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  1. 1. The English in North America <ul><li>Brooke Soto </li></ul><ul><li>History 140 </li></ul>
  2. 2. American Colonies - Chapter 7 Chesapeake Colonies Chesapeake Colonies <ul><li>Commonwealths </li></ul><ul><li>In both Chesapeake colonies, Virginia & Maryland, had to share power with the wealthiest & most ambitious colonists </li></ul><ul><li>They refused to pay taxes unless authorized by their own elected representatives </li></ul><ul><li>The wealthiest planters dominated the local government </li></ul><ul><li>Since the Chesapeake had only two towns, Jamestown and St. Mary’s city, the colonists relied on the counties for their local governments </li></ul><ul><li>Political Hierarchy: distant king, governor council, county court, parish vestry, family household “little commonwealth” </li></ul><ul><li>Sex ratio was 74% male, 10% female, so men never found wives </li></ul>
  3. 3. American Colonies - Chapter 7 Chesapeake Colonies Chesapeake Colonies <ul><li>Labor & Prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>Chesapeake demanded too much labor from too few colonists </li></ul><ul><li>English servants composted at least 3/4 if the emigrants to the Chesapeake, about 90,000 of the 120,000 </li></ul><ul><li>The servants were transported as unwanted orphans or criminals punished for vagrancy or theft </li></ul><ul><li>1648 Chesapeake became healthier & many servants lived longer due to new plantations expanding upstream with fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Frontier conditions enabled labor to create new income & assets, & the farms & farmers were prospering at a faster rate </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of establishing a great land of opportunity, the Chesapeake’s age of social mobility led to a plantation society of wealth & poverty </li></ul>
  4. 4. American Colonies - Chapter 7 Chesapeake Colonies Chesapeake Colonies <ul><li>In Virginia, 1676, the rebellion erupted with angry freedman wanting landowning independence </li></ul><ul><li>The rebellion founded Nathaniel Bacon as the leader </li></ul><ul><li>Attacks & violence on the Indians was is defiance against the governor </li></ul><ul><li>Bacon promised common planters and servants freedom if they joined the rebellion to defeat Berkeley </li></ul><ul><li>When the rebellion ended, the monarch agreed that the elite was unworthy of its power and was determined to create an alliance with common & great planters </li></ul>
  5. 5. American Colonies - Chapter 8 New England New England <ul><li>English Puritans </li></ul><ul><li>Law demanded that everyone support the official Church of England with taxes & attendance </li></ul><ul><li>English monarch appointed & commanded a hierarchy of two archbishops, twenty-six bishops, & 8,600 parish clergy in England & Wales </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans tried to convert & urge people to seek God & practice his values by reading the bible </li></ul><ul><li>With the king Charles I growing power, many Puritans migrated to New England across the Atlantic </li></ul>
  6. 6. American Colonies - Chapter 8 New England New England <ul><li>The Great Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Puritan emigrants followed French & English mariners, fisherman, & fur traders </li></ul><ul><li>The first Puritan emigration consisted of 102 Separatists known as the Pilgrims </li></ul><ul><li>The great migration began under the leadership of John Winthrop </li></ul><ul><li>In Boston, Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony </li></ul><ul><li>With 20,000 of the region’s 33,000 inhabitants in 1660, Massachusetts remained the most populous, influential, and powerful of New England Colonies </li></ul><ul><li>In 1691, four colonies remained: Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, & New Hampshire </li></ul>
  7. 7. American Colonies - Chapter 8 New England New England <ul><li>Religion & Profit </li></ul><ul><li>Many Puritans sought a distant refuge, where they could live apart from sinners & from the supervision of persecuting bishops </li></ul><ul><li>John Winthrop exhorted his fellow colonists to make Massachusetts a “City upon a Hill,” an inspirational set of reformed churches conspicuous to the mother country </li></ul><ul><li>On voyages across the Atlantic, close quarters & proximity to death gave a new intensity to the daily prayers & religious exercise that kept up the passenger’s spirits </li></ul><ul><li>With the rite of passage, shared hardships, fear, & services, it strengthened the religious purpose & common bonds of the emigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Although New England wasn’t the wealthiest colony, it was the healthiest, most populous, & most egalitarian in the distribution of property </li></ul>
  8. 8. American Colonies - Chapter 9 Puritans & Indians Puritans & Indians <ul><li>Natives </li></ul><ul><li>Southern New England Indians possessed cultural, linguistic affinities, but lacked political unity </li></ul><ul><li>Natives highly productive horticulture supplied most of their diet </li></ul><ul><li>With fire, the Indians sustained & shaped a forest that suited their needs </li></ul><ul><li>Indian women did most of the laboring, while men leisured </li></ul><ul><li>Indians acquired few material possessions, & they shared what they had </li></ul><ul><li>Compared with the colonists, the Indians demanded less from their nature, investing less labor in, and extracting less energy & matter from their environment </li></ul>
  9. 9. American Colonies - Chapter 9 Puritans & Indians Puritans & Indians <ul><li>King Philip’s War </li></ul><ul><li>New English called this the bloodiest Indian war in their history </li></ul><ul><li>During summer & fall of 1675, Indian rebels assailed 52 of the region’s 92 towns, destroying 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans sought to kill the Indians, each one manifesting the resurgent power of the Puritan God </li></ul><ul><li>In 1676, desperate colonial leaders could not win without the assistance of their Indian allies </li></ul><ul><li>the Indian resistance collapsed & they surrendered as they ran out of food & ammunition </li></ul>
  10. 10. American Colonies - Chapter 9 Puritans & Indians Puritans & Indians <ul><li>Victory & Defeat </li></ul><ul><li>Rather than treat their captives as prisoners of war, the Puritan victors defined the Indians as traitors, executing the chiefs & enslaving others for sale </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans insisted the colonists needed to shed blood to alienate themselves from Indian ways, thoughts & bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Natives labored for small wages on farms & sailing ships </li></ul><ul><li>Puritans returned to rebuild their burned & ravaged homes </li></ul>