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  1. 1. Urbanization<br />Brittney weber<br />
  2. 2. "A Merger That Puts New York on Top": New York City and the US Economy<br /><ul><li>New York’s history of being the nation’s economic capital may be coming to an end</li></ul>Leading threats according to Mike Clough are Southern California, The Bay Area and Seattle<br />Due to the digital revolution and the leading cities that are located in these 3 key regions<br />New York is now competing to be the nations leading city since it is not the leader of the financial institutions it once was nor does it have the advantage of location due to the wide spread use of satellites and almost anything can be done from any certain position<br />Yahoo, Disney, and Amazon.com are only a few of the major leading names in the media industry today and they are all located in the west<br />Although there is tough competition for this century’s “capital” city, Clough believes that New York will win<br />Experience the city has over envisioning a grand plan for the future of America’s economy will help even as the West gains advantages over New York<br />The AOL-Time Werner company will be based majorly out of New York which combines two major media company’s, with little competition at the time<br />
  3. 3. “World capitals of the future” –Kotkin<br />themes<br /><ul><li>Transformation:</li></ul>Each rising city is creating it’s own way to receive recognition such as pinpointing their local resources and extracting them <br />This leads to major industry growth and dependability of other countries in need of the resource<br />Appearance of these cities are changing from their skylines to the design of buildings and streets<br />The tallest buildings are now found in emerging cities such as Shanghai<br /><ul><li>Modernization</li></ul>From the appearance to commodities, rising cities are far more modernized to people’s desires<br />Public systems like sanitation and transportation are more reliable and efficient then say New York systems because of the modernization<br />Young are more attracted to the upgrade of these cities than the old <br />Youth are prone to exploring the new and taking part in the creation of something great and experiencing it for themselves<br />Shanghai <br />New York<br />
  4. 4. “Gridded Lives: Why Montana and Kazakhstan are nearly the same place”<br />Kate Brown<br /><ul><li>Two cities on different ends of the economic, ideological, and political scale with same grid lines may have more similarities than just the lay of the land
  5. 5. While in Kazakhstan’s indigenous people were forced to leave the land by European settlers, American settlers had already forced Indians off their land by threats and killing off their food supply
  6. 6. Karaganda was built as a “prison city” because convicts were the majority population with the grid patterns leaving wide open spaces for the land to be easily monitored</li></li></ul><li>The great transatlantic migrations <br />Walter Nugent<br /><ul><li>Pulling motives for migration to America:</li></ul>Factory job opportunity <br />Potential development on new territories<br />Cheaper land <br /><ul><li>Means of transatlantic migration:</li></ul>Steam powered ships<br />Reduced time <br />Increased number of passengers per crossing<br />Reduced the risk of disease and therefore death while journeying <br />Railroads<br />“Melting Pot” was possible in America because of diversity of immigrants’ birthplaces and the capability of no major disputes. <br />With the migration coming from so many different origins, there was no dominant race of immigrants<br /><ul><li>Between 1880 and 1914, millions of immigrants crossed international borders, sometimes more than once, but after this time period of major migration, numbers slowed tremendously due to limiting laws of many countries, World War I, and the Great Depression.</li></ul>New York Harbor<br />
  7. 7. American Cities:<br />Lack a defined center<br />Are not beautifully landscaped <br />Most do no posses a downtown with sidewalk cafes and window shoppers are not impressed<br />Focus more on the automobile and highways than public transportation and railways<br />Skyscrapers set apart cities from suburban areas<br />People believe cities are for business, trade, and wealth compared to European cities where attractive landscaping and unique shops draw people into their cities <br />Chicago:<br />After the Civil War and the new technologies that came from it, Chicago boomed and was the fastest growing city in western nation<br />American downtown principal look developed from that of Chicago’s downtown <br />In effort to enhance Chicago during the 1830’s, parks were created to cut urban overcrowding and provide a place of leisure and have the center away from office buildings<br />Although the plan was somewhat successful, due to the amount of congestion of the city, the surroundings were not as noticed as hoped<br />Rybczynski’s“The City in the Land of the Dollar”<br />
  8. 8. Foreign policy: global cities<br />2010 GLOBAL CITIES INDEX<br /><ul><li>New York, London, Tokyo and Paris continue to take the title of leading global cities</li></ul>Although there are unexpected cities creeping up on the index of global cities, the same couple remain the leaders despite competition and according to New York Times, have quite the advantages over the other cities<br />Market capitalization, tourism, and exceptional companies<br /><ul><li>Criteria:</li></ul>How much dependence other countries have on the global city<br />Influence the city beyond their borders and how much effect they have over cultures and the global market<br />Political organizations, power, institutions, capital flow <br />Not just based on size<br />
  9. 9. FOREIGN POLICY: GLOBAL CITIES<br /><ul><li>City domination
  10. 10. In this article, the argument that the stance of a global city does not depend on size is contradicted
  11. 11. “…megalopolises whose populations are measured in the tens of millions, with jagged skylines that stretch as far as the eye can see.”
  12. 12. Although urbanization may be a new era, suburbs are not out of the picture and many people prefer them than living in the city
  13. 13. This article is not a good representation of global cities and their place in the future of our world
  14. 14. Problems need to be addressed
  15. 15. Overcrowding, pollution, conflict</li></li></ul><li>Foreign policy: Global cities<br />Megacities<br /><ul><li>Growth:</li></ul>Asia has the potential to expand at a never before experienced rate<br />China and India<br />People that will add to the growth are mostly migrants in China and for India the majority will be their own population<br />Problems:<br />Energy difficulties may arise due to the rapid number of buildings and residential areas needed for expansion <br />Costs of the whole projects will be an alarming amount and without proper management, it could be the downfall of completing these cities<br /><ul><li>The wealth gap between urban and suburban families will only increase with urbanization
  16. 16. With people relying more and more on cars as their main transportation, traffic and roads are not being fix fast enough which is only going to get worse</li>