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VLI Handout Heart of Leadership 5 26 2011


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VLI Handout Heart of Leadership 5 26 2011

  1. 1. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 •  Malone:  "ge&ng  people  to  do  things-­‐-­‐willingly”     •  Northouse:  “a  process  by  which  an  individual   influences  a  group  of  individuals  to  achieve  a   common  goal.”   •  Donnithorne:  “the  exercise  of  interpersonal   influence  to  bring  together  purpose  and  people   so  as  to  fulfill  the  purpose  AND  meet  the  needs   of  the  people  that  brought  them  together.”   • Ethics  generally  refers  to  determining  what  is   “the  right  thing  to  do”  in  a  situaEon.   • Most  dicEonaries  see  ethics  and  morals  as   essenEally  synonymous.   • Ethics  &  morality  arise  in  social  se&ngs,  in  the   interacEons  of  people.    Therefore,…   • Ethics  in  persons    is  reflected  in  their   willingness  or  propensity  to  take  other  people   into  account  in  their  decisions  and  acEons.  The Heart of Leadership 1
  2. 2. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11     “What I say is that ‘just’ or ‘right’ means nothing but what is to the interest of the stronger party.” “Let us have faith that right makes might, and in that faith, let us to the end dare to do our duty as we understand it.”The Heart of Leadership 2
  3. 3. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11  to  meet  my  needs  and  stay  out  of   difficulty   to  make  my  life  (and  that  of  others)   work  a  liOle  beOer  by  adhering  to  some  rules,   that  is,  to  a  “social  contract.”   to  take  responsibility  for  myself,  who   I  am,  who  I  am  becoming,  in  pursuit  of  real   meaning  or  significance.   -- Lawrence Kohlberg, The Psychology of Moral Development •  … in the actions of men, especially of princes, the end justifies the means. •  A prudent ruler cannot, and should not, keep his word when keeping it is to his disadvantage, and when the reasons that made him promise no longer exist. Men are bad and will not keep their promises to you, so you are not bound to keep yours to them. -- The Prince, ca. 1515 Never value anything for yourself which would compel you to break your promise, to lose your self-respect, to hate any man, to suspect, to curse, to act hypocritically, or to desire anything which needs walls and curtains.The Heart of Leadership 3
  4. 4. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11     On March 24, 1995, “I made the typical mistake of Portugal recognized Sousa-Mendes as its believing I could do more for the country and the Army if I stayed in Portuguese President Mario Soares said, than if I got out. I am now going to “Despite confusion raging around my grave with the burden of that him and the direct threat to his lapse of moral courage on my back.” family, Sousa-Mendes stood by an ideal that could only bring him suffering.” “Remember that you are an actor in a play, which is as the author wants it to be: short, if he wants it to be short; long, if he wants it to be long. If he wants you to act a poor man, a cripple, a public official, or a private person, see that you act it with skill. For it is your job to act well the part that is assigned to you; but, to choose it is another’s.”   Not- so- Good “Out, out, brief candle! good Life’s but a walking Enron Radio Sha Gillette ck shadow, a poor player Tyco Scott Pape Kimberly-Clar r k that struts and frets his m hour upon the stage and WorldCo Circuit City then is heard no more: it Adelphia Abbott is a tale told by an idiot, nergy Laboratories Westar E Chrysle full of sound and fury, r Walgree signifying nothing.” Qwest Genera l Electr ns r Intl ic HollingeThe Heart of Leadership 4
  5. 5. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 “Presumably one can lead others downward--down the primrose path or down the road to barbarism. Yet leadership has the connotation--quite rightly, in my view--of leading people upward, to some higher values or purpose or form of self-fulfillment.” -- Leadership, p. 452 Drucker Stanford Prison Experiment – early 1970s The  Milgram  Experiments   Ron  Ridenhour  describes  the  soldiers  at  My   Lai  and  the  terrible  choices  they  made.   “Only a few people had the presence of mind and the strength of their own character to see them through that difficult circumstance.”The Heart of Leadership 5
  6. 6. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 •  To  define  my  idenEty,  who  I  really  want  to  be   •  To  define  myself  in  response  to  some  unavoidable   “philosophy  of  life”  choices…   –  Thrasymachus  v.  Lincoln   –  Machiavelli  v.  Marcus  Aurelius   –  Johnson  v.  Souza-­‐Mendes   –  MacBeth  v.  Epictetus  and  Stockdale   •  To  enhance  my  potenEal,  my  outcomes,  and  my   ulEmate  effecEveness  as  a  leader   •  To  build  my  internal  character  so  that  I  am  able  to   resist,  if  ever  necessary,  a  self-­‐defining,  life-­‐changing   moral  meltdown   •  To  have  the  moral  courage  to  prevent  moral  failure  by   those  whom  I  lead   “Miss Dugan, will you send someone in here who can distinguish right from wrong?” --from The New Yorker 1.  The  consequences  (outcomes)  of  the  acEon      “To  say  that  an  acEon  is  right’  is  not  simply  to   –  Will  these  consequences  result  in  more  good  for   express  ones  taste  or  preference;  it  is  also  to   more  people  than  any  alternaEve  would?   make  a  claim.    It  is  to  convey  that  the   2.  The  ac8on  itself   judgment  is  backed  by  reasons,  to  invite   –  What  about  the  acEon  is  inherently  right?    Are   discussion  of  such  reasons,  and  to  suggest   there  moral  principle(s)  upheld  or  at  risk  in  this   acEon?   that  these  reasons  will  be  found  compelling   when  looked  at  imparEally  and  objecEvely.”   3.  The  actor                                      -­‐-­‐  Scheffler,  Reason  and  Teaching,  (New  York:  Bobbs-­‐Merrill  Co.,  1973)       –  What  about  the  actor  indicates  the  rightness  of   the  acEon?    Virtues?    Strong,  posiEve  moral     character?  The Heart of Leadership 6
  7. 7. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 –  Background origins •  Social reforms--19th century--Hume, Bentham, Mill •  As revolutionary as Darwin and Marx –  Tenets of the Classic Theory •  Only consequences of ones action matter. •  Goal is the greatest good for the greatest number. •  No one persons good counts more than others. •  Modern exception: special relationships / responsibilities –  Examples •  Triage of emergency patients •  Truman and the A-bomb on Hiroshima Historical background –  Immanuel Kant, German philosopher, 1724-1804 –  "Kants [book] has exercised on human thought an influence almost ludicrously disproportionate to its size.”--H. J. Paton The Theory of the Categorical Imperative –  “Act only on that maxim you could will to be universal.” –  “Treat others as ends not means.” Key principles –  Justice (fairness, equity) –  Rights (and corollary Duties) Example case –  Borrowing with false promise to repay. •  Virtue has been discussed for two millenia. •  Virtue is based in the narratives of our lives. •  Virtues are the dispositions or habits (of character) that help us to succeed as human beings – to achieve deep good, to thrive (eudaimonia). •  Virtues are internal, in motives, written on the heart; e.g., in "not hating" instead of only "not killing." •  Virtue may describe a golden mean between extremes that are vices, as with courage. •  Virtues empower fulfillment of our purpose in life.The Heart of Leadership 7
  8. 8. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 •  An acquired system of personal habits (which can be virtues or vices)… n  Agnes Bohaxjiu born in 1910 in Macedonia •  which determine my initial, most-likely n  Joined the Loretto order and went to India response to an event or circumstance... n  Founded Missionaries of Charity •  although I can choose to act contrary to habit n  Served the poor, the dying, the lepers, the or “out-of-character”… unwanted children of Calcutta and the world •  and, by doing so repeatedly, I can alter my for almost 50 years, 1948-1997 habits (character) – for better or worse. n  Recipient of myriad awards and degrees, •  Thus, my character reflects who I now am: including the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 my core identity. •  The acquired habit of determining what is the right thing morally for the leader to do in a situation, and… •  Having the self-discipline to do it... •  Even when it is costly to oneself ... •  Doing so spontaneously, as an expression of one’s “character.” George Washington on the Plain at West Point •  Washington was first to risk fortune, honor, and life for an ideal. •  He maintained an army for eight years, with little support, by sheer willpower and perseverance. •  West Point played a vital, strategic role in the American Revolutionary War.The Heart of Leadership 8
  9. 9. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 •  Arnold was promoted to general after the battle of Ridgefield, Connecticut. •  Then, he was the hero of the battle of Bemis Heights (2nd day of Battle of Saratoga, NY). •  Arnold provided a vital link in the chain of victory… •  but, Arnold became a greed-driven traitor.The Heart of Leadership 9
  10. 10. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 George Washington on the Plain at West Point •  What  are  the  consequences  for  others?   –  Maximize  the  well-­‐being  of  all  people  who  will  be   affected  by  my  decision.   –  Maximize  the  well-­‐being  of  those  people,  if  any,   for  whom  I  have  special  responsibility.   •  What  moral  principle  or  duty  is  at  risk?   –  Distribute  the  benefits  and  burdens  of  my   decision  fairly  (justly)  among  all  who  are  affected.   –  Respect  any  fundamental  human  rights  affected   by  my  decision.   •  Does  this  decision  reflect  virtue  &  character?     The moral temptation … presents itself when a person believes s/he knows what action is the morally right one to take, but is tempted to do otherwise (for a variety of reasons). This choice is right versus wrong.   The moral dilemma … presents itself when a person is forced to choose between two conflicting right (or wrong) actions, both of which have moral weight, but only one (or the other) can be taken (or avoided). This choice is right versus right.  The Heart of Leadership 10
  11. 11. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 •  Moral  temptaEons  arise,  not  out  of  the  clear   blue,  but  in  difficult  organizaEonal  situaEons.   •  Consciously  re-­‐consider  your  self-­‐defining  answers   •  My  choices:  keep  quiet,  or  speak  up,  or  leave.   to  those  big  “philosophy  of  life”  quesEons.   •  Define  your  “purpose”  explicitly  and  broadly  –  in   •  My  response  is  controlled  by  two  sources:   life  and  in  your  work  and  professional  career.   factors  (my  personality,  character,   •  What  is  the  impact  you  most  want  to  have  in  your   disposiEon,  virtues,  aOributes)   work?   factors  (my  boss,  company  culture,   –  For  example,  providing  valuable  products  or  services  to   other  employees,  clients,  circumstances)   consumers,  creaEng  good  jobs  in  healthy  work  places,   building  a  firm  that  investors  trust  to  report  honestly   •  Can  I  strengthen  the  disposi3onal  in  advance   •  Appeal  to  the  broader  sense  of  purpose  in  others.     in  order  to  overpower  the  situa3onal?   “Leadership  requires   Recall  situaEons  in  your  work  when  you  were   .    When  I  took  moral  risks  [by  speaking   expected  to  act  regarding  a  non-­‐trivial  management   up],  I  had  two  parachutes.    First,  being  fired   decision  in  a  way  that  you  perceived  as  not  right  or   for  pursuing  the  right  ideas  would  not  hurt   good,  or  contrary  to  your  values.     me  –  it  would  be  to  my  credit.    I  could  work   –  Of  those  situaEons,  choose  one  in  which  you  SPOKE  UP   and  acted  to  try  to  resolve  the  conflict.   somewhere  else.    Second,  I  never  got  used  to   –  Then,  choose  one  situaEon  in  which  you  kept  quiet  and   the  perks  of  the  posiEon.    If  I  had  lost  my  job,   did  NOT  speak  up  to  try  to  resolve  the  conflict.   it  would  not  have  changed  my  life.”   –  Analyze  both  situaEons:    What  happened?    What    -­‐-­‐  Franco  Bernabe,  CEO  of  Eni,  from  interview  in  HBR  with  Linda  Hill   moEvated  you?    How  saEsfied  are  you?    What  would   have  made  it  easier  for  you  to  speak  up?   •  EnlisEng  allies     –  talking  it  over  with  friends,  family  members,  people  in  similar   •  Many  conflicts  that  we  encounter  are  classic   posiEons  in  other  organizaEons   business  ethics  problems  that  are  almost   –  Asking  opinions  of  others  in  one’s  own  organizaEon     inevitable  for  us  –  sooner  or  later.     •  SelecEng  and  sequencing  audiences   •  When  we  already  expect  to  be  challenged  with   –  Who  has  the  decision-­‐maker’s  confidence?   moral  temptaEons,  we  are  more  likely  to   –  When  to  talk  one-­‐on-­‐one?  or  in  a  group?   approach  them  calmly  and  competently,  avoiding   •  Doing  my  homework,  gathering  the  data  first   an  over-­‐reacEon.   •  Asking  quesEons  instead  of  giving  answers   •  When  we  see  ethical  problems  as  predictable  in   •  Re-­‐framing  the  issues  (truisms  as  debatable,  win-­‐lose…)   our  work,  we  can  de-­‐escalate  the  emoEon  in   •  Referring  to  organizaEonal  commitments  and  values   advance  and  prepare  ourselves  to  respond   •  Understanding  your  audience  (needs,  fears,  moEvaEons)   effecEvely  when  it  arises.   •  Moving  toward  large  change  by  small  incremental  steps    The Heart of Leadership 11
  12. 12. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 •  Recognize  the  typical  raEonalizaEons.   •  Everyone  does  it.    It  is  standard  pracEce.   •  The  impact  is  not  material.    No  one  is  hurt.   •  Recognize  the  typical  ethical  challenges  within   your  industry  or  venue  (e.g.,  finance,  sales,   •  Those  hurt  are  not  fully  human  (de-­‐humanizing).   operaEons,  M  &  A).   •  This  choice  is  not  my  responsibility.   •  Script  your  responses  to  these  raEonalizaEons   •  I  do  not  want  to  hurt  my  reports  (or  team,  or  boss,   and  challenges.   or  company,  or  family).   •  PracEce  aloud  giving  expression  to  these   •  We  have  no  other  choice  (false  dilemma).   scripts  with  like-­‐minded  peers.   •  Our  acEon  is  morally  jusEfied.   •  Remember  that  half  of  “will”  is  “skill.”   •  Strengthen  your  disposiEonal  power  to   overcome  the  situaEonal  factors.   •  Re-­‐visit  why  you  chose  to  be  moral.   •  Recognize  moral  temptaEons  as  normal.   •  Learn  from  your  past  experience  the  factors   that  helped  you  to  speak  up.   •  Learn  the  typical  raEonalizaEons  and   challenges.   •  Script  your  responses  and  pracEce  them  aloud.   •  truth  v.  loyalty     •  individual  v.  community   •  short-­‐term  v.  long-­‐term     •  jusEce  v.  mercy   -­‐-­‐  Rushworth  Kidder,  How  Good  People  Make  Tough   Choices:  Resolving  the  Dilemmas  of  Ethical  Living    The Heart of Leadership 12
  13. 13. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 “C’mon, c’mon— it’s either one or the other.” by Gary Larsen backThe Heart of Leadership 13
  14. 14. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 •  In  the  US  Civil  War  of  the   1860’s,  the  dilemma  was   war  versus  slavery.     •  In  the  Wall  Street  meltdown   of  2008,  the  dilemma  was   “systemic  risk”  versus  “moral   hazard.”    The Heart of Leadership 14
  15. 15. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 •  Unregulated  resources  include:  city  streets,     highways,  fish  stocks,  rivers,  oceans,  forests,  the   atmosphere,  even  the  earth  habitat  itself.   •  The  dilemma  is  this:  With  access  unregulated,   users  can  increase  their  use  of  the  resource  –   raEonally  in  terms  of  their  individual  benefit/cost   –  to  such  a  level  that  collec3vely  their  uses   degrade  or  even  destroy  the  resource  itself.   •  A  classic  arEcle  in  Science  magazine  in  1968   contended  that  there  is  “no  technical  soluEon”  to   this  problem;  rather,  the  soluEon  is  human  and   moral,  “a  fundamental  extension  in  morality.”     •  Recognize  that  no  holy  hierarchy  of  moral   obligaEons  exists.   •  Most  ethicists  prioriEze  “human  rights”  over   jusEce,  and  jusEce  over  consequences,  when  they   conflict.   •  Dilemmas  are  the  most  troubling  because  you  are   wrong,  in  one  sense,  no  maOer  which  you  choose.   •  Your  final  resort  for  deciding  your  higher  moral   obligaEon  is  your  well-­‐developed  character  and   judgment  (and  prayer  if  you  are  so  inclined).   •  To  define  my  idenEty,  who  I  really  want  to  be   •  What  are  the  consequences  for  others?   •  To  define  myself  in  response  to  some  unavoidable   –  Maximize  the  well-­‐being  of  all  people  who  will  be   “philosophy  of  life”  choices…   –  Thrasymachus  v.  Lincoln   affected  by  my  decision.   –  Machiavelli  v.  Marcus  Aurelius   –  Maximize  the  well-­‐being  of  those  people,  if  any,   –  Johnson  v.  Souza-­‐Mendes   –  MacBeth  v.  Epictetus  and  Stockdale   for  whom  I  have  special  responsibility.   •  To  enhance  my  potenEal,  my  outcomes,  and  my   •  What  moral  principle  or  duty  is  at  risk?   ulEmate  effecEveness  as  a  leader   •  To  build  my  internal  character  so  that  I  am  able  to   –  Distribute  the  benefits  and  burdens  of  my   resist,  if  ever  necessary,  a  self-­‐defining,  life-­‐changing   decision  fairly  (justly)  among  all  who  are  affected.   moral  meltdown   –  Respect  any  fundamental  human  rights  affected   •  To  have  the  moral  courage  to  prevent  moral  failure  by   by  my  decision.   those  whom  I  lead   •  Does  this  decision  reflect  virtue  &  character?    The Heart of Leadership 15
  16. 16. Dr. Larry Donnithorne 5/25/11 Character,  virtue,   •  Strengthen  your  disposi3onal  power  to   outlook  on  life     Purpose overcome  the  situa3onal  factors.   People •  Re-­‐visit  why  you  chose  to  be  moral.   •  Prepare  for  moral  temptaEons  as  a  normal  part   of  organizaEonal  life  by  scripEng  and  pracEce.   Leadership     •  Recognize  that  no  holy  hierarchy  of  moral   Skill,  technique,     obligaEons  exists  to  resolve  true  dilemmas.   •  Generally,  prioriEze  “human  rights”  over   jusEce,  and  jusEce  over  consequences.   knowledge,  ability  The Heart of Leadership 16