Sleep Disorders

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11th Grade Biology. Neuro Presentations.

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Sleep Disorders

  1. 1. Sleep Disorders Types & TreatmentsMonday, May 21, 12 1
  2. 2. Sleep Disorders ivation toll •Primary Sleep Disorders: -Dyssomnias p depr eatest • Slee it’s gr akes ilities. - Insomnia t cogni tive ab on - Narcolepsy shown - Breathing-Related Sleeping Disorders s have ugh sleep Studie h eno hat wit ion the • t privat ill become - Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders de -Parasomnias anim als w ntually d eve - Nightmares sick an - Night Terrors die. - Sleepwalking - Sleep ParalysisMonday, May 21, 12 2
  3. 3. Insomnia •Difficulty falling asleep & staying asleep. •Not due to direct effects of substance use or general medical condition. •About 60 million Americans have chronic insomnia. •Affects 40% of women and 30 % of men. •Acute or Chronic •Treatment: medication or behavior modification.Monday, May 21, 12 3
  4. 4. Monday, May 21, 12 4
  5. 5. Chronic Causes of InsomniaMonday, May 21, 12 5
  6. 6. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • MedicationsMonday, May 21, 12 5
  7. 7. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications • Drug or alcohol useMonday, May 21, 12 5
  8. 8. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications • Drug or alcohol use • Psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety)Monday, May 21, 12 5
  9. 9. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications • Drug or alcohol use • Psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) • Medical disordersMonday, May 21, 12 5
  10. 10. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications • Drug or alcohol use • Psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) • Medical disorders • Sleep apneaMonday, May 21, 12 5
  11. 11. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications • Drug or alcohol use • Psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) • Medical disorders • Sleep apnea • Restless leg syndromeMonday, May 21, 12 5
  12. 12. Chronic Causes of Insomnia • Medications • Drug or alcohol use • Psychiatric disorders (e.g., depression, anxiety) • Medical disorders • Sleep apnea • Restless leg syndrome • Poor sleep hygieneMonday, May 21, 12 5
  13. 13. Insomnia TreatmentMonday, May 21, 12 6
  14. 14. Insomnia Treatment Lifestyle changes often can help relieve acute (short-term) insomnia. These changes might make it easier to fall asleep and stay asleep. A type of counseling called cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can help relieve the anxiety linked to chronic (ongoing) insomnia. Anxiety tends to prolong insomnia. Several medicines also can help relieve insomnia and re-establish a regular sleep schedule.Monday, May 21, 12 6
  15. 15. Sleep Apnea Repeated stoppage in breathing during sleep Caused by lack of breathing drive (central) or by blockage (obstructive) Signs/Symptoms: Snoring, headaches, fatigue, poor sleep, chronic congestion, irritability, Treatment: Continual Positive Airway Pressure obesity, sexual dysfunction (CPAP), Lifestyle Changes, and Surgery.Monday, May 21, 12 7
  16. 16. Medications • Albuterol • Corticosteroids • Attention Deficit Disorder Meds (e.g. • SSRIs (antidepressants) Ritalin) • Decongestants (Pseudoephedrine, • Phenytoin (seizure medication) Phenylephrine) • Chemotherapy (cancer • Caffeine medications) • “Diet pills" • Beta-blockers (high blood • Nicotine pressure meds) • Thyroid medicationsMonday, May 21, 12 8
  17. 17. Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorder •Persistent pattern of sleep disruption leading to excessive sleepiness or insomnia due to mismatch between sleep- wake schedule. •Obvious distress/impairment in social and occupational settings. Delayed Sleep Phase Type An unnatural sleeping pattern created by falling asleep late and waking up late which eventually establishes an inability to fall asleep and awaken at a desired earlier time.Monday, May 21, 12 9
  18. 18. Narcolepsy •Narcolepsy (NAR-ko-lep-se) is a disorder that causes periods of extreme daytime sleepiness due to trouble sleeping at night and is sometimes accompanied by paralysis and hallucinations • Hallucinations: Vivid, life-like dreams that occur while falling asleep or waking up. • Sleep paralysis: This condition prevents you from moving or speaking while waking up and sometimes while falling asleep. Last from a few seconds to a few minutes.Monday, May 21, 12 10
  19. 19. Narcolepsy Causes Hypocretin (hi-po-KREET-in), a chemical in sy? Na rcolep the brain that helps promote wakefulness. Most Wh o Is A tR isk for sy af f ects men and lly be gin Narco lep usua ptoms people who have narcolepsy have low levels of this wome n . Sym t he r yo ung a teen o also can dult during e disorder childr en , chemical. What causes these low levels is unknown. Th years. later in life or in 5. develop befo re age but it s rarePossible factors include:•Heredity. Some people may inherit a gene that affects hypocretin. Up to 10% of people whohave narcolepsy report having a relative with the same symptoms.•Infections•Brain injuries caused by brain tumors, strokes, or trauma.•Autoimmune disorders•Low levels of histamine, a substance in the blood that promotes wakefulness.Monday, May 21, 12 11
  20. 20. Narcoleptic Cataplexy Cataplexy (KAT-ah- plek-se) This condition causes a sudden loss of muscle tone while youre awake. Muscle weakness can affect certain parts of your body or your whole body. For example, if cataplexy affects your hand, you may drop what youre holding. It may last seconds or minutes.Monday, May 21, 12 12
  21. 21. Sleepwalking (somnambulism) Sleepwalking is a disorder that occurs when people walk or do Symptoms of sleepwalking another activity while they are include: still asleep. •Confusion/disorientation when woken up. •Sleepwalking most often occurs during deep, non-REM sleep, early in the night. •A blank look on their face. •Opening their eyes while still asleep. •Sleepwalking happens most often in •No memory of the episode. children ages 5 - 12. •Performing a detailed activity of any type •The episode can last from a few seconds to while still asleep. over 30 minutes.Monday, May 21, 12 13
  22. 22. Sleep Paralysis •In the early stages of sleep. •A person suddenly wakes up and is aware of their surroundings, but cannot move. •Treated with antidepressants and SSRI’sMonday, May 21, 12 14
  23. 23. Night Terrors Night terrors (sleep terrors) are a sleep disorder in which a person quickly wakes from sleep in a terrified state. •Most common in children ages 3 - 7 between midnight and 2 a.m. •The cause is unknown, but night •A person may remember the details of terrors may be triggered by: the dream and will not be disoriented after •Fever the episode. •Lack of sleep •Periods of emotional tension, •Treatment: Reducing stress may reduce night terrors. stress, or conflict. •Frightening movies or TV shows.Monday, May 21, 12 15
  24. 24. Nightmares Prevalence by Age Group• Extremely frightening dreams that occur in REM sleep. Young Adults 3%• Less intense then sleep terrors. 3-5 Year Olds Adults 47% 50%• Person rapidly becomes aware and alert almost immediately after waking up.Monday, May 21, 12 16
  25. 25. Restless Leg Syndrome Neurological disorder that is characterized by unpleasant sensations of legs and an urge to move them when at the rest. •The unpleasant feelings are described as creeping, crawling, pulling, itching, tingling, burning, aching, or electric shocks. •The urges to move happen when the body is at rest and inactive. Thus, being worse in the evening which can cause chronic sleep disturbances and sleep deprivation. •Causes: Mostly unknown (idiopathic) •Treatment: underlying cause, some meds, and exercise.Monday, May 21, 12 17
  26. 26. Sleep HygieneMonday, May 21, 12 18
  27. 27. Sleep Hygiene ✓ Try to limit caffeine intake.Monday, May 21, 12 18
  28. 28. Sleep Hygiene ✓ Try to limit caffeine intake. ✓ Have a light snack before bedtime. (no big meals before bedtime)Monday, May 21, 12 18
  29. 29. Sleep Hygiene ✓ Try to limit caffeine intake. ✓ Have a light snack before bedtime. (no big meals before bedtime) ✓ Set your bedroom for a comfortable temperature.Monday, May 21, 12 18
  30. 30. Sleep Hygiene ✓ Try to limit caffeine intake. ✓ Have a light snack before bedtime. (no big meals before bedtime) ✓ Set your bedroom for a comfortable temperature. ✓ Minimize light exposure.Monday, May 21, 12 18
  31. 31. Sleep Hygiene ✓ Try to limit caffeine intake. ✓ Have a light snack before bedtime. (no big meals before bedtime) ✓ Set your bedroom for a comfortable temperature. ✓ Minimize light exposure. ✓ Try to follow a regular and consistent sleep schedule.Monday, May 21, 12 18
  32. 32. SourcesMonday, May 21, 12 19

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