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Unit 10: The North Country


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Unit 10: The North Country

  1. 1. The North Country Raiko Tiganik
  2. 2. History <ul><li>The life in Northern England changed in the 19 th century due to the development of coal mining and the textile and shipbuilding industries. Towns began to grow. </li></ul><ul><li>1750 Pre-steam period: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Halifax’s Piece Hall – cloth market building in Yorkshire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1781 – Leeds-Liverpool canal was opened </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1800 Steam age: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1815 – safety oil lamp for miners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1830 – Liverpool-Manchester railway was opened </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1842 – The Coal Mines Act prevented women and children from working in the mines </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. History <ul><li>1850 Full mechanisation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machines transformed the textile industry but left many unemployed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saltaire – model village built by the wealthy cloth merchant Sir Titus Salt. </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Rowntree founded a chocolate factory in York in 1892. Today, Nestle Rowentree is the world’s largest chocolate factory </li></ul><ul><li>The North Country has some of the finest religious buildings in Europe (abbeys, monasteries) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Lancashire and The Lakes
  5. 5. The Lake District <ul><li>One of the most beautiful districts in England </li></ul><ul><li>High peaks, deep valleys, long lakes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scafell Pike 978 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helvellyn 950 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skiddaw 931 m </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visited by 18 million people annually </li></ul><ul><li>Main activities: quarrying, mining, farming and tourism </li></ul><ul><li>For tourists: lake trips, canoeing, hill-walking, hiking </li></ul>
  6. 6. Carlisle <ul><li>Modern capital of Cumbria </li></ul><ul><li>Close to the Scottish border </li></ul><ul><li>During Roman times it was an outpost of Hadrian’s Wall </li></ul><ul><li>The town was raided by the Danes and the Normans and damaged under the reign of Cromwell </li></ul>
  7. 7. Keswick <ul><li>Popular place for tourists </li></ul><ul><li>The Pencil Museum </li></ul><ul><li>The Keswick Museum and Art Gallery </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia presentation on Beatrix Potter’s Lake District and her role in the National Trust </li></ul>
  8. 8. Buttermere <ul><li>Little village in one of the most appealing areas in the Lake District </li></ul><ul><li>Farms, a couple of small hotels, lakes, mountains, sheep </li></ul><ul><li>The highest waterfall of the Lake District (36 m) nearby </li></ul>
  9. 9. Windermere <ul><li>England’s largest lake (over 16 km long) </li></ul><ul><li>Year-round car ferry service between its east and west shores </li></ul><ul><li>Steamship tours during summertime </li></ul>
  10. 10. Grasmere and Rydal <ul><li>Two little villages connected with William Wordsworth, the famous poet </li></ul><ul><li>He spent most of his creative years in Dove Cottage in Grasmere (now a museum) </li></ul><ul><li>Later moved to Rydal, where he died </li></ul>
  11. 11. Levens Hall <ul><li>Outstanding attraction with a fine collection of Jacobean furniture, ornate plaster ceilings and the earliest examples of English patchwork </li></ul><ul><li>Today famous for its topiary garden </li></ul>
  12. 12. Blackpool <ul><li>Working-class holiday resort in the 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Famous illuminations in September and October: The Blackpool Tower (158 m) and the Promenade decorated with lights </li></ul>
  13. 13. Manchester <ul><li>Dates back to Roman times </li></ul><ul><li>In the 18 th century Manchester became a very important centre of production </li></ul><ul><li>1819 – “Peterloo” </li></ul><ul><li>The G-Mex Centre </li></ul><ul><li>Granada Studios </li></ul><ul><li>Manchester United football team (ManU) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Liverpool <ul><li>Important port on the west coast of England </li></ul><ul><li>The Maritime Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Beatles, The Beatles Story </li></ul><ul><li>The Cavern Club </li></ul><ul><li>Beatle Week </li></ul><ul><li>The Walker Art Gallery </li></ul><ul><li>Liverpool Cathedral </li></ul><ul><li>Liverpool Football club </li></ul>
  15. 15. Yorkshire and Humberside <ul><li>This northeast region features dramatic limestone scenery criss-crossed by old dry-stone walls </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptional coastline of sandy beaches and ragged cliffs </li></ul><ul><li>The most important tourist attraction in this area – the city of York </li></ul>
  16. 16. York <ul><li>It’s a well-preserved medieval city: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18 medieval churches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.8 km long city wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elegant Jacobean and Georgian architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Shambles – one of the best preserved medieval streets in Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>York Minister – the largest Gothic church north of the Alps. Stained glass collection </li></ul>
  17. 17. York <ul><li>The Jorvik Viking Centre </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built on the site of the original Viking settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A “time car” travels through a model street and tells about its history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The National Railway Museum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The largest of its kind </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Harrogate <ul><li>Was a leading spa town at the beginning of the 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>As the local waters were thought to be rich in iron, people drank it as a part of their treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Beautiful public gardens </li></ul>
  19. 19. Whitby <ul><li>Former industrial port and a shipbuilding town </li></ul><ul><li>Dates back to the 7 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Statue of James Cook </li></ul>
  20. 20. Scarborough <ul><li>Became a spa in 1626 </li></ul><ul><li>Called “Queen of Watering Places” during Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Has two beaches and a variety of amusements </li></ul>
  21. 21. Castle Howard <ul><li>Owned and lived in by the Howard family </li></ul><ul><li>Main part of the house was completed in 1712 </li></ul><ul><li>Its Great Hall covers 575 sq m and rises 20 m to a dome </li></ul>
  22. 22. Leeds <ul><li>Third largest provincial British city </li></ul><ul><li>Chiefly an industrial town, but has a lively cultural scene too: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opera North </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The City Art Galley </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Armley Mills Museum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tetley’s Brewery Wharf provides an overview of the English pub </li></ul>
  23. 23. Bradford <ul><li>At the end of 19 th century it was the world capital of worsted (fabric made from closely twisted wool) </li></ul><ul><li>The Bradford Industrial Museum </li></ul><ul><li>Colour Museum </li></ul><ul><li>The National Museum of Photography, Film and Television </li></ul>
  24. 24. Northumbria <ul><li>Features moorlands, ruins, castles, cathedrals and villages </li></ul><ul><li>Area of dramatic history: bloody conflicts between the Scots and the English </li></ul>
  25. 25. Lindisfarne <ul><li>Island off the coast of Northumbia </li></ul><ul><li>Was one of the most important centres Christianity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irish monk St Aidan founded a monastery there in 635 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venerable Bede, one of the most brilliant scholars, lived there </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Hadrian’s Wall <ul><li>Building begun in 120 AD </li></ul><ul><li>It is 117 km long and runs from the Irish Sea to the North Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Troops were stationed at mile castles and large turrets along the wall </li></ul><ul><li>Today many remaining forts have been turned into visitor centres </li></ul><ul><li>Housesteads Fort is the best-preserved site on the wall </li></ul>
  27. 27. Newcastle Upon Tyne <ul><li>It was the North’s main centre for coal mining and shipbuilding </li></ul><ul><li>Today the city has many industrial heritage attractions </li></ul><ul><li>Newcastle United football team </li></ul><ul><li>Lively night scene </li></ul><ul><li>Tyne Bridge </li></ul>
  28. 28. Durham <ul><li>Built on Island Hill in 995 </li></ul><ul><li>Durham Cathedral – a striking Norman structure of 900-year-old columns, piers and vaults </li></ul><ul><li>Today it’s a university town </li></ul>