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- 1. Basharat Rasheed Mirza
- 2. Meaning of Hypothesis Definition of Hypothesis Characteristics of Hypothesis Categories of Hypothesis Forming a Hypothesis Testing of Hypothesis
- 3. Hypothesis means mere assumptions or suppositions which are to be proved or disproved. Hypothesis is a formal question that is intended to resolve.
- 4. A wild or wise guess An educated guess A tentative point of view A proposition not yet tested A preliminary explanation A preliminary Postulate
- 5. “A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation between two or more variables”. (Kerlinger, 1956) “Hypotheses are single tentative guesses, good hunches – assumed for use in devising theory or planning experiments intended to be given a direct experimental test when possible”. (Eric Rogers, 1966) “Hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the expected relationship between an independent and dependent variable.”(Creswell, 1994)
- 6. Guides/gives direction to the study/investigation Defines Facts that are relevant and not relevant Suggests which form of research design is likely to be the most appropriate Provides a framework for organizing the conclusions of the findings Limits the research to specific area Offers explanations for the relationships between those variables that can be empirically tested Furnishes proof that the researcher has sufficient background knowledge to enable her/him to make suggestions in order to extend existing knowledge Structures the next phase in the investigation and therefore furnishes continuity to the examination of the problem
- 7. Related to problem Clear & Precise Amenable with time Testable States relation Specific & Simple
- 8. A hypothesis must make a prediction must identify at least two variables should have an elucidating power should strive to furnish an acceptable explanation or accounting of a fact must be falsifiable meaning hypotheses must be capable of being refuted based on the results of the study must be formulated in simple, understandable terms should correspond with existing knowledge In general, a hypothesis needs to be unambiguous, specific, quantifiable, testable and generalize-able.
- 9. Can be categorized in different ways 1. Based on their formulation Null Hypotheses and Alternate Hypotheses 2. Based on direction Directional and Non-directional Hypothesis 3. Based on their derivation Inductive and Deductive Hypotheses
- 10. Null hypothesis always predicts that there is no relationship between the variables being studied. The researcher wishes to disapprove this hypothesis. It is denoted by H0 For example: ◦ “There is no relationship between learning and intelligence.”
- 11. The alternate hypothesis always predicts that there will be a relationship between the variables being studied. It is denoted by Ha Non Directional Hypothesis Directional Hypothesis
- 12. If the hypothesis simply predicts that there will be a difference between the two groups, then it is a non- directional hypothesis. It is non-directional because it predicts that there will be a difference but does not specify how the groups will differ. e.g. Lack of attention leads to failure. If, however, the hypothesis uses so-called comparison terms, such as “greater,”“less,”“better,” or “worse,” then its a directional hypothesis. It is directional because it predicts that there will be a difference between the two groups and it specifies how the two groups will differ. e.g. A person whose attitude is positive towards studies is more likely to succeed than one who do not.
- 13. A hypothesis is formulated after the problem has been stated and the literature study has been conducted It is formulated when the researcher is totally aware of the theoretical and empirical background to the problem Hypotheses is formulated using induction and deduction method Hypothesis will be generated from the problem statement.
- 14. Read the problem statement thoroughly. Narrow or limit it and express it as a research question. A research hypothesis has two elements(variables) that are in relation to one another. Avoid judgmental words in hypothesis. Hypothesis must involve an issue or question that cannot be answered exclusively. It is best to choose a hypothesis where there is some level of familiarity with the disciplines that are most relevant to the topic. All the terms must be clearly understood and defined. It is to be noted that hypothesis may change over time as the research progresses.
- 15. Making a Formal Statement Selecting a significance level Deciding the distribution to use Selecting a random sample & compute appropriate value Calculation of probability Comparing the probability
- 16. Thank you

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