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ISRAEL
 The history of the Jewish people begins with Abraham.
His story begins when G-d tells him to leave his
homeland promisin...
 The land of Israel is central to Judaism. A substantial
portion of Jewish law is tied to the land of Israel, and
can onl...
 Living outside of Israel is viewed as an unnatural
state for a Jew.
 The world outside of Israel is often referred to a...
 Main cities in Canaan were fortified.
 Trojan wars, Hittites invasions of Asia Minor. People
sailing from Greece to coa...
 Israel began as a social revolution within Canaan.
 Letters in 14th century BCE written to Pharaoh in
Egypt: complaints...
 Israelites were Canaanites who developed a separate
identity and settled in central highlands. No reasons given.
They wi...
 Hebrew tribes themselves were still in formation
 Tribal structure of Israelite society that would develop
would be str...
We can hypothesise a union of cultural religious and
ethnic elements -
* Local Canaanite agriculturalists
* Semi-nomadic H...
 Joshua provides different accounts.
 Outside conquest by means of war led by hosts of the
Lord
 Military skill is far ...
 Preserving distinct identity (Joshua 23 and 24)
 One proper response to G-d is to observe the Torah
by not inter-marryi...
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  1. 1. ISRAEL
  2. 2.  The history of the Jewish people begins with Abraham. His story begins when G-d tells him to leave his homeland promising him and his descendants a new home in the land of Canaan (Genesis 12). This is the land now known as Israel after Abraham’s grandson whose descendants are the Jewish people.  The land is often referred to as the Promised Land because of G-d’s repeated promise (Genesis 12:7; 13.15; 15:18; 17:8) to give the land to the descendants of Abraham.
  3. 3.  The land of Israel is central to Judaism. A substantial portion of Jewish law is tied to the land of Israel, and can only be performed there.  Some rabbis have declared that it is a mitzvah (commandment) to take possession of Israel and to live in it (Numbers 33:53)  The Talmud indicates that the land itself is so holy that merely walking in it can gain you a place in the World to Come.  Prayers for a return to Israel and Jerusalem are included in daily prayers as well as many holiday observances and special events.
  4. 4.  Living outside of Israel is viewed as an unnatural state for a Jew.  The world outside of Israel is often referred to as "galut," which is usually translated as "diaspora" (dispersion), but a more literal translation would be "exile" or "captivity."  When Jews live outside of Israel, they are living in exile from their land.  Jews were exiled from the land of Israel by the Romans in 135 CE, after they defeated the Jews in a three-year war, and Jews did not have any control over the land again until 1948 CE.
  5. 5.  Main cities in Canaan were fortified.  Trojan wars, Hittites invasions of Asia Minor. People sailing from Greece to coasts of Canaan, Phoenicia and Egypt. One of these groups Palasta, Philistines, who came and occupied Gaza  13th century, Hebrews took hold of these advantages and occupied areas in central highlands: Israelite.  Archaeologists uncovered pots, jars, houses of peasant farmers who were Canaanite which suggests that the setttlements were established peacefully.
  6. 6.  Israel began as a social revolution within Canaan.  Letters in 14th century BCE written to Pharaoh in Egypt: complaints about groups causing turmoil in Canaan.  Marginal social group: Canaanites in revolt called Habbiru.  Some suggested that Israelites escaping from Egypt may have joined with these disaffected peoples to establish their own settlements rather than follow Pharaoh.
  7. 7.  Israelites were Canaanites who developed a separate identity and settled in central highlands. No reasons given. They withdrew for some reason. They worshipped G-d of the Covenant.  Hebrews not united people at this stage.  Local foreigners – Midianites, etc., merged with the community. Not large-scale immigration or initiation of anything radically new.  Elements of the group may have brought the story of escape from Egypt and talked of YHWH.  Mixed group that would join together to become Israel accepted YHWH and would have adopted the national story of the Exodus as their own at some point.
  8. 8.  Hebrew tribes themselves were still in formation  Tribal structure of Israelite society that would develop would be strengthened by the natural division of the land into these separate geographical areas.  Local tribes probably assimilated elements of local population  Ethnic mix e.g G-d as tent dweller ‘El’; Reminiscent of Ba-al; in the Book of Judges, the Temple is mentioned as ‘Ba-al Berit’ ‘El Berit’ describe the G-d of the covenant.
  9. 9. We can hypothesise a union of cultural religious and ethnic elements - * Local Canaanite agriculturalists * Semi-nomadic Hebrews of Exodus * Escaped slaves * Habbiru - who would come together to make a new political and religious reality called Israel.
  10. 10.  Joshua provides different accounts.  Outside conquest by means of war led by hosts of the Lord  Military skill is far less important than ritual preparation and purity (Jericho)  Conquest represented as miraculous victory by G-d  Decimation of the Canaanites – intense rivalry maybe between differentiations of Canaanites and Jews who were from Canaan.
  11. 11.  Preserving distinct identity (Joshua 23 and 24)  One proper response to G-d is to observe the Torah by not inter-marrying because, in doing so, they would have to worship other gods.  Choose who they serve: YHWH or those whose lands they’re settling in.  Ban on inter-marriage has to do with religious purity.  Israel is to show undivided loyalty to G-d or G-d will take the gift of the land from Israel as he did from the Canaanites.

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