Meaning of Hypothesis
Definition of Hypothesis
Characteristics of Hypothesis
Categories of Hypothesis
Forming a Hypothesis
Testing of Hypothesis
Hypothesis means mere assumptions
or suppositions which are to be
proved or disproved.
Hypothesis is a formal question that is
intended to resolve.
A wild or wise guess
An educated guess
A tentative point of view
A proposition not yet tested
A preliminary explanation
A preliminary Postulate
“A hypothesis is a conjectural statement of the relation
between two or more variables”. (Kerlinger, 1956)
“Hypotheses are single tentative guesses, good hunches
– assumed for use in devising theory or planning
experiments intended to be given a direct experimental
test when possible”. (Eric Rogers, 1966)
“Hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the
expected relationship between an independent and
dependent variable.”(Creswell, 1994)
Guides/gives direction to the study/investigation
Defines Facts that are relevant and not relevant
Suggests which form of research design is likely to be the
Provides a framework for organizing the conclusions of the
Limits the research to specific area
Offers explanations for the relationships between those
variables that can be empirically tested
Furnishes proof that the researcher has sufficient background
knowledge to enable her/him to make suggestions in order to
extend existing knowledge
Structures the next phase in the investigation and therefore
furnishes continuity to the examination of the problem
Related to problem
Clear & Precise
Amenable with time
Specific & Simple
must make a prediction
must identify at least two variables
should have an elucidating power
should strive to furnish an acceptable explanation or
accounting of a fact
must be falsifiable meaning hypotheses must be
capable of being refuted based on the results of the
must be formulated in simple, understandable terms
should correspond with existing knowledge
In general, a hypothesis needs to be unambiguous,
specific, quantifiable, testable and generalize-able.
Can be categorized in different ways
1. Based on their formulation
Null Hypotheses and Alternate Hypotheses
2. Based on direction
Directional and Non-directional Hypothesis
3. Based on their derivation
Inductive and Deductive Hypotheses
Null hypothesis always predicts that there is
no relationship between the variables being
The researcher wishes to disapprove this
It is denoted by H0
◦ “There is no relationship between learning and
The alternate hypothesis always predicts
that there will be a relationship between the
variables being studied.
It is denoted by Ha
If the hypothesis simply predicts that there will be a
difference between the two groups, then it is a non-
directional hypothesis. It is non-directional because it
predicts that there will be a difference but does not
specify how the groups will differ.
e.g. Lack of attention leads to failure.
If, however, the hypothesis uses so-called comparison
terms, such as “greater,”“less,”“better,” or “worse,” then
its a directional hypothesis. It is directional because it
predicts that there will be a difference between the two
groups and it specifies how the two groups will differ.
e.g. A person whose attitude is positive towards studies
is more likely to succeed than one who do not.
A hypothesis is formulated after
the problem has been stated and
the literature study has been conducted
It is formulated when the researcher is totally
aware of the theoretical and empirical
background to the problem
Hypotheses is formulated using induction and
Hypothesis will be generated from the
Read the problem statement thoroughly.
Narrow or limit it and express it as a research
A research hypothesis has two elements(variables)
that are in relation to one another.
Avoid judgmental words in hypothesis.
Hypothesis must involve an issue or question that
cannot be answered exclusively.
It is best to choose a hypothesis where there is some
level of familiarity with the disciplines that are most
relevant to the topic.
All the terms must be clearly understood and defined.
It is to be noted that hypothesis may change over
time as the research progresses.
Making a Formal