Mobile computing devices evolved from developments in wireless technologies in the United States military, and eventually spilled over into the consumer market. This wireless capability required a line of sight at first, with no obstacles interfering between point a and point b of the communications transmission signal. Although most people equate mobile devices with wireless capability, mobile devices do not need to be wireless to be considered mobile, although most are. Original mobile computing devices, such as PDAs, required a wired connection to a PC through a USB cable or docking station in order for information to be transferred to the device. Due to the increased rate of wireless networks and the emergence of bluetooth technology, most mobile computing devices are now wireless as well.
The earliest versions of mobile computers included the first conceptual laptop, the Dynabook, which was the brainchild of Alan Kay from Xerox in the 1970’s. The concept was never developed. The first laptops had poor batteries or no batteries at all until 1982 when the Epson HX-20 was released. It was the first ealry laptop to include all components – a small screen, keyboard, and battery pack. The Apple Newton, released in 1992, was the first attempt at a tablet-style mobile device that enabled handwritten data input. The first mp3 player, called the Listen Up was released by Audio Highway in 1996. five years before Apple swept the market with the iPod series of mp3 players. Other landmark devices include the released of the Blackberry smartphones between 2003 and 2007; the iPhone in 2007; netbooks in 2007; and other popular smartphones in 2008.
According to one of our readings, Handhelds: Getting Mobile, there are five important properties to consider when deciding to use a mobile computing device in the classroom. They are personal, portable, multimodal, constructive, and mobile modifications. Personal simply means that the device is affordable enough to provide each student in the classroom with their own for use. Portable refers to the device’s weight and size, as well as its quick power on power off feature. Multimodal devices are those that can handles multiple types of media, such as audio, video, documents, and animation, and have the ability to record audio, video or still images. Constructive refers to the ability of the student to create, build or design using the device. For example, a keyboard, either physical or virtual, enables students to input data to create documents, or a stylus enables students to write or draw on a tablet device. Mobile modifications, such as the ability to download educational applications that fit curriculum- or subject-based needs, enable mobile devices to become mobile learning environments.
Some of the most commonly known forms of mobile computing devices include smart phones, such as the iPhone, Blackberry and Droid models that permit application downloading, Web browsing, multimedia capabilities, GPS, data and multimedia syncing, etc.; laptop computers; tablet computers, which permit handwritten data entry; netbooks, which are smaller than laptops and provide Web browsing capabililtes; mp3 players, which can hold audio, video, and still image files, with some having Web browsing capabilities; personal digital assistants, or PDAs, which were the predecessor to smartphones and provided many of the functions of a smartphone without the telephony feature; handheld video game systems; mobile internet devices, or MIDs, which are smaller than a netbook but larger than a handheld device; and feature phones.
Team 3 ce556 powerpoint
Mobile Computing<br />Brian Brown<br />Keith Heimbach<br />KatheSantillo<br />
Development of Mobile Computing<br />Advances in mobile communications, which overflowed into mobile computing, began in the U.S. military. This wireless capability began as line of sight, increased throughout years as bandwidth and technology improved.<br />Mobile computing doesn't need to be wireless, although most devices are wireless. <br />Original handhelds could only be synced with a docking port or wired connection (USB). <br />The rate of wireless networks have increased due to the increase in mobile computing devices and wireless ability (with wireless cards) Wireless capability has become a distinguishing element of mobile computing.<br />
History of Mobile Computing Devices<br /> 1970's - Xerox researcher, Alan Kay came up with the idea for the Dynabook - first conceptual laptop. Not developed.1975 - first commercially available laptop, IBM 51001979 - GRiD Compass 1101. First with clamshell design. Popular with military and NASA; not successful commercially1982 - Epson HX-20; first laptop w/ all components (screen, keyboard, battery)1984 - Gavilon SC, first to be marketed as a laptop1989 - Macintosh Portable released (First Apple "luggable")1992 - Apple Newton PDA released<br /> 1996 – first Mp3 player, Listen Up, released by Audio Highway2001 - iPod released2002 - commercial tablet PCs released by Microsoft2003-2007 - Palm Treo, Blackberry (7290 & 8700), Dell Axim, Windows Mobile 2003 released2007 - iPhone released2007 - iPod Touch released2007 - Netbooks released2008 – Smartphones released<br />
Properties of a Mobile Learning Device in an Educational Setting<br />Personal – Each child has own<br />Portable – Can be taken anywhere and is quickly available<br />Multimodal - Can handle sound and video, text, spreadsheets, concept maps, animations, etc.<br />Constructive - Accepts keyboard input to enable students to create, design, and build<br />Mobile Modifications - can add educational software<br />
FORMS<br />“Smart” Phones<br />Laptops<br />Tablets/Convertibles<br />Netbooks<br />Mp3 Players<br />PDAs<br />Handheld Video Game Systems<br />MIDs<br />Feature Phones<br />
Changes/Improvements<br />Development of Mobile Processors<br />Smaller computers<br />Extended battery life<br />Storage<br />Megabyte to Terabyte<br />Thumb drives replace floppy drives<br />Power<br />Extended battery life<br />Operating Systems<br />Windows 3.11 was the first to have built-in power management settings<br />Mobile specific innovations<br />Integrated pointing device<br />Fully integrated wireless network adapters<br />
Costs – Then and Now<br />Early 1980s<br />Osborne 1 (1981) - $1795<br />Executive (1982) $2495<br />Compaq Portable (1982) $3590<br />Grid Compass (1982) $8000<br />TRS-80 Model 100 Word Processor Only (1983) $499<br />Today<br />Laptops: $400 - $1800+ <br />Tablets/Convertibles: $500 - $1200+<br />Netbooks: $500 - $,1200+ <br />Mp3 Players: $50 - $300<br />PDAs: $200 - $600<br />Handheld Video Game Systems: $150 - $250<br />MIDs (Mobile Internet Devices): $800 - $1,200+<br />Feature Phones: to $150<br />Smartphones: $50 - $200+<br />
Cost Trends<br />Computer Economics reported laptops would outnumber desktops by 2007<br />Laptop sales outnumbered desktop sales for the first time in May 2005<br />Handheld mobile devices have drastically come down in cost<br />Iphone $599 when it was introduced<br />$299 today<br />Versions with less memory can be purchased for $99 - $199<br />
Who is using it and how?<br />Health care<br /> In Africa the medical professionals are using mobile technology to remind patients to take medication <br />patients can anonymously ask culturally taboo questions about things like aids<br />Banking<br />online banking system in Kenya which had 200,000 new customers in the first month and 1.6 million in the first year<br />Politics<br />President Obama took campaign contributions and announce his running mate using mobile technology<br />News Media<br />Many incidents , such as 2008 terrorist attack on Mumbai, are first reported by cell phone cameras, CNN refers to these as I-Reports<br />Education<br />One to One computing, with Laptop purchasing programs and many others pushing projects using Personal digital assistants, Cell phones, and Net books.<br />
Who is using it and how?<br />Nearly all professionals , White or Blue Collar, have some use for Mobile technology<br />One of the largest growing numbers of users or Mobile technology is school age children who are being labeled the M- Generation (M- meaning mobile and multitasking)<br />
Is Mobile Technology Successful?<br />Ask most districts who use mobile technology and they will emphatically say “Yes”<br />There is a growing number of school districts who agree.<br />The truth is that the technology is still new and evolving in form and use. There is a shortage of true data reporting to confirm success, but existing data suggest it is very positive and it is growing.<br />
Good return on investment?<br />Cell phones and PDAs range in price from free to $250<br />Laptops, Net books, and tablets range from $400 to $1800<br />At a few ounces to about 3 lbs devices are truly mobile allowing for anytime, any where learning<br />Most students have preexisting experience with these devices. Therefore there is a minimal learning curve<br />Mobile devices , when used for education, <br />Are generally less expensive<br />More mobile and therefore more usable with variety of learning experiences<br />Possess a majority of the same application and programs as traditional Desktops<br />Plus, built in applications such as voice recording, video, Wi-Fi connectivity, and the advantage of preexisting experience of use by the students<br />
Where does it stand today?<br />Modern mobile technology is a way of life today. Today’s students are often referred to as the Mobile generation or M- Generation. Starting as a military concept, modern communication and media has fully embraced the concept and is taking full advantage. Rare is the individual who does not have a cell phone, laptop or similar device to:<br />Talk or text<br /> View media in some form<br /> Connect to the internet<br /> Use the productivity tools <br /> Play games<br /> Applications are growing everyday.<br /> We are really just beginning to see what the possibilities of mobile technology are.<br />
Where does it stand today?<br />“Just as Sesame Street helped transform television into a revolutionary tool for learning among young children four decades ago, advances in mobile technologies are showing enormous untapped educational potential for today’s generation” (Carl Shuler , Pockets of Potential)<br />