Can computers understand time?

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Human brain has evolved to master, among the others, the capacity of extracting flows of events out of a speech or a written text. This temporal sense, mainly unconscious, allows us to summarise, organise, remember and combine different pieces of information working out new insights and discoveries. The temporal dimension is an inescapable and easy truth for us, but enabling machines to fully deal with time is a challenging task. Computers are still incapable of detecting temporal incompatibilities, summarising workflows or identifying causes and consequences of facts. My research wants to answer the following questions: Can computers understand time? And what possibilities will that unlock?

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Can computers understand time?

  1. 1. filannim@cs.man.ac.uk
 School of Computer Science Leeds, 01/05/2014 presentation L@L PGR Seminar Can computers understand time? Michele Filannino
  2. 2. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar can computers understand time? ■ what does it mean? ■ why is it challenging? ■ what possibilities will it unlock? ■ what is there for linguists? 2
  3. 3. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar perspectives ■ computer science ■ information extraction ■ computational linguistics ■ text mining ■ machine learning 3
  4. 4. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar perspectives ■ computer science ■ information extraction ■ computational linguistics ■ text mining ■ machine learning 4
  5. 5. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar what does it mean? ■ source: written texts ■ goal: identify, interpret, communicate and 
 reason about events ■ easy for people ■ hard for machines Temporal aspects of events provide a natural mechanism for organising information
  6. 6. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar Source: ISO-TimeML linguistic key concepts ■ events: phrases denoting eventuality and states ● inflected verbs and nouns: spoken, deliver, will be published ■ temporal expressions: phrases denoting a temporal entity such as an interval or a time point ● 01/05/2014, March 15, the next week, Saturday, at that time, yesterday, 5 o’clock, 3 days, every 4 hours ■ links: temporal relation between two phrases ● BEFORE, AFTER, INCLUDES, ENDS, DURING, BEGINS 6
  7. 7. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar let’s try! ■ On 28th Feb. 2010, Deutsche Bank released a note saying that China's current economic policies would result in an enormous surge in coal consumption over the next decade. ■ In 1978, Steve Furber was appointed the Rolls-Royce Research Fellow in Aerodynamics at Emmanuel College, Cambridge and was awarded a PhD two years later on the fluid dynamics of the Weis-Fogh principle. 7
  8. 8. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar ■ On 28th Feb. 2010(T), Deutsche Bank released a note saying that China's current economic policies would result in an enormous surge in coal consumption over the next decade(T). ■ In 1978(T), Steve Furber was appointed the Rolls-Royce Research Fellow in Aerodynamics at Emmanuel College, Cambridge and was awarded a PhD two years later(T) on the fluid dynamics of the Weis-Fogh principle. 8 temporal expressions let’s try!
  9. 9. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar 9 temporal expressions events ■ On 28th Feb. 2010(T), Deutsche Bank released(E) a note saying(E) that China's current economic policies would result(E) in an enormous surge(E) in coal consumption over the next decade(T). ■ In 1978(T), Steve Furber was appointed(E) the Rolls-Royce Research Fellow in Aerodynamics at Emmanuel College, Cambridge and was awarded(E) a PhD two years later(T) on the fluid dynamics of the Weis-Fogh principle. let’s try!
  10. 10. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar 10 temporal expressions events link them ■ On 28th Feb. 2010(T), Deutsche Bank released(E) a note saying(E) that China's current economic policies would result(E) in an enormous surge(E) in coal consumption over the next decade(T). ■ In 1978(T), Steve Furber was appointed(E) the Rolls-Royce Research Fellow in Aerodynamics at Emmanuel College, Cambridge and was awarded(E) a PhD two years later(T) on the fluid dynamics of the Weis-Fogh principle. let’s try!
  11. 11. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar visual representation 11 now28 Feb. 2010 released, saying 2 years 1978 1980 awarded appointed 2020 surge
  12. 12. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar Source: Temporal Information Extraction and Shallow Temporal Reasoning, D. Roth et al. 2012 why is it challenging? 1. Matt exercised during his lunch break. 2. He stretched, lifted weights, and ran. 3. He showered, got dressed and returned work. 12
  13. 13. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar 1. Matt exercised(E) during his lunch break(E). 2. He stretched(E), lifted(E) weights, and ran(E). 3. He showered(E), got dressed(E) and returned(E) work. Source: Temporal Information Extraction and Shallow Temporal Reasoning, D. Roth et al. 2012 linguistic knowledge 13 exercised lunch break
  14. 14. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar 1. Matt exercised(E) during his lunch break(E). 2. He stretched(E), lifted(E) weights, and ran(E). 3. He showered(E), got dressed(E) and returned(E) work. Source: Temporal Information Extraction and Shallow Temporal Reasoning, D. Roth et al. 2012 linguistic knowledge 14 stretch, lift, run lunch break exercised
  15. 15. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar 1. Matt exercised(E) during his lunch break(E). 2. He stretched(E), lifted(E) weights, and ran(E). 3. He showered(E), got dressed(E) and returned(E) work. Source: Temporal Information Extraction and Shallow Temporal Reasoning, D. Roth et al. 2012 linguistic knowledge 15 shower, dress, return lunch break exercised stretch, lift, run
  16. 16. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar 1. Matt exercised(E) during his lunch break(E). 2. He stretched(E), lifted(E) weights, and ran(E). 3. He showered(E), got dressed(E) and returned(E) work. Source: Temporal Information Extraction and Shallow Temporal Reasoning, D. Roth et al. 2012 common sense knowledge 16 shower, dress, return lunch break exercised stretch, lift, run
  17. 17. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar 1. Matt exercised(E) during his lunch break(E). 2. He stretched(E), lifted(E) weights, and ran(E). 3. He showered(E), got dressed(E) and returned(E) work. Source: Temporal Information Extraction and Shallow Temporal Reasoning, D. Roth et al. 2012 common sense knowledge 17 lunch break exercised shower, dress, return stretch, lift, run
  18. 18. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar 1. Matt exercised(E) during his lunch break(E). 2. He stretched(E), lifted(E) weights, and ran(E). 3. He showered(E), got dressed(E) and returned(E) work. Source: Temporal Information Extraction and Shallow Temporal Reasoning, D. Roth et al. 2012 common sense knowledge 18 lunch break exercised shower dress return stretch, lift, run
  19. 19. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar 1. Matt exercised(E) during his lunch break(E). 2. He stretched(E), lifted(E) weights, and ran(E). 3. He showered(E), got dressed(E) and returned(E) work. Source: Temporal Information Extraction and Shallow Temporal Reasoning, D. Roth et al. 2012 domain knowledge 19 stretch liftrun stretch lunch break exercised shower dress return
  20. 20. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar Source: http://start.csail.mit.edu/answer.php?query= what possibilities will it unlock? 20
  21. 21. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar Source: https://www.google.it/search?q=google+stock+price better search results 21
  22. 22. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar Source: GMail events in emails 22
  23. 23. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar Source: i2b2/2012 Clinal NLP training data clinical timeline extraction 23 ADMISSION DATE: 2011-02-06; DISCHARGE DATE: 2011-02-08; HISTORY OF PRESENT ILLNESS: Mr. Pohl is a 53 - year-old male with history of alcohol use and hypertension. Blood alcohol level was 383. Agitated in emergency room requiring 4 leather restraints, received 5 mg of Haldol, 2 mg of Ativan. He became hypotensive in the emergency room with a systolic blood pressure in the 80 's and had decreased respiratory rate. He received a normal saline bolus of 2 litres of good blood pressure response. The patient was then admitted to the medical Intensive Care Unit for observation and then transferred to our service on medicine when the blood pressures remained stable overnight... 06/02/2011 07/02/2011 08/02/2011 General Tests Treatments Problems admission discharge BAL 383 Haldol 4mg Ativan 2mg hypotensive SBP ~80 decreased respiratory rate Saline bolus 2l transfer stable SBP stable hands tremor improved blood pressure medications
  24. 24. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar URL: http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~filannim/mantime.html what is there for linguists? 24
  25. 25. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar Note: Online DEMO soon available concept’s temporal footprint 25 Dante Alighieri
 (1265-1321) Galileo Galilei
 (1564-1642)
  26. 26. / 2601/05/2014, Leeds presentation L@L PGR Seminar TE = Temporal expressions open problems ■Are TE, events and links enough? how to spot them? ● prepositions, surrounding words, digits, temporal dictionary, verbs, noun phrases ■“I’ve played Tennis for 10 years” vs. 
 “I’ve played Tennis for 4 hours.” ■How these systems can automatically adapt to different languages? ■statistics != linguistics 26
  27. 27. Thank you.
  28. 28. Contact: filannim@cs.man.ac.uk ?QUESTIONS

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