Communicating with Others “ We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak.” -Epictetus Chapter 1
What is Communication? <ul><li>Communication refers to the act, by one or more person, of sending and receiving messages that are distorted by noise, occur within a context, have some effect, and provide some opportunity for feedback. </li></ul>Communication is the transferring of information from one person to another.
SENDER MESSAGE CHANNEL RECEIVER NOISE NOISE NOISE NOISE NOISE NOISE NOISE FEEDBACK ENCODES DECODES TRANSMISSION MODEL OF COMMUNICATION
Parts of the Model of Communication <ul><li>Sender - the source of the message </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding - the process by which the sender determines how to communicate the idea or thought </li></ul><ul><li>Message - the content of the communication </li></ul><ul><li>Channel - the medium </li></ul><ul><li>Receiver - the target audience of the message, expected to listen and give feedback to sender </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding - the receiver’s ability to interpret the message as the sender intended it </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback - information that is sent back to the source </li></ul><ul><li>Noise - anything that disrupts or distorts the communication process </li></ul>
Communication on two levels <ul><li>Verbal - communication through language (words, numbers, symbols) </li></ul>Nonverbal - communication through non-liguistic means including body language, eye contact, facial expressions, appearance, and touch
Five types of Communication Environments <ul><li>Intrapersonal - thinking or talking to yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal - communication with a few others in close proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Small group - at least three and no more the 12-15 members </li></ul><ul><li>Community (Public) - A group of more than 15 people with a shared element </li></ul><ul><li>Mass - communication from one person or group of person through a transmiting device (a medium) to a large audience or market </li></ul>
What is the Goal of Communication? -An argument occurs when there is disagreement, confusion, or ignorance about an issue to be resolved How is an argument solved? -If we seek the truth, we must find complete accuracy of propositions, statements, sentences, assertions, and beliefs. -Personal certainty does not equal truth. The Right Approach to Argumentation -Validity is the strength of our conclusions. -When we talk about validity we are referring to the internal Consistency of an argument.
Truth VS Validity How to recognize valid positions and finding most valid argument is the goal of a argumentation and critical thinking class Acquiring truth is not the goal of a course in argumentation and critical thinking Arguing validity promotes open-mindedness, encouraging constructive argumentation Arguing over truth promotes dogmatism, discouraging constructive argumentation Goal of validity is to find most valid argument, the most valid position can change as new info is found Based on self-esteem, Resolving truth arguments leads to a win or lose environment Threshold for validity is measured using the entire Continuum of Certainty Threshold of truth is measured by absolute certainty On any subject there can be many valid positions On any one subject there can be only one truth Internal consistency of an argument, conclusion reached is consistent with information used Complete accuracy, beyond doubt, dispute or debate
THRESHOLD Threshold refers to the degree of validity on the Continuum of Certainty that the addvocate must demonstate before an audience will commit to a decision. -Each audience and individual person has a different “breakthrough point” at which they are convinced of a specific argument. THE CONTINUUM OF ARGUMENTATIVE CERTAINTY 0%------------25%------------50%------------75%------------100% Opinion Assertion Inference Fact
The critical thinker should keep the following in mind when arguing outside the courtroom: -No two people necessarily have the same threshold on the same topics. -Audience adherence to a point of view is not possible until an advocate reaches the threshold of his or her target audience. -On some topics, people may have thresholds that cannot be reached at all. -Threshold will also vary depending on the topic. -Threshold is affected by both psychological and physiological conditions. -Threshold can be lowered.