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Ch. 8 Africa

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  1. 1.
  2. 2. How does climate and geography affect African society?<br /><br />
  3. 3. Geography<br />2nd largest continent in the world<br />1/5th of the Earth surface<br />Shortest coastline in the world<br />How: <br />plateau on coastline<br />Waterfalls<br />rapids<br />
  4. 4. Environmental Challenges<br />Deserts cover most of the continent <br />Sahara Desert<br />Big as United States<br />Larger each year<br />Edge of desert called the Sahel <br />Kalahari Desert <br />arid plateau region<br />Receives rainfall<br />Grazing and a little agriculture are possible in certain areas. <br />
  5. 5. Effects of Geography <br />Long-term climate change will influence the social and agriculture throughout the region- 5,000 BC<br />Through desertification the rich grassland turned into an barren desert <br />Drove humans and animals to more arid areas <br />Some go towards lake Chad and other towards the Nile<br />
  6. 6. Namib Desert <br />
  7. 7. Africa’s Savanna<br />Most live in the savanna<br />Cover 40% of the continent<br />Alternate hot with rainy <br />Topsoil very thin as a result<br />Support agriculture <br />
  8. 8. Great Rift Valley <br />3,000 miles long<br />Elevation ranges from 1,300 to 1,830<br />Surrounded by lakes<br />Lake Victoria largest lake in Africa<br />Suitable to sustain human life<br />Farming water <br />First humans came from this area of the world <br />
  9. 9. Humans Adopt to Environment<br />Earliest Africans were nomadic hunters and gathers<br />Followed a food supply<br />Travel in a small band of relatives<br />Learned to domestic and raise animals for food<br />Impact:<br />Growing own food allowed a group of people settle in one location<br />Leads to healthier life style<br />Increase birth rate <br />Increase art <br />Jewelry <br />Pottery <br />Governing bodies will develop <br />
  10. 10. Bantu Migration<br />Group of people located in the savanna of Africa<br />Shared a common language cultural characteristics <br />Were farmers and herders<br />Slash and burn farming technique caused them to move <br />Push-pull factors will cause Bantu to migrate<br />Climate<br />Food<br />land<br />Forced to migrate south <br />Why: population increased no more land therefore migrated south to more land <br />Culture diffusion will take place<br />Iron smelting<br />Effects of migration<br />Drove other groups off land<br />New culture created<br />
  11. 11. Migration Patterns <br />
  12. 12. Scramble for Africa<br />
  13. 13. England’s Colonization <br />
  14. 14. Why Africa???<br />Industrial Revolution will cause the need for colonies <br />Why: <br />raw materials<br />New markets <br />Tin<br />Copper<br />Diamonds<br />timber <br />Control a piece of land that has raw material the colonial power gets it for free<br />Imperialism will start for the scramble of raw materials <br />
  15. 15. List the motives behind European domination of Africa.<br />
  16. 16. Rationalization <br />Europeans felts they were better than the Africans <br />Racism <br />Will apply social Darwinism <br />Those who were the fittest enjoyed wealth and power<br /><ul><li>Their right to bring progress to non-Europeans</li></li></ul><li>Berlin Conference <br />
  17. 17. Independence <br /> Nationalism and Pan-Africanism will plant the seeds for liberation of Africa<br />Unifying Africans will end the colonial rule in Africa<br />Some colonies will gain independence easily while others will fight a long war for independence <br />
  18. 18. South Africa and Apartheid <br />Blacks made up 75% of total population<br />No political, economic or social equality <br />Could not vote<br />Gov’t set aside 13 % of the land for 75% population<br />Whites controlled the best lands<br />Segregated school, public facilities and neighborhoods <br />
  19. 19. South Africa <br />Colonial of Great Britain<br />Non-whites had few educational and economic opportunities<br />1948 apartheid was passed by the minority white<br />African National Congress (ANC) will fight against apartheid <br />Illegal political organization <br />1931 Great Britain will give South Africa its independence and the ANC is outlawed<br />
  20. 20. Nelson Mandela <br />Born 1918<br />Joined ANC 1960<br />Wanted to set up military wing of the ANC<br />Arrested in 1962- 5 years jail with hard labor <br />1963 put on trial for plotting to overthrow the government <br />Sentenced to life imprisonment <br />
  21. 21. F.W. de Klerk<br />Goal was to transform South Africa and end isolationism<br />How: end apartheid<br />Legalize ANC<br />Let Mandela out of jail<br />Revise apartheid laws<br />Wrote new constitution<br />Held free elections April 1994 <br />
  22. 22. End of Apartheid <br />Nelson Mandela first black president of South Africa<br />ANC won 63% of the vote in the national assembly<br />252 out of 400 seats<br />
  23. 23. Rwanda<br />Two ethnic groups <br />Majority Hutu<br />farmers<br />Minority Tutsis<br />Land owners/aristocrats <br />Two groups follow the same traditions and language<br />Belgians were the colonial ruler of Rwanda<br />Belgians considered the Tutsis to be superior<br />Why: were rich and educated<br />Belgians left and Hutu took power<br />Tutsi refugees were forming the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF)<br /> Aim was to overthrow Habyarimana and return to their homeland<br />
  24. 24. Problem <br />April – June 2006 80,000 Tutsis and Hutu were killed<br />Mostly Tutsis<br />Why: President Juvenal Habyarimana’splane, a Hutu, was shot down<br />Shot down by an Tutsis rebel group<br />
  25. 25. Mass Murder<br />Opposition was murdered by the Hutu<br />Tutsi and moderate Hutu<br />Hutu civilians were involved<br />Hutu military officials promised land, money and food <br />UN did nothing<br />France, Belgium and US were criticized for doing nothing to the Hutu regime<br />Worst genocide of the 1990s<br />
  26. 26. After Math<br />A multi-ethnic government was set up, with a Hutu, Pasteur Bizimungu as president and Mr Kagame as his deputy<br />FAILED:<br />Bizimungu was charged with inciting ethnic violence<br />Kagame became president <br />Invaded the Republic og Congo <br />Why: to get rid of the Tutsis who fled to the Congo <br />
  27. 27. Somalia <br />Independence from Great Britain 1960<br />2009 Population 9.8 million<br />Official religion- Islam <br />37.8% literate<br />Presently: NO working government 1991<br />Safe haven for Islamic militants <br />Regions controlled by warlords <br />Economy OK<br />Why: export livestock<br />Accounts from 50% of exports<br />
  28. 28. 1992<br />Worst drought in their history<br />Killed 300,000 people<br />US troops went in to protect the delivery of food in December<br />US will pull put when a warlord drag US soldiers bodies through the street<br />UN troops will take over relief efforts<br />
  29. 29. 2006<br />Worst outbreak of violence in 10 years<br />Islamist militias, Somali Islamic Courts Council (SICC), seized control of the capital, Mogadishu<br />Ethiopia felt threatened by the group so ground troops were sent in<br />A week later most of the Islamists forced to flee the country<br />Ethiopia announced that its troops would remain in the <br />
  30. 30. Somalia Pirates <br />Threat to international shipping since 1990s<br />2008, received $150 million in ransom <br />2008 UN Security Council told nations to apply force when necessary<br />Take ship get back to Somalia strong hold and ransom the ship cargo to owner <br />Why:<br />Young men are drawn to piracy in order to provide for their families<br />
  31. 31. Darfur, Sudan <br />
  32. 32. Conflict <br />Conflict <br />land<br /> access to water <br />raiding of cattle <br />Why: <br />drought <br />Increased need for water and grazing<br />desertification <br />Sahara getting bigger<br />modern weapons<br />
  33. 33. Sudan <br />North is Arab<br />South is animism and Christian<br />Black Africans <br />Comprised of 80 tribes<br />Fighting over grazing/ land<br />2003 Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) began attacking government targets<br /><ul><li>Factious group formed from the two to form the Janjaweed</li></li></ul><li>Rebel Groups<br />Sudanese Liberation Army/Movement (SLA/SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) started the rebellion to get Khartoum to spend money on the development of the area <br />Janjaweed are backed by the government to suppress to two rebel groups <br />Government does not have control of the rebel group Janjaweed<br />Cannot get all three groups to the table to make pace <br />Attack villages, slaughtering men, raping women and stealing <br />Genocide is taking place along with crimes against humanity <br /> arrest warrant for President Bashi<br />
  34. 34. The People<br />2.7 million have fled their homes<br />200,000 have fled to Chad<br />300,000 people have died <br />African Union has 7,000 peace keepers<br />UN Security Council has passed resolutions <br />Have not worked<br />
  35. 35. Problems of Africa <br />Problem 1: Political <br />New African leaders were inexperienced <br />Government can’t fix problems so the military comes in<br />Military dictatorships will rule the countries <br />Problem 2: Ethnic Violence<br />National boundaries were redrawn after colonial powers left<br />The boundaries drawn by the colonial ruler took into no consideration different ethnic backgrounds<br />
  36. 36. Problems of Africa<br />Problem 3: Economic <br />Depend on a signal cash crop or mineral to export<br />Ghana- cocoa <br />Nigeria- oil<br />When the world market price for a signal cash crop falls the whole economy of the country suffers <br />Nigeria and Oil <br />Oil in 1975 accounted for 75% of Nigeria’s export <br />1980s oil prices dropped effecting Nigeria economy <br />Faltering economy the military takes over<br />
  37. 37. Problems of Africa <br />Problem 4: Environment <br />Had to over plant to grow food for population <br />Over planting an area caused that area’s topsoil to be blown away by winds<br />This resulted in desertification <br />Problem 5: Disease <br />1995 deadly Ebola virus spread in Zaire <br />Government had to close boarders to halt the spread of the disease<br />1970 and 1980s the spread of aids spread quickly through regions of Africa <br />