Smart regions<br />Smart weather <br />Smart countries<br />Smart supply chains <br />Smart cities<br />
  11. 11. 5<br />CLOUD<br />“the complicated stuff” that propels the Internet<br />
  12. 12. 6<br />2006<br />
  13. 13. 7<br />
  14. 14. 8<br />What is Cloud Computing?<br />A user experience and a business model<br /><ul><li>Cloud computing is an emerging style of IT delivery in which applications, data, and IT resources are rapidly provisioned (on-demand) and delivered as standardized offerings to users over the web in a flexible pricing pay-for-usage model.</li></ul>An infrastructure management and services delivery methodology<br /><ul><li>Cloud computing is a way of managing large numbers of highly virtualized resources such that, from a management perspective, they resemble a single large resource. This can then be used to deliver services with elastic scaling.</li></ul>Service Consumers<br />DatacenterInfrastructure<br />AccessServices<br />Monitor & ManageServices & Resources<br />IT Cloud<br />Component Vendors/Software Publishers<br />Service Catalog,<br />ComponentLibrary<br />CloudAdministrator<br />Publish & UpdateComponents,<br />Service Templates <br />
  15. 15. 9<br />Economics of Cloud Computing<br />CLOUD COMPUTING<br />+<br />+<br />+<br />=<br />=<br />VIRTUALIZATION<br />ENERGY EFFICIENCY<br />STANDARDIZATION<br />AUTOMATION<br />leverages virtualization, standardization and automation to free up operational budget for new investment<br />Reduced <br />Cost <br />+<br />+<br />+<br />=<br />=<br />AGILITY<br />BUSINESS & IT ALIGNMENT<br />SERVICE <br />FLEXIBILITY<br />INDUSTRY STANDARDS<br />OPTIMIZED <br />BUSINESS <br />allowing you to optimize new investments for direct business benefits<br />
  16. 16. 10<br />Cloud Computing Delivery Models / Layers <br />Collaboration<br />CRM/ERP/HR<br />Industry <br />Applications<br />Java<br />Runtime<br />Application<br />Business <br />Processes<br />Middleware<br />Database<br />Development<br />Tooling<br />Platform<br />Web 2.0 Application<br />Runtime<br />Infrastructure<br />Servers<br />Networking<br />Storage<br />Data Center Fabric<br />
  17. 17. 11<br />Cloud Computing Delivery Models / Layers <br />Flexibility & Control<br />Abstraction<br />Application<br />Platform<br />Infrastructure<br />
  18. 18. 12<br />Cloud Computing Delivery Models / Layers <br /><ul><li> Most visible layer, normally browser-based
  19. 19. Service known as Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)
  20. 20. All applications that run on the cloud and </li></ul> provide a direct service to the user are here<br /><ul><li> Alleviates the burden of software mainte-</li></ul> nance for the end-user<br /><ul><li> Simplifies upgrading and testing of </li></ul> code for the developers<br /><ul><li> Can make use of below layers or other cloud</li></ul> apps to develop other apps<br /><ul><li> Security, Availability and Integration of Legacy</li></ul> Apps<br />Application<br />Platform<br />Collaboration<br />CRM/ERP/HR<br />Industry <br />Applications<br />Infrastructure<br />Business <br />Processes<br />
  21. 21. 13<br />Cloud Computing Delivery Models / Layers <br />Application<br />Platform<br />Collaboration<br />CRM/ERP/HR<br />Industry <br />Applications<br />Infrastructure<br />Business <br />Processes<br />
  22. 22. 14<br />Cloud Computing Delivery Models / Layers <br /><ul><li> Layer for application developers
  23. 23. Layer abstracts the underlying physical and logi-</li></ul> cal structure from the developer<br /><ul><li>Service is commonly known as PaaS
  24. 24. Provides developers with a programming-</li></ul> language-level environment with APIs<br /><ul><li> No OS to patch, No DB to administer
  25. 25. Automatic scaling*, integration to other</li></ul> services<br /><ul><li> Billed by CPU cycles, less flexible in terms of</li></ul> choice of languages and DB<br />Application<br />Platform<br />Java<br />Runtime<br />Middleware<br />Database<br />Infrastructure<br />Development<br />Tooling<br />Web 2.0 Application<br />Runtime<br />
  26. 26. 15<br />Cloud Computing Delivery Models / Layers <br />Application<br />Platform<br />Java<br />Runtime<br />Middleware<br />PROJECT CAROLINE<br />Database<br />Infrastructure<br />Development<br />Tooling<br />Web 2.0 Application<br />Runtime<br />
  27. 27. 16<br />Cloud Computing Delivery Models / Layers <br /><ul><li> Provides basic resources to higher layers
  28. 28. Service is called Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
  29. 29. Based on virtualization technology
  30. 30. Deployment unit is a Virtual Appliance
  31. 31. Provides access to “Compute”, “Storage” </li></ul> and “Communicate” instances, <br /> on-demand<br /><ul><li> Pro: Full control of environments </li></ul> and infrastructure<br /><ul><li> Con: Provide little or no abstraction
  32. 32. Security, Availability and Quality</li></ul>Application<br />Platform<br />Networking<br />Data Center Fabric<br />Storage<br />Infrastructure<br />Servers<br />
  33. 33. 17<br />Cloud Computing Delivery Models / Layers <br />Application<br />Platform<br />Networking<br />Data Center Fabric<br />Storage<br />Infrastructure<br />Servers<br />
  34. 34. Infrastructure vs. Platform<br />18<br />
  35. 35. 19<br />Cloud Computing Delivery Models / Layers <br />Application / Cloud Application / SaaS / HuaaS<br />Firmware / Hardware / HaaS<br />Platform / Cloud Platform / PaaS / Cloud Software Envt<br />Business Support & Administration<br />Infrastructure / IaaS / Cloud Software Infrastructure<br />Software Kernel<br />
  36. 36. 20<br />Proposed Ontology by IBM, UCSB<br />Cloud Application (SaaS)<br />Cloud Software Environment (PaaS)<br />Cloud Software Infrastructure<br />Storage<br />(DaaS)<br />Communications<br />(CaaS)<br />Computational<br />Resources<br />(IaaS)<br />Software Kernel<br />Firmware / Hardware (HaaS)<br />
  37. 37. Proposed Ontology by FZI Karlsruhe, HP Laboratories<br />Human as a Service<br />Software as a Service<br />Platform as Service<br />Business Support and Administration<br />Infrastructure as Service<br />Hardware<br />
  38. 38. Proposed Ontology by FZI Karlsruhe, HP Laboratories<br />Human as a Service<br />Software as a Service<br />Platform as Service<br />Business Support and Administration<br />Infrastructure as Service<br />Hardware<br />
  39. 39. 23<br />Cloud Computing Delivery Models / Layers <br />Application / Cloud Application / SaaS / HuaaS<br />Firmware / Hardware / HaaS<br />Platform / Cloud Platform / PaaS / Cloud Software Envt<br />Business Support & Administration<br />Infrastructure / IaaS / Cloud Software Infrastructure<br />Software Kernel<br />
  40. 40. 24<br />Cloud Computing Deployment Models / Cloud Types<br />Flexible Delivery Models<br />Public<br /><ul><li>Service provider owned and managed.
  41. 41. Access by subscription
  42. 42. Delivers select set of standardized business process, application and/or infrastructure services on a flexible price per use basis
  43. 43. Domain specific, intellectual property, reliability, sensitive data</li></ul>Private<br /><ul><li>Privately owned and managed.
  44. 44. Access limited to client and its partner network.
  45. 45. Drives efficiency, standardization and best practices while retaining greater customization and control</li></ul>Cloud Services <br />Cloud Computing <br />Model<br />Hybrid<br /><ul><li>Access to client, partner network, and third party resources</li></ul>Customization, efficiency, availability, resiliency, security and privacy <br />Standardization, flexibility , capital preservation, and time to deploy <br />ORGANIZATION CULTURE GOVERNANCE<br />
  46. 46. 25<br />Cloud Computing Deployment Models / Cloud Types<br />Flexible Delivery Models<br />Public<br /><ul><li>Service provider owned and managed.
  47. 47. Access by subscription
  48. 48. Delivers select set of standardized business process, application and/or infrastructure services on a flexible price per use basis
  49. 49. Domain specific, intellectual property, reliability, sensitive data</li></ul>Standardization, flexibility , capital preservation, and time to deploy <br />ORGANIZATION CULTURE GOVERNANCE<br />
  50. 50. 26<br />Cloud Computing Deployment Models / Cloud Types<br />Flexible Delivery Models<br />Private<br /><ul><li>Privately owned and managed.
  51. 51. Access limited to client and its partner network.
  52. 52. Drives efficiency, standardization and best practices while retaining greater customization and control</li></ul>Customization, efficiency, availability, resiliency, security and privacy <br />ORGANIZATION CULTURE GOVERNANCE<br />
  53. 53. 27<br />Cloud Computing Deployment Models / Cloud Types<br />Flexible Delivery Models<br />Hybrid<br /><ul><li>Access to client, partner network, and third party resources</li></ul>ORGANIZATION CULTURE GOVERNANCE<br />
  54. 54. 28<br />Cloud Computing Deployment Models / Cloud Types<br />Flexible Delivery Models<br /> Public<br /><ul><li>Service provider owned and managed.
  55. 55. Access by subscription
  56. 56. Delivers select set of standardized business process, application and/or infrastructure services on a flexible price per use basis
  57. 57. Domain specific, intellectual property, and sensitive data</li></ul>Private<br /><ul><li>Privately owned and managed.
  58. 58. Access limited to client and its partner network.
  59. 59. Drives efficiency, standardization and best practices while retaining greater customization and control</li></ul>Cloud Services <br />Cloud Computing <br />Model<br />Hybrid<br /><ul><li>Access to client, partner network, and third party resources</li></ul>Customization, efficiency, availability, resiliency, security and privacy <br />Standardization, flexibility , capital preservation, and time to deploy <br />ORGANIZATION CULTURE GOVERNANCE<br />
  60. 60. 29<br />Cloud Computing Deployment Models / Cloud Types<br />Flexible Delivery Models<br />Hybrid …<br /><ul><li>Access to client, partner network, and third party resources</li></ul>ORGANIZATION CULTURE GOVERNANCE<br />
  61. 61. 30<br />TRADITIONAL SECURITY<br />PRIVACY<br />INFANCY<br />Challenges and Opportunities<br />THIRD PARTY CONTROL<br />AVAILABILITY<br />ENERGY CONSUMPTION<br />
  62. 62. 31<br />Privacy<br /><ul><li> Challenge is to design cloud services in such a way as to decrease privacy risk, and to ensure legal compliance
  63. 63. Government compliance and restrictions limit usage of cloud services as currently designed
  64. 64. There have been a number of high-profile privacy breaches
  65. 65. Concerns arise when it is not clear to individuals why their personal information is requested or how it will be used or passed on to other parties</li></li></ul><li>32<br />Infancy of the Field<br /><ul><li> Most existing cloud-computing offerings are either proprietary or dependent on software that is not amenable to experimentation
  66. 66. Lack of research tools fail to answer most fundamental questions in the field
  67. 67. EUCALYPTUS, an open-source cloud computing framework that is modular and open to experimental instrumentation has recently been created by UCSB Computer Science Department </li></li></ul><li>33<br />Traditional Security<br /><ul><li> Concerns involve computer and network intrusion or attacks
  68. 68. VM-level attacks such as the vulnerabilities that appeared in VMWare, Xen, and Microsoft Virtual PC
  69. 69. Platform level attacks such as SQL injections or cross-site scripting
  70. 70. Phishing cloud provider
  71. 71. Cloud providers argue that their security measures and processes are more mature and tested</li></li></ul><li>34<br />Availability <br /><ul><li> Concerns on critical applications and data being available
  72. 72. One-day outage of Gmail in mid-October, 2008
  73. 73. Over 7-hour downtime of Amazon S3 on July 20, 2008
  74. 74. 18-hour outage on October 31, 2008
  75. 75. Cloud providers argue that their server uptime compares well with the availability of the cloud
  76. 76. Concern that third-party cloud would not scale enough
  77. 77. There are more single points of failure and attack
  78. 78. Assurance of computational integrity
  79. 79. Stanford’s Folding@Home project gives the same task to multiple client to reach a consensus on correctness</li></li></ul><li>35<br />Third Party Control<br /><ul><li> Legal implications of data and applications being held by third party are complex and are not yet well understood
  80. 80. Lack of potential control and transparency when third-party holds the data
  81. 81. Implementation independent is one reason why cloud computing cool but also one of its main reason that why it is not</li></li></ul><li>36<br />Energy Consumption<br /><ul><li> Data centers are known to be expensive to operate and they consume huge amounts of electric power
  82. 82. It is important that they be designed to be energy efficient
  83. 83. New techniques have to be investigated for allocation of resources</li></li></ul><li>37<br />Summary<br />Cloud computing is as much as about the business model as it is about the technology.<br />Biggest challenge is the fact that there are no standards yet.<br />Cloud fears largely stem from loss of control of sensitive data.<br />Cloud Computing isn’t a quick fix. It needs a LOT of thinking.<br />It requires a strong foundation of best practice in software development, software architecture and service management.<br />
  84. 84. Image Credits<br />Images & Text from Slides 3, 4, 8, 24, 28 (Series of Boxes, Cloud)<br />What is Cloud Computing? Powerpoint Presentation. IBM Technologies.<br />Images from Slide 37 (Series of Boxes)<br />The Benefits of Cloud Computing: A new era of responsiveness, effectiveness and efficiency in IT service delivery. IBM. Dynamic Infrastructure. July 2009.<br /> Sun Report on Cloud Computing Architecture. March, 2009<br />ThinkGrid Business IT on Demand White Paper on Cloud Computing<br />Images from Slide 3 (Man with Question Mark)<br />Greenpeace International. White Paper on Make IT Green: Cloud Computing and its Contribution to Climate Change<br />The Benefits of Cloud Computing: A new era of responsiveness, effectiveness and efficiency in IT service delivery. IBM. Dynamic Infrastructure. July 2009.<br />All company logos from their respected websites<br />Google Docs, Google Maps API, Open Social, OpenID, Office Live, Salesforce.com, Akamai, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, NetSuite, Sun, Zoho, Amazon, Digg.com, University of Iowa, Youtube, AppNexus, Bluelock, Emulab, ENKI, EU Reservoir Project, Flexiscale, GoGrid, Google, HP, Joyent, Nirvanix, OpenFlow, RackSpace, Skytap, Terremark, The Globous Alliance, UCSB, 10gen<br />38<br />
  85. 85. 39<br />References<br />[1] U. D. o. H. Security, Smart Objects: IBM Global Technology Outlook 2005, US Department of Homeland Security, 2005.<br />[2] R. Clarke. "Computing Clouds on the Horizon? Benefits and Risks from the User's Perspective," May 1, 2010; http://www.rogerclarke.com/II/CCBR.html.<br />[3] T. Nolle. "Understanding cloud computing architecture models," http://searchvirtualdesktop.techtarget.com/tip/0,289483,sid194_gci1349265_mem1,00.html.<br />[4] G. International, Make IT Green: Cloud Computing and its Contribution to Climate Change, Greenpeace International, Amsterdam, 2010.<br />[5] H. Mcleod. "The Cloud's Best-Kept Secret," http://gapingvoid.com/2008/08/01/the-clouds-best-kept-secret/.<br />[6] M. Crandell. "Defogging Cloud Computing: A Taxonomy," April 20, 2010; http://gigaom.com/2008/06/16/defogging-cloud-computing-a-taxonomy/.<br />[7] G. Fowler, and B. Worthen. "The Internet Industry is on a Cloud -- Whatever That May Mean," http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123802623665542725.html#printMode.<br />[8] S. Bobrowski. "Cloud Computing Defined," http://thecloudview.com/cloud-computing-defined/.<br />[9] R. Buyya, C. S. Yeo, S. Venugopal et al., “Cloud computing and emerging IT platforms: Vision, hype, and reality for delivering computing as the 5th utility,” Future Gener. Comput. Syst., vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 599-616, 2009.<br />[10] M. Armbrust, A. Fox, R. Griffith et al., “A view of cloud computing,” Commun. ACM, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 50-58.<br />
  86. 86. 40<br />References<br />[11] J. Geelan, “Twenty-One Experts Define Cloud Computing,” 2009.<br />[12] J. Strickland. "How Cloud Computing Works " May 1, 2010; http://communication.howstuffworks.com/cloud-computing1.htm.<br />[13] Appistry.com, “Cloud Taxonom: Applications, Platform, Infrastructure,” December 18, 2008, 2008.<br />[14] E. c. Tutorials. "Cloud Computing Architecture," http://www.exforsys.com/tutorials/cloud-computing/cloud-computing-architecture.html.<br />[15] A. Greggo, "Cloud computing in the Enterprise: An Overview," 2009.<br />[16] R. Raja, and V. Verma, "Cloud Computing - An Overview," 2009.<br />[17] M. Mould. "Public vs. private clouds," http://searchvirtualdatacentre.techtarget.co.uk/tip/0,289483,sid203_gci1511608,00.html.<br />[18] S. Charrington, "The Cloud "Pyramid": Applications, Platform, Infrastructure," 2008.<br />[19] A. Lenk, M. Klems, J. Nimis et al., “What's inside the Cloud? An architectural map of the Cloud landscape,” in Proceedings of the 2009 ICSE Workshop on Software Engineering Challenges of Cloud Computing, 2009.<br />[20] J. W. Rittinghouse, and J. F. Ransome, Cloud computing : implementation, management, and security, Boca Raton: CRC Press.<br />[21] J. D. Hurwitz, Cloud computing for dummies, 1st ed., Indianapolis, IN: Wiley Pub., Inc., 2009.<br />[22] A. T. Velte, T. J. Velte, and R. C. Elsenpeter, Cloud computing : a practical approach, New York: McGraw-Hill.<br />
  87. 87. 41<br />References<br />[23] T. O'Reilly. "Web 2.0 and Cloud Computing," May 5, 2010; http://radar.oreilly.com/2008/10/web-20-and-cloud-computing.html.<br />[24] S. O'Grady. "Cloud Types: Fabric vs Instance," http://redmonk.com/sogrady/2008/11/14/cloud-types/.<br />[25] M. Pokharel, and J. S. Park, “Cloud computing: future solution for e-governance,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Theory and Practice of Electronic Governance, Bogota, Colombia, 2009.<br />[26] M. Miller, Cloud computing : Web-based applications that change the way you work and collaborate online, Indianapolis, Ind.: Que, 2008.<br />
  88. 88. 42<br />

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