Chapter 4consumer-motivation-091011084912-phpapp02

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Consumer Behavior Chapter 4

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Chapter 4consumer-motivation-091011084912-phpapp02

  1. 1. Chapter 4 Consumer Motivation Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
  2. 2. Chapter Outline • • • • • Model of the Motivation Process Goals Motives Needs Motivational Research 4-2
  3. 3. Needs and Motivation • Needs are the essence of the marketing concept. Marketers do not create needs but can make consumers aware of needs. • Motivation is the driving force within individuals that impels them to action. 4-3
  4. 4. Figure 4.1 Model of the Motivation Process 4-4
  5. 5. Types of Needs • Innate Needs – Physiological (or biogenic) needs that are considered primary needs or motives • Acquired Needs – Learned in response to our culture or environment. Are generally psychological and considered secondary needs 4-5
  6. 6. Is a body spray an innate or acquired need? 4-6
  7. 7. Goals • The sought-after results of motivated behavior • Generic goals are general categories of goals that consumers see as a way to fulfill their needs • Product-specific goals are specifically branded products or services that consumers select as their goals 4-7
  8. 8. Figure 4-2a Goals Structure for Weight Control 4-8
  9. 9. Figure 4-2b Goals Structure for Weight Control 4-9
  10. 10. Figure 4-2c Goals Structure for Weight Control 4 - 10
  11. 11. Weight Control Giants weblink weblink 4 - 11
  12. 12. The Selection of Goals • The goals selected by an individual depend on their: – Personal experiences – Physical capacity – Prevailing cultural norms and values – Goal’s accessibility in the physical and social environment 4 - 12
  13. 13. Discussion Question • What are three generic goals you have set for yourself in the past year? • What are three product-specific goals you have set in the past year? • In what situations are these two related? • How were these goals selected? Was it personal experiences, physical capacity, or prevailing cultural norms and values? 4 - 13
  14. 14. Motivations and Goals Positive • Motivation – A driving force toward some object or condition • Approach Goal – A positive goal toward which behavior is directed Negative • Motivation A driving force away from some object or condition • Avoidance Goal – A negative goal from which behavior is directed away 4 - 14
  15. 15. Rational versus Emotional Motives • Rationality implies that consumers select goals based on totally objective criteria such as size, weight, price, or miles per gallon • Emotional motives imply the selection of goals according to personal or subjective criteria 4 - 15
  16. 16. Discussion Question • What products might be purchased using rational and emotional motives? • What marketing strategies are effective when there are combined motives? 4 - 16
  17. 17. The Dynamic Nature of Motivation • Needs are never fully satisfied • New needs emerge as old needs are satisfied • People who achieve their goals set new and higher goals for themselves 4 - 17
  18. 18. Substitute Goals • Are used when a consumer cannot attain a specific goal he/she anticipates will satisfy a need • The substitute goal will dispel tension • Substitute goals may actually replace the primary goal over time 4 - 18
  19. 19. Frustration • Failure to achieve a goal may result in frustration. • Some adapt; others adopt defense mechanisms to protect their ego. 4 - 19
  20. 20. Defense Mechanism • Methods by which people mentally redefine frustrating situations to protect their self-images and their selfesteem 4 - 20
  21. 21. What type of defense mechanism is this spokesperson using in this ad? 4 - 21
  22. 22. Table 4.2 Defense Mechanisms • • • • Aggression Rationalization Regression Withdrawal • • • • Projection Autism Identification Repression 4 - 22
  23. 23. Arousal of Motives • • • • Physiological arousal Emotional arousal Cognitive arousal Environmental arousal 4 - 23
  24. 24. Philosophies Concerned with Arousal of Motives • Behaviorist School – Behavior is response to stimulus – Elements of conscious thoughts are to be ignored – Consumer does not act, but reacts • Cognitive School – Behavior is directed at goal achievement – Needs and past experiences are reasoned, categorized, and transformed into attitudes and beliefs 4 - 24
  25. 25. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Figure 4.10 weblink 4 - 25
  26. 26. Discussion Question • What are three types of products related to more then one level of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. • For each type of product – consider two brands. How do marketers attempt to differentiate their product from the competition? 4 - 26
  27. 27. Table 4.3 Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Needs Associated with Inanimate Objects: Acquisition, Conservancy, Order, Retention, Construction Needs Reflecting Ambition, Power, Accomplishment, and Prestige: Superiority, Achievement, Recognition, Exhibition, Infavoidance Needs Connected with Human Power: Dominance, Deferrence, Similance, Autonomy, Contrariance 4 - 27
  28. 28. Table 4.3 (con’t) Murray’s List of Psychogenic Needs Sado-Masochistic Needs : Aggression, Abasement Needs Concerned with Affection between People: Affiliation, Rejection, Nurturance, Succorance, Play Needs Concerned with Social Intercourse: Cognizance, Exposition 4 - 28
  29. 29. This ad reflects a need for accomplishment with a toothpaste. 4 - 29
  30. 30. A Trio of Needs • Power – individual’s desire to control environment • Affiliation – need for friendship, acceptance, and belonging • Achievement – need for personal accomplishment – closely related to egoistic and selfactualization needs 4 - 30
  31. 31. Measurement of Motives • Researchers rely on a combination of techniques • Combination of behavioral, subjective, and qualitative data • Construction of a measurement scale can be complex 4 - 31
  32. 32. Motivational Research • Qualitative research designed to uncover consumers’ subconscious or hidden motivations • Attempts to discover underlying feelings, attitudes, and emotions 4 - 32
  33. 33. Qualitative Motivational Research • Metaphor analysis • Storytelling • Word association and sentence completion • Thematic apperception test • Drawing pictures and photo-sorts 4 - 33
  34. 34. Many Companies Specialize in Motivational Research weblink we blink 4 - 34

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