1.2 atomic structure

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1.2 atomic structure

  1. 1. 1.2 Atomic Structure (Time needed: 6 class periods)
  2. 2. Learning outcomes • Matter is composed of particles, which may be atoms, molecules or ions. • Atoms. Minute size of atoms. • Law of conservation of mass.
  3. 3. DIFFUSION- evidence for the existence of small particles • SPREADING OUT OF GASES • COLOUR OF INK SREADING OUT WHEN MIXED WITH WATER • HYDROGEN CHLORIDE AND AMMONIA SOLUTION
  4. 4. AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
  5. 5. law of conservation of mass/matter •The law of conservation of mass/matter, also known as law of mass/matter conservation says that the mass of a closed system will remain constant, regardless of the processes acting inside the system. •Matter cannot be created/destroyed, although it may be rearranged. •For any chemical process in a closed system, the mass of the reactants must equal the mass of the products.
  6. 6. Learning Outcomes •Very brief outline of the historical development of atomic theory (outline principles only; mathematical treatment not required): Dalton: atomic theory; •Crookes: vacuum tubes, cathode rays; •Stoney: naming of the electron; •Thomson: negative charge of the electron; e/m for electrons (experimental details not required); •Millikan: magnitude of charge of electrons as shown by oil drop experiment (experimental details not required); •Rutherford: discovery of the nucleus as shown by the α−particle scattering experiment; •discovery of protons in nuclei of various atoms; •Bohr: model of the atom; •Chadwick: discovery of the neutron.
  7. 7. HISTORY OF THE ATOM • GREEKS – MATTER MADE OF TINY INDIVISIBLE PARTICLES
  8. 8. DALTON 1766-1844 • ALL MATTER MADE OF SMALL PARTICLES CALLED ATOMS • ATOMS ARE INDIVISIBLE • ATOMS CANNOT BE CREATED OR DESTROYED
  9. 9. DISCOVERY OF THE ELECTRON • CROOKES CONDUCTED EXPERIMENTS WITH A GLASS TUBE
  10. 10. CROOKES TUBE
  11. 11. CROOKES TUBES • CATHODE CONNECTED TO NEGATIVE ELECTRODE • ANODE CONNECTED TO THE POSITIVE ELECTRODE • CNAP
  12. 12. VACUUM TUBES • GAS AT LOW PRESSURE • ELECTRIC CURRENT PASSED THROUGH • RADIATION CAME FROM THE END OF THE TUBE CONNECTED TO THE NEGATIVE(CATHODE) END OF THE BATTERY • CATHODE RAYS
  13. 13. TUBES
  14. 14. CROOKES PADDLE TUBE
  15. 15. CATHODE RAYS • • • • CAST SHADOWS CAUSE GLASS TO GLOW TURN A PADDLE WHEEL RAYS ARE MADE OF PARTICLES
  16. 16. JJ THOMPSON • HOLE IN ANODE TO ALLOW BEAM OF RAYS TO PASS THROUGH. • BEAM COULD BE DEFLECTED BY ELECTRIC PLATES. • THEREFORE BEAM IS MADE OF NEGATIVE PARTICLES.
  17. 17. JJ THOMPSONS APPARATUS
  18. 18. JJ THOMPSON • USED A MAGNETIC FIELD FROM AN ELECTROMAGNET TO DEFLECT THE ELECTRONS • CALCULATED THE RATIO OF CHARGE TO MASS FOR ELECTRON
  19. 19. GEORGE STONEY • NAMED PARTICLES ELECTRONS
  20. 20. ROBERT MILLIKAN • FAMOUS OIL-DROP EXPERIMENT • IT MEASURED THE CHARGE ON THE ELECTRON • X-RAYS IONISED AIR MOLECULES BY STRIPING ELECTRONS OFF THEIR ATOMS. • OIL DROPLETS PICKED UP ELECTRONS BECAME NEGATIVE • INCREASED THE + CHARGE UNTIL THE DROPLET HOVERED. • TOOK MEASUREMENTS AND CALCULATED THE CHARGE ON THE ELECTRON.
  21. 21. ROBERT MILLIKAN
  22. 22. ROBERT MILLIKAN
  23. 23. THOMPSON’S ATOM • ATOM A SPHERE OF POSITIVE CHARGES WITH NEGATIVE ELECTONS EMBEDDED
  24. 24. ERNEST RUTHERFORD • FIRED THIN ALPHA PARTICLES AT A TIN GOLD FOIL • THOMPSONS PLUM PUDDING MODEL PREDICTED THAT THEY WOULD PASS THRU’ WITH LITTLE DEFLECTION
  25. 25. RUTHERFORD’S EXPT •
  26. 26. RUTHERFORD’S EXPT
  27. 27. EXPECTED RESULT • ALPHA PARTICLES SHOULD PASS THROUGH WITH LITTLE DEFLECTION + ++
  28. 28. ACTUAL RESULT • MOST PASS THROUGH UNDEFLECTED • SOME BOUNCED RIGHT BACK!
  29. 29. EXPLANATION • HARD DENSE CORE OF POSITIVE MATTER IN THE CENTER OF EACH ATOM-NUCLEUS • ATOMS ARE MOSTLY EMPTY SPACE.
  30. 30. THE PROTON • RUTHERFORD CONTINUED TO BOMBARD DIFFERENT ELEMENTS SUCH AS NITROGEN AND OXYGEN • SMALL POSITIVE PARTICLES WERE GIVEN OFF-- PROTONS
  31. 31. THE NEUTRON • JAMES CHADWICK BOMBARDED BERYLLIUM WITH ALPHA PARTICLES. • SMALL PARTICLES WERE GIVEN OFF WHICH WERE NEUTRAL AND HAD THE SAME MASS AS THE PROTON—THE NEUTRON.
  32. 32. Bohr’s atom • Electrons travel in orbits around the nucleus
  33. 33. Learning Outcomes • Properties of electrons, protons and neutrons (relative mass, relative charge, location within atom).
  34. 34. Proton • Protons are positively charged particles found within atomic nucleus
  35. 35. Learning Outcomes Atomic number (Z ), mass number (A), isotopes; hydrogen and carbon as examples of isotopes. Relative atomic mass (A r). The 12C scale for relative atomic masses.
  36. 36. Atomic number • Also called proton number, this is the number of protons the atom has
  37. 37. Atomic number • Also called proton number, this is the number of protons the atom has
  38. 38. The Number of Electrons • Atoms must have equal numbers of protons and electrons. In our example, an atom of krypton must contain 36 electrons since it contains 36 protons.
  39. 39. Mass number •Mass Number = (Number of Protons) + (Number of Neutrons)
  40. 40. Isotope • Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes
  41. 41. Hydrogen isotopes • The element hydrogen for example, has three commonly known isotopes: protium, deuterium and tritium
  42. 42. Deuterium •an atom of deuterium consists of one proton one neutron and one electron
  43. 43. Tritium • An atom of tritium consists of one proton two neutrons and one electrons
  44. 44. Relative Atomic Mass • The relative atomic mass of an element the mass of one of the element's atoms -- relative to the mass of an atom of Carbon 12,
  45. 45. Learning Outcomes • Calculation of approximate relative atomic masses from abundance of isotopes of given mass number (e.g. Calculation of approximate relative atomic mass of chlorine).
  46. 46. Chlorine •Chlorine-35 and Chlorine-37 are both isotopes of chlorine
  47. 47. Relative mass of chlorine • Chlorine consists of roughly 75% Chlorine-35 and roughly 25% Chlorine-37. We take an average of the two figures The relative atomic mass of chlorine is usually quoted as 35.5.
  48. 48. Learning outcomes • Use of the mass spectrometer in determining relative atomic mass. • Fundamental processes that occur in a mass spectrometer: • vaporisation of substance, • production of positive ions, • acceleration, separation, • detection (mathematical • treatment excluded).
  49. 49. THE MASS SPECTROMETER • Atoms can be deflected by magnetic fields - provided the atom is first turned into an ion.
  50. 50. Stage 1: Ionisation • The atom is ionised by knocking one or more electrons off to give a positive ion.
  51. 51. Stage 2: Acceleration • The ions are accelerated so that they all have the same kinetic energy.
  52. 52. Stage 3: Deflection • The ions are then deflected by a magnetic field according to their masses. The lighter they are, the more they are deflected.
  53. 53. Stage 4: Detection • The beam of ions passing through the machine is detected electrically.

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