Earth’s geology


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Earth’s geology

  1. 1. Earth’sGeology<br />Brittney Cheatwood<br />May 12, 2011<br />
  2. 2. Part 1<br />
  3. 3. Lime-Stone<br />Sedimentary.<br /><ul><li>It is composed mostly of the mineral calcite. Sometimes it is almost pure calcite, but most limestone's are filled with lots of other minerals and sand and they are called dirty limestone's.</li></ul>Limestone’s are formed from chemical reactions in sea water. So this rock had to be under salt water before.<br />This rock was found in the middle of the creek with all kinds of different types of river rocks, in Coalinga, CA. It caught my eyes because of the blackish blue stripes. <br />During the summer this part of the creek has people four wheeling through it. So this rock could have traveled through out the creek.<br />How I found out that it was lime stone was, that I did series of tests. Seeing if I took a nail and scratched it and to see if I could make sand.<br />I do not know the history about this creek. Besides knowing that this creek was once a river. And that the water comes form the mountains around the of Coalinga.<br />
  4. 4. Sand-Stone<br />Sedimentary.<br /><ul><li>The minerals that make up Sandstone is mostly Quartz.</li></ul>It was formed by quartz sand that is produced by the weathering of other rocks by wind or water some how.<br />This was interesting to find out since I found it on the side of the road, high way 198, by a rock slide area. <br />This rock caught my eye because of the tiger stripes, But those strips leads my to think that it isn’t sandstone but it has the characteristics of sandstone. Like being able to scratch sand off. <br />
  5. 5. Schist<br />Metamorphic.<br />These types of rock were formed from shale's that were formed from clay or clay that has sand mixed in with it. Schist's are most often formed when plates of the ocean floor push under, into, or up onto a continent. In other words they were formed from sea floor rocks. <br />But this was interesting because I found this rock in the same creek that I found the limestone! So, maybe Coalinga was under water at one point in time?<br /><ul><li>Minerals that make up this type of rocks are quartz, feldspar, and mica. And there are many others, but these are the main ones.</li></li></ul><li>Diabase<br />Igneous.<br /><ul><li>Minerals that form these types of rocks are plagioclase feldspars, and augite.</li></ul>It is formed by a magma that is rich in iron and magnesium, and poor in quartz. The magma is forced into cracks of rocks near the earths surface.<br />I found these rocks when my family and I took a vacation to Bishop, Ca. We grabbed five or six of these lava rocks.<br />The only thing was, there were no volcanoes in Bishop, but there was an eruption some what close by. Long Valley Caldera was formed 760,000 years ago when a huge volcanic eruption released very hot ash that later cooled to form the Bishop tuff. he eruption was so colossal that the magma chamber under the now destroyed volcano was significantly emptied to the point of collapse. The collapse itself caused an even larger secondary eruption of rock ash that burned and buried thousands of square miles. Ash from this eruption blanketed much of the western part of the United States.<br />
  6. 6. Long Valley Caldera<br />
  7. 7. Gneiss<br />Metamorphic.<br />Gneiss is formed from schist, which is another metamorphic rock. <br /><ul><li>The minerals that make up these types of rocks are mostly: feldspars, quartz, and mica.
  8. 8. I found this rock off of Parkfield Road in a creek. It caught my eye by the dark color with the white crystal stripes. </li></ul>I do not know the history of this creek.<br />
  9. 9. Part 2<br />
  10. 10. Faults<br />Type of Fault: Right-Lateral strike-slip.<br />Length: 1200 km; its 550 km south form Parkfield, Ca and 650 km northward.<br />Near by cities: Parkfield, Frazier Park, Palmdale, San Bernardino.<br />Last Major Rupture: In the Mojave Segment it was, January 9, 1857. In the Northern Segment it was, April 18, 1906.<br />Slip Rate: About 20 to 35 mm per year.<br />Interval Between Major Ruptures: Average of about 140 years on the Mojave Segment; and on the Northern Segment it varies from 20 years, only at Parkfield, to over 300 years.<br />San Andreas Fault<br />
  11. 11. Faults<br />Here are some faults that I found driving down High Way 198. <br />As you can see in the picture on the left how the rocks are laid at an angle. This Fault is a Reverse Fault. Because look below the fault, See all of the material that is rubbed off causing a rock slide. This fault is less than a mile off the road.<br />This fault on the right is also one that I found off of high way 198. I believe that this is aRight-Lateral strike-slip. Because of the rocks are almost to pointing straight up. <br />
  12. 12. Weathering Processes<br />Salt<br /> Out by the creek there was tons of salt residues on the river rocks, where the water use to be. So, I picked up a small little rock to actually see it. As you can see in the picture; on the ground has white speckled. <br />Salt weathering is a form of mechanical or physical weathering of rock. This type of weathering is normally found by dry and humidclimates. <br />A rocks breakdown by salt takes place through salt crystal growth in rock pores and hydration forming salts. The expanding salt crystals apply a pressure on the walls of the rock pores that exceeds the tensile strength of the rock. <br />
  13. 13. Weathering Processes<br />Oxidation or Rust<br /> The top picture is a pipe that is under ground, and sticking out about 1 ft, but some of it is sticking out. So, when it rained and all of the oxygen added to it made it rust, this is a chemical reaction. <br /><ul><li>I saw this pipe by the Coalinga creek. It looked like a pipe that was used for getting water out of the creek at one time. But since Coalinga is a hot place to live that there is hardly any water in the creek.
  14. 14. In the bottom picture you can see a cement pole. Which I saw under a bridge where the creek ran under. It shows you how high the water was, but I do not think that the water got that high. So, this could be condensation. </li></ul> This type of weathering can make metal weaker, if exposed too long.<br />
  15. 15. Water is the most lazy factor on this plant. It flows it the lowest elevation. Water it always trying to make the earth flat. <br /><ul><li>Like you can see in the left picture three is a water fall. With the rushing water on the corners of the rock and soil, it get wiped away slowly.
  16. 16. In the right picture, it shows where the water, when it rains, runs off. Which you can see creates ridges on the side of hills, or mountains.</li></ul>Weathering Processes<br />Water<br />
  17. 17. Mass Wasting<br />Slump<br /> This is the slowest type of mass wasting, which it takes year of gradual movement to have a distinct effect on a slope. What happens is that gravity pulls it down. This creep, I believe was caused by the climate. The constant of heating and cooling during the day.<br />This is off of high way 198. From the road I would say that this creep was probably about two football fields high. <br />
  18. 18. Mass Wasting<br />Rock Fall<br />Driving down Parkfield Road I came upon a huge rock dangling over the road. A rock fall consists of one or more rocks that break off of a steep ridge. <br /><ul><li>Rock falls are very dangerous because they can happen at anytime, without warning!</li></ul>In the picture on the right I have circled a missing spot where a rock was and then draw an arrow showing where the rock fall. <br />In the top picture you can see all the cracks where the next possible rock falls that can happen two minutes from now or two years. You can never tell.<br />
  19. 19. Mass Wasting<br />Rock Slide<br />This type of slide occurs where there is a weakness within a slope which serves as a slide surface for overlaying sedimentary rocks are moving downward. Rock slides could be massive. But in this picture you can see this one was not. This slide was only 3 feet in length. This was located on Parkfield road. At the bottom of the ridge there is rocks, soil, and plants that all came down after that last big rain storm in Coalinga. Water and gravity are two big factors to rock slides.<br />
  20. 20. Mass Wasting<br />Rock Avalanche<br />This type of fall usually forms when a massive rock fall that explodes apart on contact with a slope. Thousands of rocks sliding or rolling down a slope taking everything out that is in its path. Leaving a huge indent on a side of the hill or mountain. <br />Which you can see in the image to the left. There are huge indents. I passed this ridge three or four times before I noticed it. I didn’t think anything of it. This ridge is way off the road I had to zoom as far as the camera could go just to take this pick.<br />
  21. 21. Erosioal Events<br />The bottom picture shows where the water has washed away the side of a creek. The side is 2 feet in height. You can see that the side has just gave away under its self. Where the grass has fall over in the creek and the roots are now exposed to oxygen.<br />Erosion is the process of weathering and moves solids to else where. It usually happens by wind, water, down hill slopes of soil and by burrowing animals.<br />The top picture was taken on Parkfield Road. This road has three creeks, or water flowing across the road. In this case the water has eroded the road, cement and the I-beams. The road is falling apart, same with the cement. The I-beam is getting rusted and breaking from the cement. This wash way is about 30 yards long with this type of damage all along it.<br />
  22. 22. Erosioal Events<br />Picture above:<br />In this picture you can see the tree sticking way out of the ground. Well more then they normally are. You can see the roots barely in the ground. This erosion I believe was caused from water (heavy rain), and wind. Which causes the ground to slip away. Eventually the tree will have no more ground to hang on to. This is right off the road, so lets hope it doesn’t fall on someone’s car, or truck.<br />Picture above:<br />In this picture you can see all of the roots that are now exposed because there is no more soil to keep them covered. The soil has been washed away from rain and wind. On the left side of this pictures, you can see that there is a tree that will soon be like the tree in the other picture. This cliff has a sleep slope to it. I would have taken a picture of the road and all the material that came down but the caution people already scrapped it away.<br />
  23. 23. Sedimentary Environments<br />Continental<br />When you look at this picture you can see all the layers of different minerals and secondary rocks. <br />These rocks can be up to hundreds or even thousands of years old.<br />
  24. 24. Here are other examples of sediment. <br />This happens where water has been sucked deep out of the ground. Like you can see the ground starts to dry and crack. These were found where the creek bed has dried up completely. And the piece I am holding is about eight inches in width. But when I picked it up, it was a little damp under it. Where the water was still in the soil. As you can see there is green life still growing.<br />Sedimentary Environments<br />Continental<br />
  25. 25. Picture on the left:<br />Transitional Sediment is where the water meets the land It shows where the water stops and moves away. Like an ocean (beach), Is the best example. Because the water is always moving, of the gravity of the moon. So on the beach you can see the sediment of all the sea weed and other materials that’s in the ocean, like debris. <br />Picture on the right:<br />Shows where the creek water has been. Like how high it was, to how low it is now. You can see the shore line where the grass stops growing.<br />Sedimentary Environments<br />Transitional<br />
  26. 26. Practical uses of Geology<br />Bridge on the left:<br />This the main bridge coming into Coalinga. It lets you get over the Coalinga River (well creek, now). Without getting washed away. This bridge is made of cement. With four rows of cemented legs holding it up. There are eight legs for per row. With sides so no one could just fall off.<br />Bridge on the right:<br />This bridge is on Parkfield road, if you are coming off of high way 198. This bridge is also made out of cement, with three rows of one long, sturdy legs, also made of cement, to hold it up. This bridge allows you to get across runoff water.<br /><ul><li>I do not know when these bridges were built. </li></ul>I think bridges is practical use of geology because it makes life easier to get over a body of water, in a short amount of time.<br />Bridges<br />
  27. 27. Practical uses of Geology<br />Oil fields are a practical use of geology because you have to drill into the earth crust to get it. Plus, oil is made from fossil fuels and decay of plants and animals. And it helps run our world.<br />In Coalinga, Ca.<br />Oil fields<br />
  28. 28. Drilling for water, I believe is a practical use because water is the most essential nutrient that life needs to survive. <br />This was taken at the new Farm of the Future Facility off of Gale Avenue.<br />Practical uses of Geology<br />Well<br />
  29. 29. Practical uses of Geology<br />Granite Construction<br />Granite Construction, I believe to be a good example of practical use of geology, because we use this raw material for roads, buildings, and housing fixers. This hole is huge. I could have got a better picture but I am scared of heights so, I didn’t want to get anymore closer then that. I circled a truck showing how deep this hole actually is.<br />
  30. 30. Cutting and blowing up huge pieces of mountains or hills just to make a road. We use raw materials to make this happen. This is a big chunk to blow up. But sadly there are worse on big highways like the Grape Vine. <br />Practical uses of Geology<br />Roads<br />
  31. 31. There are places in these world that we as people didn’t have to blow anything up. Like Natural Bridges. These pictures are of the bridge in Calaveras county, off of the highway 4. Off on to Parrot Ferry Road and it is ¾ miles from where you park. The Coyote Creek flows through the cave that is open from both sides. <br />I believe that these are practical use of geology, because it use to be a road that got closed and now is a park. But no one had to do anything to it because it was already there.<br />Practical uses of Geology<br />Natural Bridges<br />