A Difﬁcult Past--How America’s Changed Brooke Soto M. Arguello
America’s in 19th Century• Chinese Migration to California for the Gold Rush led to the transformation of the America’s.• Millions of other immigrants from Europe & Asia increased ethnic diversity of American populations and stimulated political, social, economical development in the western hemisphere.• In the late 19th century, almost all lands of the western hemisphere won their independence from European colonial powers.• Americans struggled in this century to build states and societies that realized their independence.• The issues Americans faced was building these states based on freedom, equality, and a constitutional government.
America’s in 19th Century • The Canadian Dominion: Independence without war • No ﬁghting or bloodshed, just agreement on principles of autonomy • British Canadians & French Canadians made independent societies a struggle • Colony of New France passed in British empire after victory of Seven Years War (1756-1763) • Fear of U.S. expansion helped stiﬂe conﬂicts & prompted Britian to grant independence to Canada • Dominion of Canada: America Act of 1867 • The Dominion won control over all canadian affairs • John A. Mcdonald, 1st Prime Minister of Canada
Little Ice Age• Western Europe experienced a cooling period of their climate from 1150-1460 & 1560-1850 that impacted agriculture, health, economics, social strife, and emigration• Agriculture: farms affected due to weather, prices increased due to shortage• Health: Famine killed millions due to poor nutrition. Whole villages had outbreaks of convulsions, hallucinations, & rotting extremities. Deaths outnumbered births.• Economics: Famines, storms, & glaciers caused destruction of farms, increased prices, lower wine production, & decreased value of properties
Frontiers of the Americas• Louisiana Purchase• Acquired by U.S. by paying $15 million• The Purchase included all or part of the 14 current U.S. states & 2 Canadian providences• Jefferson purchased this because he felt uneasy about France & Spain having power to block the American trade access port to New Orleans• Bonaparte stated the purchase of the territory afﬁrms the forever power of the U.S.
Frontiers of the Americas• Karl Bodmer: Swiss painter of the American west that accompanied German-Explorer Maximilian Wied- Newwied• He went with the explorer for two years from 1832-1834 to the Missouri river• Bodmer was hired to record image of the different tribes they saw along the way
Crossroads of Freedom• Bloodies single day in American history is what we refer to when we see the date September 17, 1862• This war killed more than 6,000 soldiers• McPherson gives detail into the battle & the impact & consequences that were created.
Crossroads of Freedom• There were six major battles over seven days--June 25-July 1, 1862 near Richmond, Virginia• The commanders were George B. McClellan & Robert E. Lee• The seven days covered the areas of: Oak Grove, Beaver Dam Creek, Gaines’ Mill, Garnett’s & Golding’s Farm, Savage’s Station, Glendale & White Oak Swamp, and Malvern Till.• The battles ended the Peninsula Campaign• Both sides suffered heavy casualties• Northern morale was crushed by McClellan’s retreat, while confederate moral skyrocketed
Crossroads of Freedom • George B. McClellan • December 3, 1826 - October 29, 1885 • Major General during the American Civil War • Very meticulous in planning & preparation • Perfectionism was both an advantage & a disadvantage • People nicknamed him “the young Napoleon” due to his leadership • He looked to Antietam as his greatest accomplishment
Crossroads of Freedom• Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation• This symbolized the shift and focus of the war from a battle to the reuniﬁcation of the country• The Proclamation proclaimed freedom of 3.1 million of the nations 4 million slaves, immediately freeing 50,000 of them, with the rest freed with the advancement of the Union armies