People• Carlos Ibanez del Campo - Chilean Army ofﬁcer & political ﬁgure. Dictator between 1927-31 & President from 1952-58.• Jorge Alessandri - President of Chile from 1958-64.• Michelle Bachelet Jeria - Socialist politician who was ﬁrst woman president from 2006-2010.• Salvador Allende - Chilean physician & ﬁrst democratically elected Marxist to become president of a country in Latin America. He was involved in Chile’s political life over 40 years by being a member of the Socialist Party, a senator, deputy, and cabinet minister.• Augusto Pinochet - Commander-in-chief of the Chilean army from 1973-1998, president of the Government Junta of Chile until elected Democratic president in 1990.
People • Gabriela Mistral - 1st Chilean to win a nobel prize for literature (1945). Chilean poet, educator, diplomat, & feminist. • The Mapuche people were the orginial inhabitants of southern and central Chile. They make up about 4% of the Chilean population.
Culture• There have been many inﬂuences on Chile’s culture from the Spanish during the Republican period, and European inﬂuences such as English, French & German.• German migrants inﬂuenced the architecture and cuisine in the south of Chile.• Music in Chile ranges from folkloric to classical.• The national dance is called the cueca.• An important folk singer is Margot Loyola.• A few rock bands were Los Jaivas, Los Prisioneros, La Ley, and Los Tres have reached international success.
Culture• Chilean cuisine reﬂects a • The national ﬂower is the variety of different food. Copihue. • The Coat of arms shows two• Assortments of seafood, beef, national animals: the condor & the huemul. fruits, and vegetables.• An example of some common chilean recipes include asado, cazuela, empanadas, humitas, pastel de choclo, pastel de papas, curanto & sopaipillas.• Chili is the world’s 5th largest exporter of wine & the 8th largest producer.
Geography• Long, narrow southern cone on the west side of Andes Mountains.• Chile stretches over 2,880 miles• There are a variety of landscapes such as forests, volcanoes & lakes. The southern coast contain peninsulas, canals, & islands.• The Andes mountains are on the eastern border & Easter Island is located within the area.• There are seven major climatic subtypes that range from desert to glaciers to humid subtropics to oceanic depending on which part of Chile. Chile does have seasons, but they are quite different from our country.• Summer (December-February), fall (March-May), winter (June-August), & spring (September-November)
Geography • The northernmost coastal & central region is lacking vegetation, and is strictly desert. • There are several species of cactus: hard espinos, the Chilean pine, and the Copihue, which is Chile’s national ﬂower. • Southern Chile contains dense forests with various species of conifers & beeches • Cold temperatures & extreme winds of the south hinder the chance for heavy forestation. • The larger mammals that are found in Chile are pumas, llama- like guanacos, and fox-like chillas. • In forest regions, small deer and birds are found. • While in water, ﬁsh, penguins, whales & seals are found.
History• In 1520, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now known as the Strait of Magellan.• Chile proved its agricultural potential in 1541 & became part of the Spanish empire.• The longest lasting of the ten governments was when Carlos Ibanez del Campo held power for the years of 1925-1932.• The Radicals, a middle-class party emerged in 1932, which was the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years.• Radical Party dominance happened from 1932-1952 increasing Chile’s role in the economy.
History• Major reform happened under the power of the new president Eduardo Frei Montalva, with the slogan “Revolution in Liberty”. Social & economic programs, education, housing, and unionization of agricultural workers were a few categories under reform.• After many decades, the chileans elected their ﬁrst female president in 2006.• On February 27, 2010, Chile was hit by an 8.8 earthquake. 500 people died, while hundreds of thousands of buildings were damaged. The overall cost to repair everything was $15-30 billion, around 10-15% of Chile’s real gross domestic product.