Unit 10: Work and Education


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Unit 10: Work and Education

  1. 1. Work and Education Elina Lehtmaa 11c
  2. 2. The workforce of England <ul><li>The primary sector: based on natural resources (mining, farming, fishing) </li></ul><ul><li>The secondary sector: manufacturing (shipbuilding, construction). It has been in decline since the 1950s due to economic recessions </li></ul><ul><li>The tertiary sector: services (lawyers, civil servants, hairdressers, shop assistants, etc.) About 75% of the population is employed in this sector </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>About one fifth of business employment is in small business – companies employing fewer than four people </li></ul><ul><li>The number of people employed in the public sector has decreased, due to privatisation programmes </li></ul><ul><li>A process called ‘outsourcing’ began – organisations started to buy in services from other companies </li></ul><ul><li>The armed forces have decreased and less money is spent on defence since the end of the cold war and the creation of the EU </li></ul>
  4. 4. Finding a Job <ul><li>Unskilled people find it very difficult to get a job in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Women with children often have part-time jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Some people are ‘on the dole’ – they are unemployed and receive job-seeker’s allowance </li></ul><ul><li>Single parents receive ‘income support’ </li></ul>
  5. 5. Working Practices <ul><li>English businesses are financially quite efficient, but workers don’t feel very secure </li></ul><ul><li>Many East-Europeans have work permits – employers make greater use of temporary workers and part-time contracts </li></ul><ul><li>People with full-time job work 40-hour, 5-day week </li></ul><ul><li>For part-time workers, it is 16 hours per week </li></ul><ul><li>Flexitime working – people can vary the times they start and finish </li></ul>
  6. 6. Salaries <ul><li>Low paid: agriculture, fishing, hotel and restaurant </li></ul><ul><li>Well paid: finance, business </li></ul><ul><li>Low paid jobs are offered to women </li></ul><ul><li>Women earn 20-25% less than man despite the laws for equal pay </li></ul><ul><li>The national minimum wage is £4.50 per hour for 18-21-year-olds, and £5.20 for anyone over 22 </li></ul>
  7. 7. Education <ul><li>3-4-year-olds: nursery school </li></ul><ul><li>4-11-year-olds: primary school </li></ul><ul><li>11-16-year-olds:secondary school </li></ul><ul><li>16-18-year-olds: secondary school, sixth-form college </li></ul>
  8. 8. Types of Secondary Schools <ul><li>Comprehensive schools : state schools which enrol children of all abilities; most British children go these schools </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Private schools: </li></ul><ul><li>High tuition fees, not financed by the state; the most expensive of these are called ‘public schools’ (usually in the form of single-sex boarding schools) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Grammar schools: </li></ul><ul><li>state schools which only take students who pass an examination at the age of 11; </li></ul><ul><li>about 6% of children attend these schools </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Studying for GCSE exams, pupils must take English, Maths and Science and a half GSCE in a foreign language and Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils who don’t leave school at the age of 16 take A levels, AS levels or GNVQs </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional subjects when taking A levels: French, Physics, History </li></ul><ul><li>GNVQs - vocational qualifications (Business, Leisure, Tourism, Art, Design) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Eton college - prestigious boarding school in England, attended by various members of the British Royal family.
  13. 13. Higher Education <ul><li>91 universities and 47 colleges of higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Competition to get into universities is tough, despite the fact that only about a quarter of the student population apply for admission </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1998, students must pay about £1,150 a year in tuition fees </li></ul><ul><li>Many students receive a grant from the local education authority to pay tuition fees </li></ul>
  14. 14. Oxford and Cambridge (Oxbridge) <ul><li>Stand out as the oldest and best-known for their high standard education. </li></ul><ul><li>Graduates of Oxbridge were once the most powerful and successful members of society </li></ul><ul><li>Nowadays it is criticised as being too old-fashioned, traditional and self-important </li></ul>
  15. 15. Oxford Cambridge King’s College