Unit 9: London, Part 1


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Unit 9: London, Part 1

  1. 1. London History, parks, West End and Westminister Aivi Lond Janne-Mai Liias 11C
  2. 2. London <ul><li>The administrative centre of Britain, the capital of UK, one of the biggest metropolises in the world, contemporary city in every sense, a world leader in the arts </li></ul><ul><li>Offers a range of top-quality theatres, museums and galleries </li></ul><ul><li>Covers an area of about 1,578 sq km </li></ul><ul><li>Population numbers more than 8 million </li></ul><ul><li>Greater London is divided into 32 boroughs and the City </li></ul><ul><li>City- built by the Romans in the 1st century AD </li></ul><ul><li>Westminster came into being 10 centuries later </li></ul><ul><li>A multicultural city- members of ethnic minorities make up a quarter of capital population </li></ul>
  3. 3. London’s History <ul><li>43 AD-establishment of a Roman settlement on the north bank of the river, called Londinium </li></ul><ul><li>5th c.-Saxons settle west of Londinium </li></ul><ul><li>9th c .- Viking raids from Denmark begin </li></ul><ul><li>1066-the battle of Hastings </li></ul><ul><li>14th c.-rapid grow, Black Death </li></ul><ul><li>16th c.-grows in importance, develops into a wealthy city </li></ul><ul><li>17th c.-The Stuarts come to power, the Gunpowder plot, Civil war, Great Plague, Great Fire </li></ul><ul><li>18th c.-the beginning of Georgian era </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>19th c.-The population reaches about 1 million, building boom.By the turn of the c. over 6 million people live in the city </li></ul><ul><li>20th c. I World War, II World War, The Blitz, </li></ul><ul><li>1953-the coronation of Queen Elisabeth II </li></ul><ul><li>1960s-70s-many unemployed people due to declining of industries </li></ul><ul><li>1980s-boom in banking, insurance and tourism </li></ul><ul><li>1990s-Anti-Poll Tax riots and IRA bombs </li></ul><ul><li>21th c.- grand celebrations to see in new millenium </li></ul><ul><li>July 2005- terrorist bombs </li></ul>
  5. 5. The River Thames <ul><li>Runs through London about 50 km </li></ul><ul><li>One of London’s most enjoyable leisure amenities </li></ul><ul><li>The Thames Barrier -world’s largest moveable flood barrier. Completed in 1982, inaugurated in 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>35 bridges span the Thames in Greater London </li></ul><ul><li>London Bridge- the oldest.Has crossed the Thames since Roman times but the current bridge only dates from the 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Tower Bridge -one of the most easily recognised landmarks in the capital.Unique due to its 2 towers, which contain machinery that raises the roadway to let tall ships pass through. </li></ul><ul><li>Other famous bridges: Southwark, Waterloo, Westminster and Lambeth bridges </li></ul><ul><li>Famous footbridges: Millenium Bridge, The Golden Jubilee Bridges </li></ul>
  6. 6. Parks <ul><li>London has the world’s greenest city centre </li></ul><ul><li>Over 1,800 open spaces cover about a tenth of the city </li></ul><ul><li>Every park and garden has its own charm and character </li></ul><ul><li>Are popular with both locals and tourists </li></ul><ul><li>There are often outdoor events </li></ul>
  7. 7. South Kensington & Hyde Park <ul><li>It is an area of great interest to visitors, especially in summer </li></ul><ul><li>The Victoria and Albert Museum- has one of the world’s richest collections of fine and applied arts from all periods and cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Harrod’s- a world-famous department store in Knightsbridge </li></ul><ul><li>Kensington Palace- one of the royal palaces in London.Today halfis taken up with royal apartments, the other half is open to public </li></ul><ul><li>Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens- </li></ul><ul><li>(140 ha)Known for its artificial lake, the Serpentine and Speaker’s Corner. Together with Kensington Gardens (111 ha) forms the largest green space in the centre of the city.They were made public in 1841 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Harrod’s Orangery at Kensington Palace
  9. 9. Regent’s Park and Bloomsbury <ul><li>Regent’s Park -Named for the Prince Regent(the son of King George III). Today includes London Zoo, an open air theatre, a boating lake, a rose garden, cafes and London’s largest mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Bloomsbury- a traditional centre of book trade and excellent place for literary research.Home to University of London since 1828 </li></ul><ul><li>Madame Tussaud’s and the Planetarium- Madame Tussauds is a famous wax museum in London.The Planetarium next door has stars and laser shows </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The Sherlock Holmes Museum- Onlu surviving Victorian lodging house in the Baker street.Features a reconsttruction of Holmes’ famous study, containing many items from his stories </li></ul><ul><li>The British Museum- the oldest public museum in the world, has huge collection af antiquities spanning thousands of years of world culture </li></ul><ul><li>The Wallace collection- one of the world’s finest private collections of art, the product of passionate collecting by four generations of Seymour-Conway family </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Richmond Park- (800 ha)One of the largest in Europe.Once was a hunting ground for kings. Today a fine example of unspoiled landscape with roaming deer </li></ul><ul><li>Green Park- close to Buckhingam palace. Offers a cool, restful oasis in the heart of London </li></ul><ul><li>Hampstead Heat- a large area of rough open land,embracing a variety of landscapes </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Royal Botanic Gardens in Kew- boast the largest plant collection in the world(50,000 species of living plants). Complemented by an array of temples, monuments and landscaped lake </li></ul><ul><li>St James’s Park- in the very heart of the city. Popular with office workers.Rich in waterfowl. </li></ul><ul><li>Greenwich Park- National Maritime Museum. The Old Royal Observatory, lots of squirrels </li></ul>
  13. 13. The West End and Westminster <ul><li>West end -capital’s social, religious, cultural and political centre. There are many popular sights </li></ul><ul><li>Covent Garden- over 300 years has been London’s main fruit and vegetable market. It is a popular place for entertainment and one of Central London’sthe busiest districts </li></ul><ul><li>Soho- has long attracted artists and writers. The poet Dylan Thomas and painter Francis Bacon used to live there </li></ul><ul><li>Trafalgar Square- the biggest square in London </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>The National Gallery- contains Britain’s best known collection of paintings </li></ul><ul><li>The National Portrait Gallery- displays portraits of British monarchs since the reign of Richard II and other historical celebrities </li></ul><ul><li>The Tate Gallery- The National Gallery of British Art. The museum has a wide range of modern international works by foreign artists </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Picadilly Circus- lies in the heart of the capital’s entertainment world. It is also one of the city’s most popular meeting places, as it is small and hard to get lost in </li></ul><ul><li>Leicester Square- decorated by monuments to Shakespeare and Charlie Chaplin. In the middle is a patch of green which makes an exellent picnic place </li></ul><ul><li>MOMI- The Museum of the Moving Image. You can see how films are made, design your own cartoon, fly like superman and much more </li></ul><ul><li>The Mall- a broad tree-lined avenue connecting Trafalgar Square with Buckingham Palace. Today it is used for royal processions and different special occasions </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Buckingham Palace- the official residence of Her Majesty Queen Elisabeth II. Built in 1705 for the Duke of Buckingham. Was opened to visitors in 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>The Royal Mews- a working stable and coach house. Allows visitors to see the horses and state coaches used on official occasions </li></ul><ul><li>The Changing of the Guard- takes place every day at 11.30 am in the palace forecourt. It is a colourful and musical military ceremony. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aeopSUw-aWU&feature=related </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Whitehall - a broad street. In the middle of it is the Cenothaph-a memorial built as a reminder of the dead who are buried elsewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Cabinet War Rooms- were the shelter for W. Churchill and his military strategists during WW II </li></ul><ul><li>Churchill Museum- was opened at the cabinet War rooms in February 2005.Aims to show the human side of Churchill </li></ul><ul><li>Banqueting House- only remaining part of the original Whitehall Palace.Known for many historic reasons e.g. Charles I was executed there </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Downing Street- little by-street running off Whitehall. No.10 has been the residence of British Prime Minister since 1737. 11 Downing Street is the official residence of Chancellor of the Exchequer. </li></ul><ul><li>Westminster Abbey- has been the site of royal coronations since 1066. It features glorious medieval architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tomb of the Unknown Warrior- surrounded by red poppies, the symbol of mourning. First tomb of its kind in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Big Ben- the clock tower of the Houses of Parliament. One of the symbols of London and its visual trademark </li></ul>
  19. 19. Thank You For Listening!