Social Presence by Michelle Pacansky-Brock is licensed under a
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0
I...
CC-BY-ND B Rosen
CC-BY-NC-ND Automania
CC-BY-ND B Rosen
ALIENATION	

contributes to lower online retention & persistence
(Rovai & Wighting, 2005)
2flavorsof online learning
CC-BY-NC-ND Selbe B
CC-BY-NC-ND Mark DeSouza
2ingredientsof socializing online learning
presence
instructor
1 visible
Savery, (2005).
actively engaged
aware of and sensitive to
student needs
social
presence
2
"the degree to which participants are able to
project themselves affectively within the medium"
(Garrison, 1997, p. 6)
pre...
social
presence student satisfaction
(Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997;
Rovai & Barnum, 2003)
interaction!
(Tu, 2000; Stein & Wa...
CC-BY-NC-SA Zanthia
CC-BY-SA Quinn Dumbrowski
what will you make?
CC-BY-NC Thomas Hawk
be real
Instructor voice feedback in online
classes has been found to improve:
• perceived distance of instructor (more like "in c...
My instructor's voice
comments increased my sense
that she was actively present
in my learning experience
(compared to tex...
My instructor's video
comments increased my sense
that she was actively present
in my learning experience
(compared to tex...
the human presence model
Santa Barbara City College
Dr. Doug Hersh
Kolowich, S. (2010). The human element. Inside Higher E...
the human presence model
• 1 student group accessed non-human presence model
• 1 student group accessed human presence mod...
the human presence model
• 5% higher course completion rates
• 9.4% increase in academic success
End of semester results, ...
the online penalty
Dr. Raymond Kaupp
Cabrillo College
• Known White/Latino achievement gap in CA community
colleges (CCCs)...
the online penalty
Dr. Raymond Kaupp
Cabrillo College
“What factors contribute to the inequity between
White and Latino st...
the online penalty
Dr. Raymond Kaupp
Cabrillo College
“What factors contribute to the inequity between
White and Latino st...
CC-BY-NC-ND Mark DeSouza
Borup, J., West, R. E., & Graham, C. R. (2012). Improving online social presence through asynchronous
video. The Internet ...
!
!
Richardson, J., & Swan, K., (2003). Examining social presence in online courses in relation to students'
perceived lea...
!
!
Pacansky-Brock, M. (2012). Best practices for teaching with emerging technologies. New York: Routledge.!
!
Palloff, R....
Social Presence: Creating your humanized online teaching recipe
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Social Presence: Creating your humanized online teaching recipe

  1. 1. Social Presence by Michelle Pacansky-Brock is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. ! To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/deed.en_US.
  2. 2. CC-BY-ND B Rosen
  3. 3. CC-BY-NC-ND Automania
  4. 4. CC-BY-ND B Rosen ALIENATION contributes to lower online retention & persistence (Rovai & Wighting, 2005)
  5. 5. 2flavorsof online learning
  6. 6. CC-BY-NC-ND Selbe B
  7. 7. CC-BY-NC-ND Mark DeSouza
  8. 8. 2ingredientsof socializing online learning
  9. 9. presence instructor 1 visible Savery, (2005). actively engaged aware of and sensitive to student needs
  10. 10. social presence 2
  11. 11. "the degree to which participants are able to project themselves affectively within the medium" (Garrison, 1997, p. 6) presence social 2"degree to which a person is perceived as a 'real' person in mediated communication" "the degree of person to person awareness" (Tu, 2000, p. 1662) sense of belonging to a community (Picciano, 2002) "feeling that others are involved in the communication process" (Whiteman, 2002, p. 6) (Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997, p. 9)
  12. 12. social presence student satisfaction (Gunawardena & Zittle, 1997; Rovai & Barnum, 2003) interaction! (Tu, 2000; Stein & Wanstreet, 2003) depth of learning! (Picciano, 2002; Richardson & Swan, 2003; Rovai & Barnum, 2003) 2
  13. 13. CC-BY-NC-SA Zanthia
  14. 14. CC-BY-SA Quinn Dumbrowski what will you make?
  15. 15. CC-BY-NC Thomas Hawk be real
  16. 16. Instructor voice feedback in online classes has been found to improve: • perceived distance of instructor (more like "in class")! • perception that instructor cares! • feeling of student involvement! • student motivation! • student retention of information (Ice, Curtis, Phillips, & Wells, 2007; Oomen-Early et al., 2008, Olesove, Richardson, Weasenforth, & Meloni, 2011)
  17. 17. My instructor's voice comments increased my sense that she was actively present in my learning experience (compared to text alone). 96% !strongly agreed or agreed 101 students surveyed, 88% response rate Pacansky-Brock, 2008 Online Student VoiceThread Survey:
  18. 18. My instructor's video comments increased my sense that she was actively present in my learning experience (compared to text alone). 98% !strongly agreed or agreed 101 students surveyed, 88% response rate Pacansky-Brock, 2008 Online Student VoiceThread Survey:
  19. 19. the human presence model Santa Barbara City College Dr. Doug Hersh Kolowich, S. (2010). The human element. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2010/03/29/lms#sthash.07gqFjVE.dpbs
  20. 20. the human presence model • 1 student group accessed non-human presence model • 1 student group accessed human presence model Semester-long research study Kolowich, S. (2010). The human element. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2010/03/29/lms#sthash.07gqFjVE.dpbs
  21. 21. the human presence model • 5% higher course completion rates • 9.4% increase in academic success End of semester results, human presence group yielded: Kolowich, S. (2010). The human element. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from: http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2010/03/29/lms#sthash.07gqFjVE.dpbs
  22. 22. the online penalty Dr. Raymond Kaupp Cabrillo College • Known White/Latino achievement gap in CA community colleges (CCCs) • Achievement gap increases 44% for Latinos when data is examines online classes • Research sample: CCC faculty, administrators & online Latino students • Online success rate for Latinos is 7.2% lower than White students Kaupp, R. (Spring 2012). Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, (19)2, 8-16.
  23. 23. the online penalty Dr. Raymond Kaupp Cabrillo College “What factors contribute to the inequity between White and Latino students in online CCC classes?” Interviews with 10 faculty & administrators responsible for implementing online instruction:! • student deficiencies in motivation, technology & language Kaupp, R. (Spring 2012). Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, (19)2, 8-16.
  24. 24. the online penalty Dr. Raymond Kaupp Cabrillo College “What factors contribute to the inequity between White and Latino students in online CCC classes?” Interviews with 10 online Latino students who had the choice to learn online or face-to-face:! • no evidence of student deficiencies found • lack of relationship/rapport with instructor was key theme Kaupp, R. (Spring 2012). Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, (19)2, 8-16.
  25. 25. CC-BY-NC-ND Mark DeSouza
  26. 26. Borup, J., West, R. E., & Graham, C. R. (2012). Improving online social presence through asynchronous video. The Internet and Higher Education. 15(3), 195-203! ! Ice, P., Curtis, R., Phillips, P. Wells, J. (2007). Using asynchronous audio feedback to enhance teaching presence and students' sense of community. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(2), 3-25.! ! Garrison, D. R. (1997). Computer Conferencing and distance education: Cognitive and social presence issues. In The New Learning Environment: A Global Perspective. Proceedings of the International Conference on Data Engineering World Conference, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, 1997.! ! Gunawardena, C. N., & Zittle, F., (1997). Social presence as a predictor of satisfaction within a computer mediated conferencing environment. American Journal of Distance Education, 11(3), 8-25.! ! Kaupp, R. (Spring 2012). Journal of Applied Research in the Community College, (19)2, 8-16.! ! Picciano, A. (2002). Beyond student perceptions: Issues of interaction, presence, and performance in an online course. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks. 6(1), July 2002, 21-40.! ! Pacansky-Brock, M. (in-press). Learning out loud: Increasing voluntary voice comments in online classes. In Lowenthal, P., York, C., & Richardson, J. (Eds.). Online learning: Common misconceptions, benefits, and challenges. Nova Science Publishers.! References
  27. 27. ! ! Richardson, J., & Swan, K., (2003). Examining social presence in online courses in relation to students' perceived learning and satisfaction. Juornal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 7(1), February 2003, 68-88.! ! Rovai, A. P., & Barnum, K.T. (2003).On-Line course effectivenss: An analysis of student interaction and perceptions of learning. Journal of Distance Learning, 18(1), 57-73.! ! Rovai, A. P., & Wighting, M. J. (2005). Feelings of alienation and community among higher education students in a virtual classroom. The Internet and Higher Education, 8, 97-110.! Savery, J. (2005). Be vocal: Characteristics of successful online instructors. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 4(2), 141-152.! ! Stein, D., & Wanstreet, C. E. (2003). Role of social presence, choice of online or face-to-face group format, and satisfaction with perceived knowledge gained in a distancelearning environment. Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuuing, and Community Education. ! ! Tu, C. H. (2000). On-line learning migration: From social learning theory to social presence theory in a CMC environment. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2, 27-37! ! Wenger, E. (1999). Communities of Practice: Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.! ! Whiteman, J.A.M. (2002). Interpersonal Communication in Computer Mediated Learning. White paper. References (cont'd)
  28. 28. ! ! Pacansky-Brock, M. (2012). Best practices for teaching with emerging technologies. New York: Routledge.! ! Palloff, R. M. & Pratt, K. (2005). Collaborating online: Learning together in community. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. References

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