Upcoming SlideShare
×

# Hypothesis presentation

6,648 views

Published on

Published in: Education
12 Likes
Statistics
Notes
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
Your message goes here
• Be the first to comment

Views
Total views
6,648
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
483
0
Likes
12
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

### Hypothesis presentation

1. 1. Basharat Rasheed Mirza
2. 2.  Meaning of Hypothesis  Definition of Hypothesis  Characteristics of Hypothesis  Categories of Hypothesis  Forming a Hypothesis  Testing of Hypothesis
3. 3.  Hypothesis means mere assumptions or suppositions which are to be proved or disproved.  Hypothesis is a formal question that is intended to resolve.
4. 4.  A wild or wise guess  An educated guess  A tentative point of view  A proposition not yet tested  A preliminary explanation  A preliminary Postulate
5. 5.  “A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation between two or more variables”. (Kerlinger, 1956)  “Hypotheses are single tentative guesses, good hunches – assumed for use in devising theory or planning experiments intended to be given a direct experimental test when possible”. (Eric Rogers, 1966)  “Hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the expected relationship between an independent and dependent variable.”(Creswell, 1994)
6. 6.  Guides/gives direction to the study/investigation  Defines Facts that are relevant and not relevant  Suggests which form of research design is likely to be the most appropriate  Provides a framework for organizing the conclusions of the findings  Limits the research to specific area  Offers explanations for the relationships between those variables that can be empirically tested  Furnishes proof that the researcher has sufficient background knowledge to enable her/him to make suggestions in order to extend existing knowledge  Structures the next phase in the investigation and therefore furnishes continuity to the examination of the problem
7. 7.  Related to problem  Clear & Precise  Amenable with time  Testable  States relation  Specific & Simple
8. 8. A hypothesis  must make a prediction  must identify at least two variables  should have an elucidating power  should strive to furnish an acceptable explanation or accounting of a fact  must be falsifiable meaning hypotheses must be capable of being refuted based on the results of the study  must be formulated in simple, understandable terms  should correspond with existing knowledge  In general, a hypothesis needs to be unambiguous, specific, quantifiable, testable and generalize-able.
9. 9. Can be categorized in different ways 1. Based on their formulation  Null Hypotheses and Alternate Hypotheses 2. Based on direction  Directional and Non-directional Hypothesis 3. Based on their derivation  Inductive and Deductive Hypotheses
10. 10.  Null hypothesis always predicts that there is no relationship between the variables being studied.  The researcher wishes to disapprove this hypothesis.  It is denoted by H0  For example: ◦ “There is no relationship between learning and intelligence.”
11. 11.  The alternate hypothesis always predicts that there will be a relationship between the variables being studied.  It is denoted by Ha Non Directional Hypothesis Directional Hypothesis
12. 12.  If the hypothesis simply predicts that there will be a difference between the two groups, then it is a non- directional hypothesis. It is non-directional because it predicts that there will be a difference but does not specify how the groups will differ.  e.g. Lack of attention leads to failure.  If, however, the hypothesis uses so-called comparison terms, such as “greater,”“less,”“better,” or “worse,” then its a directional hypothesis. It is directional because it predicts that there will be a difference between the two groups and it specifies how the two groups will differ.  e.g. A person whose attitude is positive towards studies is more likely to succeed than one who do not.
13. 13.  A hypothesis is formulated after  the problem has been stated and  the literature study has been conducted  It is formulated when the researcher is totally aware of the theoretical and empirical background to the problem  Hypotheses is formulated using induction and deduction method  Hypothesis will be generated from the problem statement.
14. 14.  Read the problem statement thoroughly.  Narrow or limit it and express it as a research question.  A research hypothesis has two elements(variables) that are in relation to one another.  Avoid judgmental words in hypothesis.  Hypothesis must involve an issue or question that cannot be answered exclusively.  It is best to choose a hypothesis where there is some level of familiarity with the disciplines that are most relevant to the topic.  All the terms must be clearly understood and defined.  It is to be noted that hypothesis may change over time as the research progresses.
15. 15. Making a Formal Statement Selecting a significance level Deciding the distribution to use Selecting a random sample & compute appropriate value Calculation of probability Comparing the probability
16. 16. Thank you