Gas versus Wind as an Energy Source - Nick

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A Year 12 student from Hawkesdale P12 College produced this slideshow as school assessed coursework for Unit 3 VCE Environmental Science.

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Gas versus Wind as an Energy Source - Nick

  1. 1. Unit 3 Environmental Science: School Assessed Coursework for Area of Study 1 SAC 1B: A report in multimedia format “Describe the principles of energy and relate them to the contribution of one fossil fuel and one non- fossil energy source to the enhanced greenhouse effect.”
  2. 2. quick comparison Mortlake Gas-Fired Power Plant  Fossil fuel  100 hectare total land  20 hectare site  550 Mega Watt capacity  $650 million  Peak load  Reliable – 6 minutes to turn on  Gas fuelled power plants cover 20% of Australia’s electricity generation Macarthur Wind Farm  Non fossil  10,000 hectare site  3 farms (dual use)  420 Mega Watt capacity  $1.4 billion  Base load  Unreliable – not always wind  Wind energy sources generate 2% of Australia’s electricity
  3. 3. introduction to gas & wind gas energy  Gas is a fossil fuel, non-renewable energy source.  Natural gas is formed as a result of the combustion of decomposed plants and animals buried under layers of rock and soil for millions of years.  Natural gas is found underground in oil reserves. wind energy  Wind is a non-fossil, renewable energy source.  Wind is formed when sunlight falls unevenly on the earth, heating the air unevenly. The circulation of the warm air rising and cool air moving in to replace it, produces wind. Wind energy has become more and more widespread over the past 18 years.
  4. 4. extraction gas  Origin Energy uses offshore platforms to extract raw gas from the two offshore gas fields, Geographe and Thylacine, located 55km & 70km south of Port Campbell.
  5. 5. transport gas  After being extracted offshore, gas is transported through offshore and onshore pipelines to the Otway gas processing plant. From there the gas is piped to the Mortlake gas- fired power plant.  The electricity produced travels through large pipes to a transformer and then high voltage power lines. wind  Turbine parts transported by boat and trucks  The electricity produced is transported through underground cables to the substation. The voltage is stepped up and then the electricity enters the high voltage power lines.  This is the Tarrone Substation, part of the Macarthur Wind Farm
  6. 6. use gas wind  Wind is used to generate electricity  Wind turns the turbine blades which turn a low speed shaft  The low speed shaft enters the gearbox which connects to the high speed shaft  The high speed shaft enters the generator  The generator rotates and produces electricity  Gas can be used for heating, cooking or generating electricity.  The use of natural gas to generate electricity is similar to the engine of a car.  Air and gas are mixed together and combusted within the turbine  This force causes the rotor of the turbine to turn  A shaft connects the turbine to the generator  The generator rotates and produces electricity
  7. 7. economic impacts gas  The Mortlake Gas-fired Power Station cost $650 million to construct  The construction created jobs, there are 10 staff altogether but only 6 are required if only one turbine is turned on and generating electricity wind  AGL Macarthur Wind Farm Community Fund Program provides financial assistance to community projects and groups.  $5000 per turbine per year is payed to the farmers that have turbines on their land.  The Macarthur Wind Farm cost $1.4 billion to construct  The construction created 400 jobs (250 for locals), there are 20 local staff currently on site  Other main costs include spare parts and council rates
  8. 8. social impacts gas  Origins commitment: “Origin respects the rights and interests of the communities in which we operate by working safely and being mindful of, and attentive to, the environmental and social impact of the resources, products and services we use or provide to others.”  People in the area do not enjoy the look of the power station wind  Citizens that live near the wind farm complain that the turbines make a noise and that they have become ill because of the turbines, it has been proved that this is a result of anxiety and that the turbines are not at fault.  Some people do not like the look of the structures on the wind farm  The Macarthur Wind Farm are always happy to have school students or visitors to take a tour of the wind farm
  9. 9. environmental impacts gas  The Mortlake Gas-Fired Power Station takes up a 20 hectare site, but own the 100 hectare block of land around the site. Origin have considered planning the construction of another two gas turbines, but other than that the remaining land is being wasted  The Mortlake plant has been built on land which native animals such as Emus and Kangaroos are often seen and Origin have done nothing to recreate more habitats for them after taking away their home.  The combustion of natural gas emits greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and water vapour which contributes to the enhanced greenhouse effect  Natural Gas is a fossil fuel and is being used in much larger amounts than how much is being produced wind  The Macarthur Wind Farm takes up 10,00 hectares, but the land is dual use so the landholders can continue to run livestock.  Before construction, AGL employed environmentalists to observe the land to certify that the proposed sites of the wind towers did not obstruct native animals habitats.  Animals can be effected by wind farms. For example, birds can fly into the turbine blades and die.  The use of machinery during construction emitted greenhouse gases.
  10. 10. greenhouse effect natural  Heat energy from the sun beams onto the earth, some of it passes through a blanket of gases in our atmosphere and some is absorbed by the blanket of gases.  This blanket of gases is made up of greenhouse gases, without this blanket all the heat energy would escape and the average temperature of the earth would be -18°C  Natural greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane, sulfur dioxide and nitrous oxides enhanced  Human activities including the burning of fossil fuels (gas) are creating more greenhouse gases, which means more heat energy is absorbed and the earth gets hotter.  Man-made or unnatural greenhouse gases are hydrofluorocarbons (HFC’s) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s)
  11. 11. contribution to the greenhouse effect gas  Gas contributes to the enhanced greenhouse effect by burning natural gas and emitting greenhouse gases. wind  Wind farms only contribute to the greenhouse effect during construction.  Wind farms are very clean and a sustainable source of energy.
  12. 12. strategies/policies International:  Kyoto Protocol  International Carbon Action Partnership National:  Carbon Tax  CSIRO Climate Adaptation National Research Flagship  Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility State:  Victorian Climate Change Adaption Plan Local:  Cities for Climate Change Protection (Moyne Shire joined)
  13. 13. bibliography / references  http://www.originenergy.com.au  http://www.agl.com.au  Issues of sustainability: VCE environmental science, units 3&4, 3rd edition  http://www.alliantenergykids.com/EnergyBasics/AllAboutNaturalGas/000511  http://www.originenergy.com.au/1717/Otway-Basin  http://www.originenergy.com.au/3573/Otway-gas-project  http://www.agl.com.au/macarthur/  http://www.originenergy.com.au/1376/Mortlake-Power-Station  AGL Macarthur Wind Farm PowerPoint – Brendan Ryan  Mortlake Power Station Fact Sheet  http://www.sciencearchive.org.au  http://www.climatechange.gov.au/climate-change/adapting-climate- change/adaptation-framework/government-actions  http://www.climatechange.vic.gov.au/adapting-to-climate-change/Victorian- Climate-Change-Adaptation-Plan

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