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  1. 1. Bipolar Disorder A condition in which people alternate between periods of a very good or irritable mood and depression. Types Symptoms & Treatment
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Types of Bipolar Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Bipolar Disorder <ul><li>Type I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least one manic episode and periods of major depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was once called manic depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never had full mania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have periods of high energy levels and impulsiveness, not as extreme as mania (called hypomania) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternate with periods of depression </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Bipolar Disorder <ul><li>Cyclothymia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves less severe mood swings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People alternate between hypomania and mild mild depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People with Type II or Cyclothymia may be wrongly diagnosed as having depression. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Bipolar Disorders Review Questions <ul><li>Which type has the least amount of mood swings? </li></ul><ul><li>Which type has combinations of high energy with impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Are they as extreme as mania? </li></ul><ul><li>What was Type I known as in the past? </li></ul><ul><li>Do people diagnosed as Type I suffer from major depression? </li></ul><ul><li>What periods do people with cyclothymia alternate between? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder <ul><li>Easily Distraced </li></ul><ul><li>Little need for sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Poor judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Poor temper control </li></ul><ul><li>Reckless behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Binge eating, drinking, and/or drug use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex with many partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spending sprees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very elevated mood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>racing thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking a lot </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very high self-esteem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Very involved in activities </li></ul><ul><li>Very upset </li></ul><ul><li>Occur with bipolar disorder I. People with Type II have similar symptoms, but less severe. </li></ul>Manic phases can last from days to months. Their symptoms include:
  7. 7. Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder <ul><li>Daily low mood or sadness </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Eating problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite and weight loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overreacting and weight gain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fatigue or lack of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling worthless, hopeless, guilty </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of pleasure in activities once enjoyed </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts of death and suicide </li></ul><ul><li>Trouble sleeping or sleeping too much </li></ul><ul><li>Pulling away from friends </li></ul>
  8. 8. Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder Review Questions <ul><li>How long do manic phases last? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the symptoms for people with Type II more severe than mania? </li></ul><ul><li>What are 3 symptoms experienced during the depressed phase of both types? </li></ul><ul><li>What are 3 examples of reckless behavior seen in mania behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>Do the symptoms of mania also occur in those with Type I? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Treatments for Bipolar Disorder <ul><li>Main goals in treatment are to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid moving from one phase to the other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid need for hospital stay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help patient function as well as possible between episodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent self-injury and suicide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the episodes less severe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Periods of depression of mania return in most even with treatment. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Treatments for Bipolar Disorder <ul><li>The following drugs (mood stabilizers) are usually used first: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbamazepine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamotrigine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valproate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antipsychotic drugs and anti-anxiety drugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antidepressants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used when there’s no response to medication </li></ul><ul><li>Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-frequency magnetic pulses to target affected areas of brain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most often used after ECT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbamazepine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamotrigine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lithium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valproate </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Treatments of Bipolar Disorder Review Questions <ul><li>What drugs are generally used first in treating bipolar disorder? </li></ul><ul><li>What are two main goals of treatment? </li></ul><ul><li>What does ECT stand for? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it used for? </li></ul><ul><li>What does TMS stand for? </li></ul><ul><li>What is TMS? </li></ul><ul><li>When is it usually used? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Resources <ul><li>“ An Integrated Approach to the Management of Bipolar Disorder: An Alliance of Science and Medicine.” Medscape . 28 July 2003. 7 July 2011 < > </li></ul><ul><li>United States. National Center for Biotechnology, U.S. National Library of Medicine. PubMed Health. Bipolar Disorder. 29 March 2011. 7 July 2011 < www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gove/pubmedhealth/PMH00019247 > </li></ul>