Effects of Climate change and Mitigation Policies


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VCE Environmental Science presentation for Unit 3: Area of Study 1 - Energy and the Greenhouse Effect.

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Effects of Climate change and Mitigation Policies

  1. 1. VCE Environmental ScienceUnit 3: Energy and Greenhouse Gases<br />Causes, impacts and strategies to mitigate the effects of climate change<br />
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  3. 3. Enhanced Greenhouse Effect - Review<br /> Greenhouse gases absorb heat from the sun in the atmosphere and reduce the amount of heat escaping into space. This extra heat has been found to be the primary cause of observed changes in the climate system over the 20th century. These changes include increases in global average air and ocean temperature, widespread melting of snow and ice and rising global sea levels. The extra heat in the climate system has other impacts, such as affecting atmospheric and ocean circulation, which influences rainfall and wind patterns.<br />
  4. 4. http://nakedmaninthetree.wordpress.com/2009/05/18/our-oceans/oceanacid/<br />
  5. 5. Ocean Acidification<br /> Another serious impact of increases in the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide is ocean acidification. Around a quarter of human-produced carbon dioxide is absorbed by the oceans. As the carbon dioxide dissolves in sea water it forms a weak carbonic acid, making the ocean more acidic. There are early indications that some marine organisms are already being affected by ocean acidification.<br />
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  7. 7. Impacts of Climate Change<br />Water resources and management<br />Agriculture and primary production<br />Forests<br />Fisheries<br />Cropping and grazing<br />Horticulture and viticulture<br />Biodiversity<br />Coastal areas<br />Alpine areas<br />Communities<br />Health<br />Built environment<br />Global impacts<br />
  8. 8. Impacts in Australia<br />http://www.climatechange.vic.gov.au/what-is-climate-change/impacts-of-climate-change#heading-73134<br />http://www.climatechange.gov.au/what-you-can-do/teachers-and-students/secondary/fact-sheet-2.aspx<br />
  9. 9. Anthony Mangelsdorf – Senior Sustainability Officer at CERES<br />What is CERES?<br />What is your role there?<br />What does CERES do to reduce greenhouse gas emissions?<br />What do you think is the most important message for the community about climate change?<br />How can businesses reduce their “carbon footprint” – and what is a carbon footprint?<br />
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  11. 11. Increasing Energy Efficiency<br />Reducing fuel use by developing more efficient vehicles, machinery and appliances.<br />Improving public transport solutions and road networks.<br />Reducing energy use in buildings by passive design principles, improved insulation and renewable energy technologies.<br />Providing incentives for the development and implementation of renewable energy technologies.<br />Disincentives for fossil-fuel use<br />
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  13. 13. Vegetation Sinks<br />Native vegetation is important for storing carbon, nitrogen and other elements in organic matter for long periods, until it burns or decays naturally. <br />Limiting the loss of native vegetation and increasing greenhouse sinks through revegetation and plantation establishment will reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere.<br />Algae in oceans is also an important carbon sink<br />
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  15. 15. Land Use Changes<br /> Land carbon describes the carbon that is stored and emitted from different production systems and ecosystems. Agricultural activities such as livestock production, cropping and grazing, and forestry operations such as harvesting and fire management produce greenhouse emissions, while forests and soils provide a sink for emissions.<br /> On a global scale, soils and vegetation absorb about 40% of carbon dioxide emissions.<br />
  16. 16. Carbon Geo-sequestration<br />
  17. 17. Emissions Trading<br />Also called “cap-and-trade” or Kevin Rudd’s “Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme”.<br />A central body puts a limit on the amount of pollution that businesses can emit. <br />Businesses must hold a number of permits (or carbon credits) equivalent to their emissions. <br />The total number of permits cannot exceed the cap, limiting total emissions to that level. <br />Firms that need to increase their emission permits must buy permits from those who require fewer permits. The transfer of permits is referred to as a trade. <br />In effect, the buyer is paying a charge for polluting, while the seller is being rewarded for having reduced emissions. Thus, in theory, those who can reduce emissions most cheaply will do so, achieving the pollution reduction at the lowest cost to society.<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emissions_trading<br />
  18. 18. Carbon Tax<br />A carbon tax is an environmental tax that is levied on the carbon content of fuels. <br />Carbon atoms are present in every fossil fuel (coal, petroleum, and natural gas) and are released as carbon dioxide (CO2) when they are burnt. In contrast, non-combustion energy sources do not convert hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide.<br />Fuel prices would increase, as would electricity costs, which would affect the manufacture and distribution of almost all consumer goods. <br />
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  20. 20. Global - Kyoto Protocol<br />The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions .These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012. <br />Australia signed the KP in 1998 and the protocol came into effect in 2005. <br />“Instant Expert” http://www.gmagazine.com.au/103/the-kyoto-protocol<br />
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  22. 22. Global – Copenhagen CC Summit<br /> The Copenhagen Accord was drafted by the US, China, India, Brazil and South Africa in2009, and judged a "meaningful agreement" by the United States government. It was "taken note of", but not "adopted", in a debate of all the participating countries the next day, and it was not passed unanimously. The document recognised that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of the present day and that actions should be taken to keep any temperature increases to below 2°C. The document is not legally binding and does not contain any commitments for reducing CO2 emissions.<br />
  23. 23. National Greenhouse Strategy (1998)<br />“Australia will actively contribute to the global effort to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous interference with the climate system and within a time frame sufficient to: <br />allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change; <br />ensure that food production is not threatened;<br />and enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable way.” <br />
  24. 24. National Greenhouse Strategy - <br />Profiling Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions;<br />Understanding and communicating climate change and its impacts.<br />Partnerships for greenhouse action: governments, industry and the community;<br />Efficient and sustainable energy use and supply;<br />Efficient transport and sustainable urban planning;<br />Greenhouse sinks and sustainable land management; and<br />Greenhouse best practice in industrial processes and waste management.<br />
  25. 25. Australian Government Department of Climate Change and Energy Efficiency<br />http://www.climatechange.gov.au/<br />“The Australian Government is committed to action that will safeguard our environment, sustain our society and support our economy.”<br />Reducing our greenhouse gas emissions  <br />Promoting energy efficiency  <br />Adapting to climate change impacts  <br />Helping to shape a global solution <br />
  26. 26. State Government Strategies<br />http://www.climatechange.vic.gov.au/adapting-to-climate-change<br />Research, education, rebates and grants.<br />http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/climate-change/<br />Innovative regulation and partnerships with businesses.<br />
  27. 27. Local Government Strategies<br />Cities for Climate Protection (CCP) 1993<br />Moyne Shire CCP<br />Municipal Association of Victoria<br />
  28. 28. REFERENCES<br />http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/items/2830.php<br />http://jnevill.customer.netspace.net.au/Greenhouse_principles.htm<br />http://www.climatechange.gov.au/<br />http://www.climatechange.vic.gov.au/home<br />http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/about_us/default.asp<br />