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  1. 1. American Colonies: Prelude to Revolutions <ul><li>Brooke Soto </li></ul><ul><li>History 140 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Revolutions Dominion Dominion <ul><li>James II consolidated the eight Northern colonies - all five in New England plus New York, & East & West Jersey, into a super-colony known as the Dominion of New England </li></ul><ul><li>It extended from the Delaware River to Canada </li></ul><ul><li>The Dominion demanded unprecedented levels of taxation </li></ul><ul><li>It enforced the Navigation Act by establishing in Boston, a new vice-admiralty court </li></ul><ul><li>During the summer of 1686, the new court condemned at least 6 merchants ships, which depressed the port’s business </li></ul><ul><li>New English pressed to pay the increased taxes & fees demanded, but everyone was discontented </li></ul>
  3. 3. Revolutions Compromise Compromise <ul><li>The compromise between Imperial power & colonial autonomy is the compromise that held until the imperial crisis in the 1760s </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of the compromise, the colonies & the mother country became more closely intertwined in a shared empire </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of force, governors had to rely on persuasion & patronage to build an interest among the leading colonists in the assembly on the council </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Atlantic Trade Trade <ul><li>During 18th century, trade within empire became complex </li></ul><ul><li>Empire developed a multilateral trading system that used bills of exchange drawn on London merchant firms to balance regional debits & credits </li></ul><ul><li>The Navigation Acts locked the Chesapeake & West Indies into shipping their tobacco & sugar directly to England </li></ul><ul><li>Northern colonists traded fish, provisions, & lumber to the West Indies </li></ul><ul><li>The New English began to import & export wheat, which encouraged Chesapeake planters to produce less tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>The large farms & fertile soil enabled colonists to raise & purchase cheaply: grains, milk, vegetables, & meat for a plentiful diet </li></ul>
  5. 5. Awakenings Revivals Revivals <ul><li>Revivals emphasized the emotional process of conversion that transformed sinners into saints who warranted eternal salvation </li></ul><ul><li>To stimulate revivals, energetic ministers preached “soul-searching” sermons meant to shock their listeners into recognizing their impending & eternal sentence in hell </li></ul><ul><li>Evangelical preaching provoked conversion experiences that pulled a seeker through despair to an ecstatic experience of divine grace </li></ul><ul><li>In mid-1735, revivals ground to a halt after the suicide of North Hampton’s richest merchant, Joseph Hawley </li></ul><ul><li>He was longing for, but despairing of, salvation, & cut his throat </li></ul>
  6. 6. Awakenings Race Race <ul><li>Revivalists longed to convert everyone regardless of his/her race or lowly status in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Evangelicals rendered Christianity more accessible & resonant to the illiterate & exploited by emphasizing feeling rather than learning </li></ul><ul><li>The Great Awakening also revived the long dormant efforts by colonial protestants to convert the Indians </li></ul><ul><li>The energy of evangelical reform spread far and wide, often beyond the expectations & against the wishes of the original revivalists </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Great Plains Villagers & Nomads Villagers & Nomads <ul><li>The Great Plains is an immense, windy, & arid grassland in the heart of the continent </li></ul><ul><li>Until about A.D. 800, the Great Plains belonged to many small & dispersed bands of hunters-gatherers, who traveled on foot </li></ul><ul><li>Horticultural people from the Mississippi Valley shifted up the Red, Arkansas, Republican, Platte, & Missouri rivers to build villages, plant crops, & hunt buffalo </li></ul><ul><li>The villagers were ethnically & linguistically diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Life in permanent, substantial, & prosperous villages, encouraged the development of an elaborate annual cycle of religious ceremonies meant to ensure the continued success of crops & hunting </li></ul><ul><li>The nomadic buffalo hunters came onto the Great Plains from the Rocky Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Hunting on foot, the Apache used magic, stealth, cooperation, & skilled archery to find, approach, surround & attack the bison </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the villagers, the nomads lived year-round in many small & mobile camps with little possessions, little time for ceremonies, & scant surplus food </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Great Plains Texas Texas <ul><li>French traders ascended the Great Plains rivers to trade with the village people, offering guns & ammunition, for buffalo hides & slaves </li></ul><ul><li>In 1716, the Spanish built new missions on the hill country of east Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Hispanic Texas consisted of the town of San Antonio, 10 nearby missions, & 250 soldiers in four scattered presidios </li></ul><ul><li>When the nomadic hunters & the Apache were coming into Texas, the Coahuiltecans sought food & safety by learning agriculture at the missions </li></ul><ul><li>The Coahuiltecans were vulnerable to disease which decreased their numbers </li></ul>
  9. 9. Imperial Wars & Crisis Empire of Liberty Empire of Liberty <ul><li>Until the American Revolutionary War began in 1775, few colonists aspired to national independence </li></ul><ul><li>The British had a dangerous certitude that their forces could easily suppress any colonial rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Triumphant in the War of the American Revolution, the United States embraced the continental expansion that the British had unleashed only to regret </li></ul><ul><li>American leaders dedicated their nation to creating new farms by the thousands to accommodate a proliferating population </li></ul><ul><li>The vision of white liberty depended on the systematic dispossession of native people & the perpetuation of black slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson aptly described the United States as an “empire of liberty” by and for the white citizenry </li></ul><ul><li>This provided military assistance to subdue Indians & Hispanics across the continent to the Pacific </li></ul>