The Rise Of The Middle Ages


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The Rise Of The Middle Ages

  1. 1. The Rise of the Middle Ages <br />Chapter 13 496-1328 AD<br />
  2. 2. Time of Transition <br />400s to 1500s time of transition in Europe<br />End of the classical age and beginning of Modern Europe<br />Repeated invasion caused 4 major shift in societies<br />Disruption of trade<br />Destroy economy<br />Money scarce <br />Downfall of cities<br />Cities abandoned <br />Population shift<br />Move away from cities to rural<br />Decline of learning <br />Germanic tribes could not read<br />Greek/ Roman culture almost lost<br />
  3. 3. Germanic Kingdoms <br />Kingdoms replaced roman provinces <br />Kings and boarders will change with war<br />One constant<br />Church<br />Provides security and order<br />Lived in small communities<br />Personal ties unit<br />Lived by tradition<br />Not written laws<br />Warriors loyal to lord<br />Relationship develops<br />Lord gives food, weapons, and treasure<br />Warrior fight <br />
  4. 4. Clovis <br />Became known as the Merovingians<br />Will adopt the Christian religion<br />Why: asked God for help in battle and won<br />Unites the Franks into one Kingdom<br />
  5. 5. Emergence of Carolingian Dynasty <br />Charles Martel<br />Pepin the Short<br />King of the Franks but in name<br />Had control of royal household and led army<br />Won the Battle of Tours 732<br />Fended off the Muslims from western Europe<br />Hero of Christianity <br />Claimed legitimacy of throne through the pope’s confirmation<br />All European rulers will believe in pope’s blessing<br />WhY: blessing came directly from God <br />
  6. 6. Charlemagne <br />Will build the “new Rome”<br />Will help spread the teachings of Christian beliefs<br />Civilized and brought order to “now” France and Germany <br />First powerful king in western Europe <br />
  7. 7. Charlemagne<br />Unite Western Europe for the 1st time since Rome<br />Pope confirms his Roman Emperor<br />Signals the joining of Germanic power, the church, and heritage of Roman Empire<br />
  8. 8. Accomplishments<br />Encourages learning<br />Opens palace schools<br />Monasteries will open schools to train monks and priest <br />
  9. 9. Map of Charlemagne's empire<br />
  10. 10. Decline of Frankish Rule<br />Son, Lois the Pious, was a weak ruler<br />When Louis dies his sons divide the empire at the Treaty of Verdun<br />Fought against themselves <br />
  11. 11. Invasion of Europe 700<br />
  12. 12. Vikings <br />Were the most feared Germanic people<br />Worshiped pagan Gods<br />Lived in Norway, Sweden ,and Denmark <br />Raided and looted settlements<br />Know for their seamanship <br />
  13. 13. Invasion <br />Magyars <br />Muslim <br />From present day Hungary <br />Attacked from the east<br />Superb horseman<br />They took captives not the land<br />Why: sold into slavery<br />Attacked from the south<br />Where: Italy and Spain<br />Were expert seaman <br />Wanted to conquer at first but turned to plunder <br />
  14. 14. Results <br />Caused widespread disorder<br />Kings could not defend their land or people<br />People did not look to central ruler, but local ruler for protection<br />
  15. 15. Start of Feudalism <br />  After Charlemagne’s death large scale gov’t will disappear<br />Why: overrun by invaders<br />Relationship and obligations will develop between nobles and lesser nobles<br />Feudalism <br />Feudalism will shape the political <br /> and social development in Europe<br />Starts division of people, power, <br /> money, and land<br />
  16. 16. The System – Lord <br />Powerful lord will grant land to lesser nobles and protection<br />Ownership belongs still to the lord- rents<br />Lesser noble promises loyalty, military service and other services<br />
  17. 17. Vassal <br />Person who received the grant of land<br />WHO: everyone under the lord<br />BUT lord could be vassal to King<br />Vassal could divide the fief and become a lord<br />
  18. 18. Feudal Obligations<br />
  19. 19. Manor System<br />Shape the economy of Europe<br />Everyone interdependent upon each other<br />Self-sufficient <br />Lord will keep 1/3 of the land<br />Peasants farmed the remaining 2/3<br />Peasants worked the land for the lord<br />Peasants were serfs<br />Peasants worked lived and died on the manor <br />Self-sufficient community <br />
  20. 20. Medieval Manor <br />
  21. 21. People of the Manor<br />Knights were son’s of nobles<br />Sent to a lord’s house at 7 to be a Paige<br />Serve food, read and write<br />At 13 he would become a squire Knight in training called squire <br />Ride horses and handle weapons<br />16-20 a ceremony would be held to induct a new knight<br />
  22. 22. Service of a knight<br /><ul><li>Service included guide duty, protect the lord and military service
  23. 23. Owed 40 days during peace time</li></ul>Tournaments were held to keep knights in shape during times of peace<br />Coats of arms were used to show who they were and what family from <br />
  24. 24. Age of Chivalry <br />With the medieval knight evolved a code of conduct known as chivalry<br /> Emphasized courage, loyalty to one’s superior, and devotion to military duty<br />Christian knights swore to defend the faith against enemies<br />Muslims <br />Moors<br />Courtesy towards women and protection of the defenseless.<br />
  25. 25. Technology <br />One of the technological advances during the Middle Ages was the heavy plow<br />pulled by a large team of oxen. <br />Horse will replace the oxen<br />Why: faster<br />Agricultural engine which substituted human power for animal to save energy and time. <br />Effects:<br />Productivity will be increased<br />More a variety of crops could be planted.<br />
  26. 26. Justice <br />Three main types of justice<br />Compurgation<br />Trial based on the 12 defendants telling the truth about the accused <br />Not based on facts<br />Belief the accused is telling the truth<br />Character trial <br />Trial by Ordeal <br />Carry a piece of hot iron <br />Plunged hand into boiling water or cold water<br />How quickly you healed determined innocents and guilt <br />
  27. 27. Trial by Battle <br />Battle between the accused and accuser<br />OR send a representative <br />Duel to determine innocence or guilt <br />Who lived innocence<br />Died or mortally wounded guilty <br />7 offenses that would warrant this trial<br />Treason<br />Heresy <br />Murder<br />rape<br />
  28. 28. The catholic church <br />The church filled the need of leadership in a time of none<br />Sought political and economic power<br />Great economic force <br />Became wealthy and accumulated a lot of land<br /><ul><li>Provided a sense of security and belonging to a religious community </li></li></ul><li>Hierarchy of church<br />
  29. 29. People of the Church <br />Parish Priest<br />Lowest rank of the church<br />In charge of religious instruction<br />Administered 5 out of 7 sacraments<br />Baptism<br />Holy Communion <br />Marriage<br />Penance <br />Anointing of the sick and dying <br />Bishop <br />Managed a group of parishes called diocese<br />Selection of bishops were controlled by nobles <br />Lay investiture <br />Administers the last two sacraments<br />Confirmation<br />Holy orders<br />
  30. 30. Highest levels of church<br />Archbishop<br />Managed the bishops <br />Cardinals <br />Advisors to the Pope<br />“Princes of the Church”<br />Pope<br />Head of <br /> church<br />Sets policy <br />and doctrine<br />
  31. 31. Church political role<br />Own code of law and its own courts<br />Cannon law<br />Held power over kings and nobles<br />HoW: afraid of being excommunicated<br />Cut off from the church and do not receive the sacraments<br />King excommunicate freed vassals from service <br />Toeing the Line<br />Interdict an area<br />Would not perform the sacraments <br />Declare someone a heretic <br />Someone who does not follow or believe in the church’s views <br />People followed church doctrine to get into heaven <br />
  32. 32. Church economic role<br />Power to tax<br />Tithe- 1/10 of a persons income<br />Large income from its land<br />Granted fiefs to peasants <br />1200 wealthiest institution in Europe <br />
  33. 33. Church Social role<br />Helped take care of the poor and needy<br />Did not allow divorce <br />Established hospitals <br />Frequent holiday- days off from labor<br />April Fools Day<br />May Day<br />
  34. 34. Showdown <br />Popes and Kings bickering over appointments over bishops<br />Compromised at Concordat of Worms<br />Pope appointed bishop but king could veto<br />