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International Relations
Theories
Post-Modernism
Post-StructuralismPost-Structuralism
Post-Colonialism
Dr Vaezade
Sepehr Ar...
Introduction
Postmodernism is a concept which appears in a wide
variety of disciplines or areas of study including art,
mu...
Modernism
Modernism refers to the broad
aesthetic movement in
visual arts, music, literature,
and drama and modernity
refe...
No. Modernism Postmodernism
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
objective
rational
scientific
global claims
positiv...
“truth” is not
universal
Postmodernism is
preference and truth
is a social construct
to be eliminated.
Truth and persons
a...
Actors are missing: women, MNCs,
poor countries, classes, etc.
States are not unitary and thus
not rational – states are
a...
Knowledge
And Power
Knowledgeis not
stableandeternalas
thehistory ofscience
hasshown us,it refers
toprobabilities rather
t...
Post-structuralism P
o
s
t
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s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
a
l
i
s
m
P
o
s
t
-
s
t
r
u
c
t
u
r
a
l
i
s
m
Structuralism was an intellectual
movement in France in the 1950s and
1960s that studied the underlying
structures in cult...
Jean-Francois Lyotard
• The figural resists representation
• In 1974 he predicted that no knowledge
will survive that cann...
Michel Foucault
View language as the “container” of possible practices
within a discourse (profession).
Speaking is not an...
Like structuralism, they
rejected the centrality of the self, believing
that it is not the self that creates culture, it
i...
WhatisPost-colonialism?
What is colonialism?
•An extension of a nations rule over
territory beyond its borders
•a populati...
How does it work?
•Assesses the position of the
colonial or post-colonial subject
•Offers a counter-narrative to
the long ...
Edward Said
• “Power and knowledge are
inseparable”(following Foucalt’s belief)
Orientalism is the 1978 book that has been...
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Postmodernism, post-structuralism, and post-colonialism in IR

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Postmodernism, post-structuralism, and post-colonialism in IR

  1. 1. International Relations Theories Post-Modernism Post-StructuralismPost-Structuralism Post-Colonialism Dr Vaezade Sepehr Arefmanesh Spring 2014
  2. 2. Introduction Postmodernism is a concept which appears in a wide variety of disciplines or areas of study including art, music, film, literature, architecture, and technology and nowadays has burst into popular usage as a term for everything from rock music to the whole cultural style and mood of recent decades. Postmodernism is a concept which appears in a wide variety of disciplines or areas of study including art, music, film, literature, architecture, and technology and nowadays has burst into popular usage as a term for everything from rock music to the whole cultural style and mood of recent decades.
  3. 3. Modernism Modernism refers to the broad aesthetic movement in visual arts, music, literature, and drama and modernity refers to a set of philosophical and ethical ideas which provide the basis of the aesthetic aspect of modernism. Therefore, “modernity” is older than “modernism.” For the sake of simplicity the authors use modernism for both terms. There has been a long debate among scholars on when exactly modernism starts and how to distinguish between what is modern and what is not modern. Modernism refers to the broad aesthetic movement in visual arts, music, literature, and drama and modernity refers to a set of philosophical and ethical ideas which provide the basis of the aesthetic aspect of modernism. Therefore, “modernity” is older than “modernism.” For the sake of simplicity the authors use modernism for both terms. There has been a long debate among scholars on when exactly modernism starts and how to distinguish between what is modern and what is not modern.
  4. 4. No. Modernism Postmodernism 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. objective rational scientific global claims positivist utopian central the best linear generalizing theoretical abstract unification subjective irrational anti-scientific local claims constructivist populist fragmented better non-linear non-generalizing practical concrete diversity Postmodernism 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. objective rational scientific global claims positivist utopian central the best linear generalizing theoretical abstract unification subjective irrational anti-scientific local claims constructivist populist fragmented better non-linear non-generalizing practical concrete diversity
  5. 5. “truth” is not universal Postmodernism is preference and truth is a social construct to be eliminated. Truth and persons are given value only as the group values them. Postmodernism is preference and truth is a social construct to be eliminated. Truth and persons are given value only as the group values them. constitutes the postmodern are rendered impossible by postmodernity’s rejection of the very metanarratives that would be integral to such an analysis. Other than ‘an incredulity towards metanarratives A commonality of Post- Modern views of IR is an emphasis on how political action is affected by language, ideas, abstract concepts, and norms.
  6. 6. Actors are missing: women, MNCs, poor countries, classes, etc. States are not unitary and thus not rational – states are abstractions Thus, no such thing as national interest. Actors are missing: women, MNCs, poor countries, classes, etc. States are not unitary and thus not rational – states are abstractions Thus, no such thing as national interest.
  7. 7. Knowledge And Power Knowledgeis not stableandeternalas thehistory ofscience hasshown us,it refers toprobabilities rather thancertainties, betterratherthan the best. The idea that some people (experts) know more than others (non-experts) are not espoused. They believe that interaction between the knower and non- knower is often best seen as a dialog in which both are involved in an interactive process of knowledge creation. Dialog replaces monolog. Knowledge is not immune from the workings of power – what we know depends on power in our lives. Knowledgeis not stableandeternalas thehistory ofscience hasshown us,it refers toprobabilities rather thancertainties, betterratherthan the best. The idea that some people (experts) know more than others (non-experts) are not espoused. They believe that interaction between the knower and non- knower is often best seen as a dialog in which both are involved in an interactive process of knowledge creation. Dialog replaces monolog.Definition of power is limited mostly to tangible measures, not power of ideas, norms, words, etc.
  8. 8. Post-structuralism P o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s m P o s t - s t r u c t u r a l i s m
  9. 9. Structuralism was an intellectual movement in France in the 1950s and 1960s that studied the underlying structures in cultural products (such as texts) and used analytical concepts from linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and other fields to interpret those structures. It emphasized the logical and scientific nature of its results. Post-structuralism offers a way of studying how knowledge is produced and critiques structuralist premises. It argues that because history and culture condition the study of underlying structures, both are subject to biases and misinterpretations. A post-structuralist approach argues that to understand an object (e.g., a text), it is necessary to study both the object itself and the systems of knowledge that produced the object. Structuralism was an intellectual movement in France in the 1950s and 1960s that studied the underlying structures in cultural products (such as texts) and used analytical concepts from linguistics, psychology, anthropology, and other fields to interpret those structures. It emphasized the logical and scientific nature of its results. Post-structuralism offers a way of studying how knowledge is produced and critiques structuralist premises. It argues that because history and culture condition the study of underlying structures, both are subject to biases and misinterpretations. A post-structuralist approach argues that to understand an object (e.g., a text), it is necessary to study both the object itself and the systems of knowledge that produced the object.
  10. 10. Jean-Francois Lyotard • The figural resists representation • In 1974 he predicted that no knowledge will survive that cannot be translated into computer language--into quantities of information. • Made critical distinction between narrative discourse and scientific discourse • The figural resists representation • In 1974 he predicted that no knowledge will survive that cannot be translated into computer language--into quantities of information. • Made critical distinction between narrative discourse and scientific discourse Jean Baudrillard • Death of modernity, “the real,” and sex • Semiotic analysis of commodities • binary oppositions that minimize difference(s) • the simulation, simulacra, becomes the real • The role of the hyper-real • The Merchants of Cool/Reality TV
  11. 11. Michel Foucault View language as the “container” of possible practices within a discourse (profession). Speaking is not an innovative activity, but a selection from a fixed set of practices, governed by rules that are permissible in the language. • World is a “text” that must be interpreted. – World is constructed like a text. – Cannot refer to anything “real” – only “interpretive experience” – Quoting Montaigne: “We need to interpret interpretations more than to interpret things” • stable and natural concepts and relations are artificial concepts. Jacques Derrida • World is a “text” that must be interpreted. – World is constructed like a text. – Cannot refer to anything “real” – only “interpretive experience” – Quoting Montaigne: “We need to interpret interpretations more than to interpret things” • stable and natural concepts and relations are artificial concepts.
  12. 12. Like structuralism, they rejected the centrality of the self, believing that it is not the self that creates culture, it is culture that creates the self; and unlike structuralism, they rejected scientific pretensions and applied the structural-cultural analysis of human phenomena to the human sciences themselves, which are after all human cultural constructions. Like structuralism, they rejected the centrality of the self, believing that it is not the self that creates culture, it is culture that creates the self; and unlike structuralism, they rejected scientific pretensions and applied the structural-cultural analysis of human phenomena to the human sciences themselves, which are after all human cultural constructions.
  13. 13. WhatisPost-colonialism? What is colonialism? •An extension of a nations rule over territory beyond its borders •a population that is subjected to the political domination of another population WhatisPost-colonialism? Post-colonial theory deals with the reading and writing of literature written in previously or currently colonized countries, or literature written in colonizing countries which deals with colonization or colonized peoples - it embraces no single method or school
  14. 14. How does it work? •Assesses the position of the colonial or post-colonial subject •Offers a counter-narrative to the long tradition of European imperial narratives considering: Political oppression Economic Social/cultural oppression Psychological oppression ■ What happens after colonization? * What language do you speak? * what culture do you follow? ■ Two terms to describe the results of colonization on those colonized ■ Awareness of culture before colonized and during colonization and what emerged as a result.
  15. 15. Edward Said • “Power and knowledge are inseparable”(following Foucalt’s belief) Orientalism is the 1978 book that has been highly influential in postcolonial studies. • Attempted to explain how European/Western colonizers looked upon the ‘’Orient” What is the Orient? • A mystical plane that was stereotyped due to lack of knowledge and imagination • “Power and knowledge are inseparable”(following Foucalt’s belief) Orientalism is the 1978 book that has been highly influential in postcolonial studies. • Attempted to explain how European/Western colonizers looked upon the ‘’Orient” What is the Orient? • A mystical plane that was stereotyped due to lack of knowledge and imagination

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