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Ancient Greece 
Mr. Hoke
Introduction 
Ways to look at history: 
P – Political/Military 
E – Economic 
R – Religion 
S – Social (The family unit) 
...
Coast of attica
Greece
Greece
Greece
The Thermopylae pass
What will this class cover? 
This class will cover Greek history from 3000 to 323 
BC 
Chronology: 
6000-3000 – Neolithic ...
Neolithic (6000-3000 BC) 
Around 6000 people settled into small 
communities 
Farming was introduced 
No idea on what lang...
Early Bronze Age (3000-2000) 
New people arrived 
Used bronze to create tools and weapons 
Bronze spread from Near East (E...
Middle Bronze Age (2000- 
1500) 
Around 2000 the first Greek people arrived 
Architecture looks different 
New pottery 
Ho...
Late Bronze Age (1500- 
1100) 
Huge changes 
No ‘new’ people 
Acceleration of MBA technology 
Mycenae – largest city with ...
Late Bronze Age – Mycenae
The Lions Gate - Mycenae
Late Bronze Age - Mycenae
Heinrich Schliemann
Dark Ages (1100-800) 
 Bronze Age system collapses 
Coming of the sea people occurred all over the Eastern Mediterranean ...
Archaic (800-500) 
Given the name ‘Archaic’ simply because it comes 
before the classical period 
Exciting period in histo...
Michael Ventris
Classical (500-323) 
Persian Wars (500-479) 
Rome founded (476) 
Persian Empire – huge and aggressive 
3 to 4 times the si...
Hellenistic (323-30) 
After Alexander 
Macedonian Empire breaks into Hellenistic 
Kingdoms 
Rome is rising 
When Cleopatra...
Resources/Geography of Greece 
Greece is arid and semi-tropical 
Difficult to grow crops 
Sea was the ‘GREAT CONNECTOR’ al...
Bronze Age: Troy in Fact & 
Fiction 
Reality of Troy 
10,000 – 20,000 population 
Heavily fortified 
Center of trade/texti...
Canakkale, Turkey
Istanbul Archaeological museum
The whirling dervishes
Troy – Level 9 – Roman Era
After visiting Troy!
Beginning of Archaeology 
Sir Arthur Evans discovered the Minoan 
civilization on the island of Crete 
Michael Ventris dec...
Heinrich Schliemann 
1870s – Excavated Mycenae and Troy 
Not a scholar 
Brilliant, wealthy businessman 
His passion was to...
Heinrich Schliemann
Homer 
First author of Western Civilization 
Passed stories down through songs 
Oral dictated text 
Iliad 
Odyssey 
Both p...
Greek Gods 
The Greeks were Henotheistic 
Henotheism – Belief in one supreme god among 
many 
Zeus – Most powerful god, so...
Greek Gods 
Kronos, father of Zeus overthrows Ouranos 
Kronos fearing that one of his children will overthrow 
him eats al...
Greek Gods 
Thetis – Sea-goddess who was destined to bear a 
great child 
Zeus was afraid so he arranged from Thetis to ma...
Greek Gods 
When Zeus’ wife, Hera and his two daughters, Athena 
and Aphrodite all claim the apple, Zeus refused to 
selec...
Helen 
Helen had many suitors from all over Greece 
Her father allows her to select her husband – 
Menelaus, King of Spart...
Paris, Prince of Troy 
Travels to Sparta where he is treated in alignment 
with the Greek-Host Code (Treat strangers well)...
Odysseus, King of Ithaca 
Happily married 
Attempted to dodge the draft 
Pretends to be mentally ill 
Officials took his s...
The Trojan War 
1225 BC – Date of the Trojan War 
1184 BC – Greek date of the Trojan War 
Every educated Greco-Roman perso...
The Trojan War 
SHAME vs. GUILT (Culture) 
10 year saga 
All of Helen’s suitors had taken an oath to 
retrieve her 
Upon t...
The Trojan War 
They shared the booty by class 
Kings got first dibs 
Agamemnon, King of Mycenae and the ruling 
king of t...
The Trojan War 
Reading from Book One of the Iliad 
Agamemnon to Chryses “Never let me find you again old 
man” 
Agamemnon...
The Death Mask of 
Agamemnon
The Trojan War 
Achilles, son of Peleus and Thetis called a meeting to 
discuss the plague and how the Greeks could get 
b...
Trojan War 
There are 24 Books in the Iliad and 
Achilles does not return until Book 19 – 
Culture of Shame 
Achilles retu...
Heroic Code – Homer – Book 6 – Iliad 
Hektor goes back to Troy to see his wife, 
Andromache and son, Astyanax. 
Andromache...
Heroic Code – Homer – Book 6 – Iliad 
Hektor says he would feel deep shame if he did 
not fight for his father, King Priam...
Heroic Code 
Sarpedon and his sidekick Glauckos were nobles 
from Lykia. 
At the time the Trojans were winning the war and...
Heroic Code 
Noblesse Obliqe – Nobility Obligates 
The theory was that you may die anyway so one 
should achieve glory whi...
Helen – Book 3 – Iliad 
Description of Helen 
Old men – advisors of King Priam 
These men feel the beauty of Helen without...
The Iliad 
The Iliad ends when the Greeks deceive the Trojans 
Greek soldiers hide inside the large wooden horse and 
seem...
The Iliad 
As the Trojans slept, the Greeks emerged from 
the horse, swung over the gates and let in their 
comrades 
Troy...
End of Unit #1 
What did you learn? 
Chronological history of Greek history from 6000 BC to 30 BC 
& Location of prominent...
Unit #2: Archaic I 
The Polis – ‘City-centered state’ 
Controls region or territory 
Plural – Poleis 
Politeia – Constitut...
Greece - Hellas 
Modern greece is about the size of michigan 
700’s – Greece had around 600 city-states. 
Each one an inde...
Branches of government 
Executive/Leaders 
Athens Sparta 
Archons/Leaders Kings & Ephors/ 
Overseers
Branches of government 
Advisory – Elders from prominent families 
Athens (2 Advisory Boards) Sparta 
Areopagus Gerousia 
...
Branches of government 
Ratification 
Assembly – everybody else that counted as a 
citizen. 
Athens Sparta 
Ekklesia Apell...
athens 
Located in Attica (Peninsula) 
4 miles from the sea 
About the size of Rhode Island or 1,000 square 
miles 
Synoik...
Map of athens
The Acropolis
The Theatre of Dionysus
Athens – Archon system 
Replaces monarchs at the end of the dark ages 
(except Sparta & macedonia) 
We do not know how the...
Athens – Archon system 
Term limit – 1 year (typically) 
Could run once for archon 
Power is compartmentalized 
Nine archo...
Athens - Nine archons 
One – Eponymous Archon – Leading archon 
Six - thesmothetae – Law Givers/Enforcement 
One - king Ar...
Areopagus – Athenian Council 
Once a man spent one year as an archon he 
then moved into the areopagus for life 
Archons u...
Athens – 7th c. BC 
Total population – estimated 120,000 
60,000 women 
30,000 children 
30,000 – 40,000 adult male citize...
Social Economic system 
7th century – athens – three classes 
1.) Hippeis 
Millionaires 
Blue bloods – family name was imp...
Social Economic system 
7th century – athens – three classes 
2.) Zeugitae 
Owned land (not good land) 
Just getting by – ...
Social Economic system 
7th century – athens – three classes 
3.) Thetes 
Below poverty line 
No land 
Laborers 
Some home...
Athens – who gets to Vote? 
Land owners – Hippeis and zuegitae 
Had personal stake in government as landowners 
In 594 BC ...
Hoplite revolution 
in 675 BC pheidon of argos – created the hoplite 
army 
Prior to 675 bc cavalry was primary and in 675...
Hoplite warrior 
Hoplite – greek infantry warrior 
Hoploi – set of armor (panoply) 
Hoplite warrior description 
Armed in ...
Hoplite warrior weaponry 
Hoplite warrior – weapons 
Spear – primary 
Short sword 
All weapons made of bronze or iron 
Tot...
Hoplite tactics 
Phalanx – Block of men – 8 men – 8 rows deep 
In blocks of 500 men 
Moved in unison 
Men must hold rank t...
Hoplite tactics 
The hoplite was based on force 
The men in the middle and in the rear would 
push – like a rugby scrum 
W...
The zeugitae as hoplite 
675 bc – right when the zeugitae were having a 
difficult time surviving there services were in h...
Hektemoroi – 1/6 
Zeugitae became impoverished to the point where the 
started to take loans from the hippeis class and la...
Tyranny 
Tyrant – (not like hitler or stalin) 
Tyranny – In greek it means to come to power illegitimately or unconstituti...
632 BC - Cylon’s Attempted Tyranny 
Cylon – Tyrant 
Seized the Athenian Acropolis, 632 BC 
Eponymous Archon at the time wa...
621 BC – Draco & the Law 
First written code of law in Athens 
Draconian Law – very harsh 
Capital punishment for many cri...
594 BC – Solon – “Seisachteia” 
Seis – Seismic 
Achth – weight 
Eia – off 
Solon 
Truly wise man 
Non-partisan – trusted b...
Reforms of solon 
Canceled debt 
Abolished debt slavery 
Established the people’s court – trial by jury 
Expands citizensh...
Economic Reforms of solon 
Solon forbids sale of grain outside of attica 
Shift to olive oil (expensive) production 
Wine ...
Four part social class system - solon 
1.) Pentekosiomedimnoi – 500 bushels 
2.) Hippeis – 300-499 
3.) Zeugitae – 200-299...
Solon’s new government 
Archons – From first (pente) or second class (Hippeis) 
Boule of 400 – from first, second or third...
560 – tyranny in Athens 
Peisistratus 
First coup failed in 560 
Two sons – hipparchus & hippias 
546 – Peisistratus bring...
Peisistratus - continued 
Panatheniac festival to honor athena 
Athletic competition 
Great prizes 
Poetry readings 
Relig...
Hipparchus 
527-514 – When Peisistratus died, his son hipparchus took 
power as tyrant in athens 
Hipparchus was assassina...
Assassination of hipparchus
Hippias 514-510 
After hipparchus was assassinated his brother, 
hippias took control as tyrant 
In 510, with help from th...
Athenians adopt democracy 508 
Cleisthenes – father of democracy 
Revamp social/economic system into 10 tribes/administrat...
508 – 417 ostracism 
Method to head off tyranny 
Many popular athenians were ostracized 
Ostrakon – pottery shard – used t...
Ostrakon
Ostrakon
Sparta 
Spartiates 
Aristocrats with special privledges 
Blood related 
Prideful 
High expectations 
20% of population
Perioikoi 
Perioikoi 
Those dwelling about in Laconia 
Not Spartans 
Served as infantry 
Allowed to vote 
Owned farms 
Not...
Helots 
To Capture (helen) 
POWs – Messenia 
Owned by the state 
Worked the land 
Largest % of the population 
Posed a thr...
The 5th c. BC & The Greco-persian wars 
Unit #3 – Greco-Roman History 
Mr. Hoke
Unit #3 
Big Questions: 
What set the stage for the greco-persian wars? What did lydia 
have to do with the origins of the...
The Greco-Persian Wars - Introduction 
Timeline of events 
546 BC – Persians take Lydia 
530-522 BC – Persians take egypt ...
The Greco-Persian Wars 
Timeline - continued 
499-494 BC – Ionian Revolt – Persian victory 
490 bc – Battle of Marathon: T...
The Enemy of the Greeks: 
The persians 
Iranian 
Iran, Iraq – center of persian empire 
6th c. BC – Persia emerges as a po...
Croesus of lydia 
No external threat existed between 800-500 (The Archaic Age) 
Story of the lydian king 
544 
Croesus, ki...
Persians vs. Greeks 
The persian empire was 50 times larger than greece 
The population was 50 times larger than greece 
T...
The ionian revolt 
Greek colonists of ionia revolt against persian 
controlled tyrants 
They ask sparta for help and are d...
Ionian Revolt 
Aristagoras orgainzed a revolt to expel Persian 
Puppet tyrants 
498 – Burning of sardis 
495 – Persians cr...
Marathon
Marathon
After Marathon 
• Proud moment for the athenians 
• Persians attempt to sail around the coast to 
attack athens 
• Athenia...
Events of the intermezzo 
487 – voting by lot in athens – themistocles 
becomes strategos 
486 - Persian king darius dies ...
Triremes 
Ancient battleships 
Made of timber 
Expensive 
Three tiers of rowers 
170 rowers 
Ram made of iron or bronze 
1...
Trireme
Triremes
hellespont
The hellespont
The hellespont – the narrows
The hellespont
Modern day turkey
Hellespont 
482-481 – the great king of persia, Xerxes orders a 
bridge to be built across the helespont 
The bridge is bu...
The second invasion 
The persians 
Herodotus & modern scholars 
100,000 – 150,000 Men 
The Greeks 
Not surprised 
481 – fo...
Hellenic League 
They meet in Corinth and select the Spartans as the overall 
commanders 
Greek troop strength – 30,000 to...
Battle of Thermopylae 
480 BC 
Xerxes thinks the battle will be easy 
Wood chipper effect 
Persians get crushed the first ...
Thermopylae Pass
Thermopylae Pass
Battle of Thermopylae 
3rd day – Xerxes sends the Immortals (always 10,000) and 
they get clobbered 
Xerxes gets word from...
Battle of Thermopylae 
Leonidas selected the Thebans and the Thespians because 
both states were active in medizing 
Theba...
After Thermopylae 
The persians move south towards attica 
Athenians evacuate Athens 
Athens burnt to the ground including...
The Battle of Salamis
The battles of Plataea & Mycale 
The persian land force was defeated by the 
greek alliance in the battle of plataea. 
5,0...
The Persian Threat 
After the catastrophic defeat the Persians no 
longed posed a threat to the greek world. 
The fifty ye...
Pentekontaetia – The Fifty-Year Period: 
478-431 
Athens is moving into military/naval dominance 
and empire building 
478...
Delian League 
Delian – Delos – met on the island of Delos – 
religious place sacred to Apollo 
When Sparta is asked to he...
The Birth of the Athenian Empire 
Athens was now making foreign policy 
decisions for 170 city-states 
Terms of Treaty 
Of...
Delian League continued 
Aristeides – ‘The Just’ – honest 
man/politician/Athenian strategos 
Set fees/dues on the members...
Cimon 
Cimon – Son of Miltiades, elected strategos, 
head of Delian League (NATO), wants the best 
few men to lead (oligar...
Cimon 
Proxemos/proxy (fill-in) there were no 
ambassadors in ancient Greek instead a member 
of the city-state would act ...
Actions between 15-year period: 
478-464 
No exact dates unless noted 
#1 Eion 
Northern Greece (located on the invasion r...
#1 - Eion 
Mt. Pangaeus – close to Eion/gold and silver 
mines in the region 
Delian League forces drive out the Persians ...
#2 Scyros 
Island 
Populated by pirates (like Somali pirates) 
Located on major trade routes: timber in northern Greece an...
#3 Carystus 
Southern tip of Euboea 
Nice natural harbor 
‘Medized’ in Persian Wars 
Did not join Delian League 
Cimon lea...
#4 Naxos 
Island in the southern Aegean 
Big Island 
Paid higher dues 
Refused to pay dues
The Naxian Treatment 
It would be bad precedence if the Naxians were allowed the 
leave the Delian League 
Cimon leads for...
#5 Eurymedon River - 468 
Modern day Turkey 
Close to Cypress 
Approx. 468 
Phoenician fleet (Persians) were operating off...
#6 Thasos - 465 
Island in the northern Aegean close to Mt. Pangaeus (silver 
and gold mines) 
Paid big tax to Delian Leag...
Delian League forces attack Thasos 
464 – The earthquake in Sparta prevented them from sending 
help 
Thasos is forced bac...
The end of Cimon 
Cimon uses his political credit to gain support to help the 
Spartans 
Cimon takes 4,000 hoplites 156 mi...
Thucydides 
Thucydides 
“Cannot trust Athenians – they may join the Helots” 
“Growing Spartan fear of growing Athenian pow...
Mt. Ithome – Proxy War 
Helots hold out 
Spartans make an offer to the Helots – Give up and leave 
Messenia and Laconia 
H...
Mt. Ithome 
Corinth – Spartan ally 
Athenians boot out the Naupactians 
Athens now has a strategically important naval bas...
461 – Cimon is now out of power – 
Pericles takes over 
Leading Democrat is now Ephialtes 
Ephialtes takes power from Aero...
Pericles & The Golden Age of Athens 
Pericles – more democratic than Ephialtes 
Took over in 461 
Very distinguished caree...
The US ‘Boot print’ on the modern world
1st Peloponnesian War 
461-446 
Misleading 
Minor skirmishes 
Sporadic fighting for 15 years
Pericles Foreign Policy 
Anti-persian 
Anti-spartan 
Uses his fleet aggressively
Pericles & Radical Democracy 
1. Payment for public service 
1. Poorer Zuegitae could now run for office 
2. Payments came...
Pericles & Radical Democracy 
2. Wider Eligibility for office 
• Pericles allowed citizens Archons 
• Thetes could now run...
Pericles & Radical Democracy 
3. Increased use of the lot 
Lower offices chosen by lot 
Other greeks viewed this as radica...
457 – the long walls 
Athenians decide to build walls from Athens to Piraeus 
4 miles long 
Use delian league funds 
Athen...
The Long Walls
Athenian setback in Egypt 
454 
Egyptians are in revolt against Persian rule 
Athenians send 100 ships to help rebels 
Dis...
Delos 
Delos Treasury 
The Athenians felt less secure in the Aegean 
Athenians decide to relocate the treasure on 
Delos t...
Epigraphy & the Athenian Tribute Quota List 
The study of inscriptions 
Studies showed how much each city-state paid in du...
Peace of Callias - 449 
Athens and Persians agree to non-aggression pact 
Now there is no reason for the Delian League 
Al...
Colony vs. Cleruchy 
Colony vs. Cleruchy 
Colony – Different meaning in ancient times 
Example: Athens is growing too big ...
Athenian Empire 
Height of Athenians Imperialism 
Ache – Empire 
City-states are now subjects of Athens
446 – Thirty Years 
446 – Thirty Years Peace 
Treaty signed between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) 
and the Athe...
Power of Pericles 
443 – Thucydides, son of Melesias (not the famous historian) 
Leading Oligarch figure 
Ostracized 
Chie...
Establishment of Athenian Citizenship 
If both parents were Athenians the child was granted 
citizenship (Pericles) 
When ...
Establishment of Athenian Citizenship 
The Demesmen could then vouch for a fellow citizen 
All Demes had names 
Typical Na...
Building of the Parthenon 
Built after the Peace of Callias 
449 – Pericles calls conference of the 31 states that allied ...
The Parthenon
The Parthenon
The Parthenon
The Parthenon
The Parthenon
440 – Revolt of Samos 
Island off the coast of Asia Minor 
Samos had 50-60 ships 
Most serious revolt by far 
Atrocities c...
Revolt of Samos
Xenophon 
Zen-o-Phen – Writer 
420s – Pseudo-Xenophon or “Old Oligarch” – Constitution of 
Athens 
Essay – Does not like d...
SHORT FUSES TO PELOPONNESIAN WAR 
SHORT FUSE #1: 433 – Athens and Corcyra 
(Modern day – Corfu) 
NW island of Greece 
Corc...
SHORT FUSE #1: 433 – Athens and Corcyra - 
continued 
Corcyra helps the Oligarchs of Epidamnus and intercepts and defeats ...
Battle of Sybota 
Athens sends two convoys – the first a meager ten ships 
The battle unfolded with both sides making some...
Battle of Sybota
SHORT FUSE #2 – Athens and Potidaea – 432 
Potidaea – Delian League member, colony of Corinth, revolt 
against league, go ...
SHORT FUSE #3 – Athens and Megara – 432 
Megara – close to Attica 
member of the Peloponnesian League 
on invasion route f...
432 – Meeting of the Peloponnesian League 
Allies (Megara, Corinthians, Aegina) air grievances against 
athens 
The Corint...
431 – THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR BEGINS 
Spartans mobilize troops 
Athens ask for arbitration (part of the 30 yrs. Peace) 
Spar...
Pericles 
Charismatic 
hot wife 
genius 
compelling
Pericles 
“The issue is not whether we give up Megara, it is do 
we give up the empire? If we give into the Spartans 
they...
Aftermath 
Ekklesia votes not to lift the decree on Megara 
Archidamus – Spartan King and 60,000 troops march into 
Attica...
Athenian/Pericles – strategy to win the war 
Play to Athenian strengths 
Do not expand the empire during the war 
Use flee...
In Athens… 
Pericles becomes less and less popular as Attica is invaded 
Athenians performing hit and run attacks with its...
Pericles – The Epitaphios 
Athens is a model to others 
Ekklesia voted to go to war 
We have a legal system which allows t...
Pericles – The Epitaphios 
We have education, they send boys to the agoge 
We have both powerful land and sea forces 
Spar...
430 – PLAGUE AT 
ATHENS 
Occurs almost immediately after the speech of Pericles 
Disease spread from Egypt 
Hit the port o...
The Plague 
Contagious 
Spread like wildfire 
Highly contagious 
Doctors that helped contracted the disease (enflamed the ...
The Plague 
Immune Survivors 
Gangrene 
Fingers and toes would lose 
circulation, fall off 
Birds and 4 legged animals 
co...
429 – Death of Pericles 
Two sons also die – Xanthippas and Paralos (beside the sea) 
Pericles has another son by a non-At...
After Pericles 
Cleon – Strategos 
Takes over for Pericles 
Blue collar 
Disliked by Thucydides
Rebellion of Mytilene 
Island of Lesbos 
Big fleet 
Athens engages in bitter fighting/atrocities committed by both 
sides ...
425 – Pylos/Sphacteria 
Southwest Peloponnese 
Athenian fleet built fort on Peloponnese 
Wall to protect themselves from S...
Archidamus – Spartan leader 
Did not want war with Athens 
Led invasion on Attica 
Spartans want to take Amphipolis 
Brasi...
422-21 
422 Cleon is killed in the failed attempt to retake Amphipolis 
421 Peace of Nicias 
Nicias is a battlefield comma...
416 – Athens and Melos 
Southern Aegean island, Dorians 
Neutral 
Athens decides that Melos is helping Spartans 
Athenian ...
415 – Sicilian Expedition 
Athenians sent huge force with three commanders: 
Alcibiades – brilliant, hawkish, wild lifesty...
415 - Syracuse
4th c. Through the career of Philip 
II 
Post war Greece 
War hard on both sides 
Cost of war was tremendous 
Horrific los...
The Polis System 
Intellectuals now asking if the polis system 
What is the alternative? 
One king ruling over a unified g...
Post-War Sparta 
Sparta attempts to keep Ionian Coast 
Persia does not react right way 
Problems in persia 
Problems in ro...
Persia: March of the 10,000 
Cyrus (Satrap) wants to overthrow artaxerxes II 
Cyrus builds force of 13,000 greek hoplites ...
Battle of cunaxa 
Cyrus (25,000-30,000) vs. Artaxerxes (larger 
army) 
Heavy fighting 
Greeks are the only soldiers left a...
After the battle 
Artaxerxes sends a message to the greeks calling for 
a meeting 
Greeks send their officers and they are...
4th Century Greece 
Era of shifting alliances and leagues of more 
equal types 
Battle of Coronea – 394 
Quad alliance vs....
Battle of Cnidas 
394 
Persian fleet vs. Spartan Fleet 
Persians ally with athens 
Persians win the naval battle 
Spartan ...
The kings peace 
387 
Persians regain control of the ionian coast 
Embarrassment to the Greeks
Second Athenian league 
378 
Rebuilt long walls 
No dues paid to athens 
Easier to opt out
Athens and sparta 
374 
Athens and Sparta agree on a non-aggression 
pact 
Sparta is greatly weakened 
Only 1200 full bloo...
Thebes: Emerging power 
Thebes 
394-374: Theban power growing and spartan 
power waning 
Biggest city in Boeotia 
Better s...
Battle of Leuctra 
371 
Thebes vs. Sparta and allies 
Spartans outnumbered the thebans 
10,000 – 7,000 
Sacred band of the...
Theban Power 
Thebans are #1 power for a decade 
Thebans free the helots 
Create city for the helots – megalopolis 
Preven...
Philip II – Hostage of thebes 
Treaties include the taking of royal hostages 
Philip II – Hostage of Thebes 
14 years old ...
362 – Battle of mantinea 
Takes place in the Peloponnese 
Sparta vs. Thebans 
Tactical Draw or victory for thebans 
Epamin...
The macedonians 
thick accent – hard to understand 
Bias sources – ‘hill people’ 
‘country bumkins’ 
Can’t control their o...
Macedonians 
Never organized into a centralized state until 
Philip II – 359 BC 
Timber, metals, Grain in excess 
Took The...
Philip II 
Military reforms – most power ancient military 
Creates standing professional army 
Philip – 25 thousand 
Alexa...
Philip’s Army 
Bulk of force is heavy infantry 
Force includes lightly armed troops – gymnoi 
Slingers/archers – softened ...
Macedonian Phalanx
Philip’s Tactics 
Philip’s infantry – the macedonian phalanx will 
make up the center 
The slingers/archers initiate the b...
Philip’s finishes off his enemies 
Philip will now pursue his enemies even after the 
battle 
Total destruction of the ene...
Philip’s personality 
Three addictions 
Alcohol 
Sex 
Power 
Philip had 5-7 wives & many mistresses 
Hyper-active sexdrive
Philip secures his borders 
It took several years to secure the border of macedon
The history of Philip:358-56 
358-356 – victories over the hill tribes 
Lays siege on Amphipolis, mines of crenidas) 
1,00...
The history of Philip: 356 
Philip uses his army to secure his borders 
356 – receives three messages all bearing good new...
Philip: 354-348 
354: Siege of methone 
Philip loses an eye 
352: Involvement in thessaly 
Becomes adjunct of macedon 
Hor...
Philip: 348-340 
348: takes olynthus: leading city of the chalcidian league 
Savior of apollo 
Athenian reaction 
Demosthe...
338: battle of chaeronea 
4th august 
Critical battle on western civilization and greek 
history 
End of greek liberty 
Ba...
338: battle of chaeronea 
Mr. Hoke will draw! 
Macedonians backing off/holding ranks 
Alexander attacks break in line 
Phi...
The end of Philip:338-6 
Meeting at corinth 
New hellenic league 
Philip named hegemon (leader) 
Offensive league (Ionian ...
The end of Philip:336 
To settle a family dispute philip offers his daughter cleopatra to 
alexander of epirus 
Wedding ce...
The end of Philip:336 
Philip enters with alexander 
One of philip’s bodyGuards steps forward and 
plunges a dagger into p...
Who killed philip II? 
Pausanius (1) – lover of philip 
Philip dumped him 
Pausanius is invited to attalus’ house 
He is g...
After philip 
Who killed philip? 
Cui bono? – Who does it benefit? 
Olympias & alexander 
Olympias puts flowers on Pausani...
Philip’s accomplishments 
• Unification of macedonia 
• Fostering of greek culture (hellenization) 
• Promotion of urbaniz...
Alexander of Macedon 
Put notes in on Alexander
The hellenistic age 
The hellenistic age is the name given to the 
period from the reign of Alexander (336-323) to 
the Ro...
The hellenistic age
The hellenistic age 
Many of the old cities of greece continued to 
exist as important cultural and political centers. 
Th...
Hellenistic monarchies 
The typical hellenistic monarch had to be a 
military commander. 
Frequent disputes 
Large armies ...
Hellenistic monarchies 
Frequent Celtic (gauls) raids 
Sacked delphi in 279-77 
Settled on the coast of asia-minor in 238 ...
Alexandria, Egypt 
Alexandria, Egypt 
Ruled by the ptolemic dynasty 
Grandest capital 
Intellectual capital 
Library of Al...
Alexandria, Egypt 
Museums – means a place of the Muses 
Cultivation of the arts and a place where learning 
takes place. ...
Cities in the hellenistic age 
the founding of cities was important in the 
hellenisitic age 
Grid patterns 
Example of a ...
Monarchs & politics 
Kings would boast that they were preserving his 
city’s independence 
Democratic assemblies continued...
Athens 
Athens maintained its independence 
3rd century bc – Economic crisis 
Rising grain prices 
Falling olive oil price...
Precedent of Alexander 
The monarch was accepted as a favorite of the gods 
Dead kings became the focus of dynastic cults ...
The ptolemies 
Needed revenue to build their capital city and defend it 
Aroused deep resentment among the local people 
I...
Hellenism 
It was essential to speak greek 
Greek values and customs were spread all over 
the mediterranean world and to ...
Women in the hellenistic world 
women were given a higher profile 
Right to divorce 
Mutual affection – love 
Women held p...
Conclusion 
Began to lose their vigour by the 3rd century 
By 241 all the greek cities of sicily except 
syracuse were und...
The etruscans & Early Rome 
Etruscans originated in italy 
Alphabet derived from the greeks 
Highly religious 
Archaeologi...
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History
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The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History

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This slide show was created using notes from my Eastern Michigan University Master's level class entitled, 'Ancient Greek History' with Dr. Holoka - please email with any corrections or possible additions at bhoke@summit-academy.com

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The History of Ancient Greece - Brion Hoke, Greco-Roman History

  1. 1. Ancient Greece Mr. Hoke
  2. 2. Introduction Ways to look at history: P – Political/Military E – Economic R – Religion S – Social (The family unit) I – Intellectual (Greeks invented history, philosophy and drama) A – Artistic
  3. 3. Coast of attica
  4. 4. Greece
  5. 5. Greece
  6. 6. Greece
  7. 7. The Thermopylae pass
  8. 8. What will this class cover? This class will cover Greek history from 3000 to 323 BC Chronology: 6000-3000 – Neolithic 3000-2000 – Early Bronze Age (EBA) 2000-1500 – Middle Bronze Age (MBA) 1500-1100 – Late Bronze Age (LBA) 1100-800 – Greek Dark Ages 800-500 – Archaic Age 500-323 – Classical Age 323-30 – Hellenistic Age
  9. 9. Neolithic (6000-3000 BC) Around 6000 people settled into small communities Farming was introduced No idea on what language they spoke
  10. 10. Early Bronze Age (3000-2000) New people arrived Used bronze to create tools and weapons Bronze spread from Near East (Egypt) to Greece No writing
  11. 11. Middle Bronze Age (2000- 1500) Around 2000 the first Greek people arrived Architecture looks different New pottery Horses introduced
  12. 12. Late Bronze Age (1500- 1100) Huge changes No ‘new’ people Acceleration of MBA technology Mycenae – largest city with fortified walls (meant war existed) Destruction of Troy by invaders around 1200 Aggressive warlike people Clay tablets found show evidence of language – Linear A
  13. 13. Late Bronze Age – Mycenae
  14. 14. The Lions Gate - Mycenae
  15. 15. Late Bronze Age - Mycenae
  16. 16. Heinrich Schliemann
  17. 17. Dark Ages (1100-800)  Bronze Age system collapses Coming of the sea people occurred all over the Eastern Mediterranean Bronze age sites abandoned  Many theories – climate, war, economics?  Lost ¾ of the population  Dorians arrived around 1100  No writing  Architecture takes a hit  Pottery is boring  Big Setback for civilization
  18. 18. Archaic (800-500) Given the name ‘Archaic’ simply because it comes before the classical period Exciting period in history Emergence of new civilization Olympics (776 BC) Alphabet introduced Democracy (508 BC) First works of Western Lit – Homer (Iliad & Odyssey)
  19. 19. Michael Ventris
  20. 20. Classical (500-323) Persian Wars (500-479) Rome founded (476) Persian Empire – huge and aggressive 3 to 4 times the size of Greece Ends with Alexander the Great (323)
  21. 21. Hellenistic (323-30) After Alexander Macedonian Empire breaks into Hellenistic Kingdoms Rome is rising When Cleopatra dies, Egypt falls to Rome (30)
  22. 22. Resources/Geography of Greece Greece is arid and semi-tropical Difficult to grow crops Sea was the ‘GREAT CONNECTOR’ allowing vast trade Wars were fought over three things: Food, timber and mining (gold and silver)
  23. 23. Bronze Age: Troy in Fact & Fiction Reality of Troy 10,000 – 20,000 population Heavily fortified Center of trade/textile manufacturing Place of interest to superpowers (Hittites/Greeks) Trojans were Hittites or vassals of the Hittite state Trojans charged a tariff to pass though the Hellespont
  24. 24. Canakkale, Turkey
  25. 25. Istanbul Archaeological museum
  26. 26. The whirling dervishes
  27. 27. Troy – Level 9 – Roman Era
  28. 28. After visiting Troy!
  29. 29. Beginning of Archaeology Sir Arthur Evans discovered the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete Michael Ventris deciphered Linear B in 1952 Heinrich Schliemann – Excavated both Mycenae and Troy
  30. 30. Heinrich Schliemann 1870s – Excavated Mycenae and Troy Not a scholar Brilliant, wealthy businessman His passion was to prove that Troy existed Smuggled treasures out of Turkey (to Germany) After Troy he went to Mycenae in Greece The Greeks supervised the excavation to make sure that the treasure was not stolen
  31. 31. Heinrich Schliemann
  32. 32. Homer First author of Western Civilization Passed stories down through songs Oral dictated text Iliad Odyssey Both poems published around 725 BC
  33. 33. Greek Gods The Greeks were Henotheistic Henotheism – Belief in one supreme god among many Zeus – Most powerful god, son of Kronos and grandson of Ouranos Married to his sister – Hera Hyperactive sex-drive Less moral than most gods Sidebar – Hesiod - Poet
  34. 34. Greek Gods Kronos, father of Zeus overthrows Ouranos Kronos fearing that one of his children will overthrow him eats all of his children except one (Zeus) Zeus’ mother Rheina deceives Kronos and smuggles Zeus to Crete Zeus overthrows Kronos Zeus has many offspring who could become a threat
  35. 35. Greek Gods Thetis – Sea-goddess who was destined to bear a great child Zeus was afraid so he arranged from Thetis to marry a human (Peleus) so the child would be a less powerful Demi-god – Achilles Eris – Goddess of Discord/Divorce – When she finds out that she is not invited to the Thetis’ wedding, she sends a package – a golden apple with the inscription ‘To the most beautiful women’
  36. 36. Greek Gods When Zeus’ wife, Hera and his two daughters, Athena and Aphrodite all claim the apple, Zeus refused to select one of the three Hermes takes the three ladies to Troy to see Paris, prince of Troy The three ladies all attempt to bride Paris Hera offers political control of Asia Athena offers great military power Aphrodite offers the love of the most beautiful women in the world - Helen
  37. 37. Helen Helen had many suitors from all over Greece Her father allows her to select her husband – Menelaus, King of Sparta All other suitors agree to protect Helen if she is ever harmed or abducted – origin of the Trojan War
  38. 38. Paris, Prince of Troy Travels to Sparta where he is treated in alignment with the Greek-Host Code (Treat strangers well) Menelaus leaves town and while he is away Paris either elopes with or abducts Helen along with treasures from the Spartan palace Menelaus calls on his brother Agamemnon to gather the troops and retrieve Helen All the great Greek heroes fight in this war (Culture of Shame)
  39. 39. Odysseus, King of Ithaca Happily married Attempted to dodge the draft Pretends to be mentally ill Officials took his son – Odysseus decided to fight The war cost Odysseus 20 years of his life – the ten year war and another 10 to get home
  40. 40. The Trojan War 1225 BC – Date of the Trojan War 1184 BC – Greek date of the Trojan War Every educated Greco-Roman person knew Homer and it promoted moral values and allowed the Greeks to understand their worldview. The Iliad and the Odyssey were taken in like mother’s milk
  41. 41. The Trojan War SHAME vs. GUILT (Culture) 10 year saga All of Helen’s suitors had taken an oath to retrieve her Upon the arrival on the shores of Troy, the Greeks needed food and women The raided the villages on the Troad (outside of Troy)
  42. 42. The Trojan War They shared the booty by class Kings got first dibs Agamemnon, King of Mycenae and the ruling king of the Greeks went to the island of gold, Chryse and took Chryseis as his trophy concubine Her father, Chryses, a priest of Apollo came to Agamemnon and asked for his daughter back
  43. 43. The Trojan War Reading from Book One of the Iliad Agamemnon to Chryses “Never let me find you again old man” Agamemnon added that the girl would be his slave and then the king sent Chryses on his way Not long after the Greeks came down with the plague Nothing in the ancient world happened by change – EVERYTHING WAS ATRIBUTED TO THE GODS
  44. 44. The Death Mask of Agamemnon
  45. 45. The Trojan War Achilles, son of Peleus and Thetis called a meeting to discuss the plague and how the Greeks could get back into good graces with the gods Kalchus, a priest – sidebar (Agamemnon’s daughter) Kalchus told Agamemnon to give back Chryseis to her father Agamemnon returned the girl and then took Achilles concubine, Briseis Achilles decided to return home and he took his Myrmidons with him
  46. 46. Trojan War There are 24 Books in the Iliad and Achilles does not return until Book 19 – Culture of Shame Achilles returns when his best friend, Patroklos was killed by Hecktor and Agamemnon agreed to return Chyseis to her father (Sidebar – Religion)
  47. 47. Heroic Code – Homer – Book 6 – Iliad Hektor goes back to Troy to see his wife, Andromache and son, Astyanax. Andromache’s entire family was wiped out by Greek raids in the Troad. Andromache asks Hektor to fight defensively and stay inside the walls of Troy.
  48. 48. Heroic Code – Homer – Book 6 – Iliad Hektor says he would feel deep shame if he did not fight for his father, King Priam and the people of Troy. Hektor knew that the Trojans would eventually be defeated, his wife enslaved and still he fought. This was the last time that the family would be together. Hektor lived and died by the Heroic Code to avoid SHAME.
  49. 49. Heroic Code Sarpedon and his sidekick Glauckos were nobles from Lykia. At the time the Trojans were winning the war and the Greeks were forced to build walls to protect the ships. Glauckos catches Sarpedon hanging back from the battle and then asks him why they have such great things at home? Glauckos then says we earn them here on the battlefield.
  50. 50. Heroic Code Noblesse Obliqe – Nobility Obligates The theory was that you may die anyway so one should achieve glory while going to their death. Glory is compensation in a culture of SHAME and allows men to live on in the minds of men.
  51. 51. Helen – Book 3 – Iliad Description of Helen Old men – advisors of King Priam These men feel the beauty of Helen without describing her The reader is allowed to visualize their own Helen
  52. 52. The Iliad The Iliad ends when the Greeks deceive the Trojans Greek soldiers hide inside the large wooden horse and seemingly return to Greece The horse, an offering to the Gods is brought inside the Walls of Troy The Trojans celebrate, get dunk and go to bed
  53. 53. The Iliad As the Trojans slept, the Greeks emerged from the horse, swung over the gates and let in their comrades Troy was sacked, burned to the ground, its men killed to the man, the women and children enslaved
  54. 54. End of Unit #1 What did you learn? Chronological history of Greek history from 6000 BC to 30 BC & Location of prominent locations in Greece and Asia Minor The story of the Trojan War A basic understanding of the Greek Gods There will be two quizzes this week Quiz #1 will cover the Chronology/Map – Wednesday Quiz #2 will cover the Trojan War and Greek Gods - Friday Exam #1 – Next Wednesday (Review on Tuesday)
  55. 55. Unit #2: Archaic I The Polis – ‘City-centered state’ Controls region or territory Plural – Poleis Politeia – Constitution; The Greeks had no written constitution. It worked on precedence. This is the system of governance of the city-state.
  56. 56. Greece - Hellas Modern greece is about the size of michigan 700’s – Greece had around 600 city-states. Each one an independent country. The average size of the city-state was 80 square miles.
  57. 57. Branches of government Executive/Leaders Athens Sparta Archons/Leaders Kings & Ephors/ Overseers
  58. 58. Branches of government Advisory – Elders from prominent families Athens (2 Advisory Boards) Sparta Areopagus Gerousia Elders (30 members – 2 Kings and 28 others 60 or older) Boule
  59. 59. Branches of government Ratification Assembly – everybody else that counted as a citizen. Athens Sparta Ekklesia Apellai
  60. 60. athens Located in Attica (Peninsula) 4 miles from the sea About the size of Rhode Island or 1,000 square miles Synoikismos – Living together/Allegiance to Athens The larger territory of Athens gave them an advantage in manpower and Athens was on its way to becoming a great naval power
  61. 61. Map of athens
  62. 62. The Acropolis
  63. 63. The Theatre of Dionysus
  64. 64. Athens – Archon system Replaces monarchs at the end of the dark ages (except Sparta & macedonia) We do not know how the kings fell
  65. 65. Athens – Archon system Term limit – 1 year (typically) Could run once for archon Power is compartmentalized Nine archons elected each year Must be at least 30 years old to serve as an archon (usually older)
  66. 66. Athens - Nine archons One – Eponymous Archon – Leading archon Six - thesmothetae – Law Givers/Enforcement One - king Archon – Head of state religion Kept gods on their side Organized festivals One - polemarchos – Head of military
  67. 67. Areopagus – Athenian Council Once a man spent one year as an archon he then moved into the areopagus for life Archons used the areopagus as an advisory board
  68. 68. Athens – 7th c. BC Total population – estimated 120,000 60,000 women 30,000 children 30,000 – 40,000 adult male citizens
  69. 69. Social Economic system 7th century – athens – three classes 1.) Hippeis Millionaires Blue bloods – family name was important Wealthiest class Raised horses Income came from fertile land 2-5% of total population (1,000) Thought of as genetically different Used the word ‘demos’ (vulgar or scum of the earth) to describe the other classes
  70. 70. Social Economic system 7th century – athens – three classes 2.) Zeugitae Owned land (not good land) Just getting by – there is no middle class Small farmers 40-60% of total population Became important when men were needed to create hoplite (infantry) armies Sometimes starving and in need of help
  71. 71. Social Economic system 7th century – athens – three classes 3.) Thetes Below poverty line No land Laborers Some homeless 40-60% of the population Slaves
  72. 72. Athens – who gets to Vote? Land owners – Hippeis and zuegitae Had personal stake in government as landowners In 594 BC Solon gives the thetes the right to vote
  73. 73. Hoplite revolution in 675 BC pheidon of argos – created the hoplite army Prior to 675 bc cavalry was primary and in 675 BC a revolution shifts emphasis from cavalry to infantry
  74. 74. Hoplite warrior Hoplite – greek infantry warrior Hoploi – set of armor (panoply) Hoplite warrior description Armed in bronze and iron Greaves (shin guards) Helmet with felt/leather for cushion Shield – circular – 20-25 pounds
  75. 75. Hoplite warrior weaponry Hoplite warrior – weapons Spear – primary Short sword All weapons made of bronze or iron Total pack weight was approx. 70 pounds
  76. 76. Hoplite tactics Phalanx – Block of men – 8 men – 8 rows deep In blocks of 500 men Moved in unison Men must hold rank to be effective The right side – toughest When the argives defeated the spartans, the spartans adopted the hoplite system Within a generation the hoplite system spread
  77. 77. Hoplite tactics The hoplite was based on force The men in the middle and in the rear would push – like a rugby scrum When the battle was decided, the losers would turn and run The victors would mark ‘Troph’ on the spot where the defeated turned and ran
  78. 78. The zeugitae as hoplite 675 bc – right when the zeugitae were having a difficult time surviving there services were in high demand to serve as hoplite warriors
  79. 79. Hektemoroi – 1/6 Zeugitae became impoverished to the point where the started to take loans from the hippeis class and later the zeugitae were forced to pay 1/6 of their crops. If the debt went unpaid the Hippeis could take the farmer and or his son(s) as slaves A member of the zeugitae class could go off to war and come back and forced into slavery Potential for revolution
  80. 80. Tyranny Tyrant – (not like hitler or stalin) Tyranny – In greek it means to come to power illegitimately or unconstitutionally – not elected/coup de tat A segment of the hippeis class was disgruntled and led an uprising of Zeugitae This happened in many city-states in the 7th c BC (AKA – period of tyrants) There were approximately 600 city-states and most were oligarchies
  81. 81. 632 BC - Cylon’s Attempted Tyranny Cylon – Tyrant Seized the Athenian Acropolis, 632 BC Eponymous Archon at the time was Megacles When Cylon seized the Acropolis his troops did not show up to support him Cylon Escapes leaving his small army on their own Megacles offers the rebels a deal – lay down your arms and surrender and then into exile On their way out of Athens, Megacles orders them to be massacred – the revolt was put down violently
  82. 82. 621 BC – Draco & the Law First written code of law in Athens Draconian Law – very harsh Capital punishment for many crimes Instituted homicide law Intentional vs. unintentional Shame-retaliation-vendetta One could offer compensation to the victim Lower class benefits – law applied to all
  83. 83. 594 BC – Solon – “Seisachteia” Seis – Seismic Achth – weight Eia – off Solon Truly wise man Non-partisan – trusted by both sides Fair Selected by hippeis & Zeugatae to reform athens as the arbitrator Solon was allowed to fix the system – radical changes
  84. 84. Reforms of solon Canceled debt Abolished debt slavery Established the people’s court – trial by jury Expands citizenship – opens immigration Created jobs
  85. 85. Economic Reforms of solon Solon forbids sale of grain outside of attica Shift to olive oil (expensive) production Wine exported Three big crops were: Olives, Grapes and Grain Entrepreneur class entered athens Solon created jobs – we need another solon!!!!!!
  86. 86. Four part social class system - solon 1.) Pentekosiomedimnoi – 500 bushels 2.) Hippeis – 300-499 3.) Zeugitae – 200-299 4.) Thetes - < 200 Allowed for social and economic mobility
  87. 87. Solon’s new government Archons – From first (pente) or second class (Hippeis) Boule of 400 – from first, second or third classes All four classes were members of the ekklesia (assembly – all could vote) Solon is the grandfather of democracy Solon goes into exile for 10 years
  88. 88. 560 – tyranny in Athens Peisistratus First coup failed in 560 Two sons – hipparchus & hippias 546 – Peisistratus brings army to athens and becomes tyrant Good man Took financial pressure off the poor Used personal wealth to help the poor Vigorous foreign policy Added public amenities Patronage of religion and arts
  89. 89. Peisistratus - continued Panatheniac festival to honor athena Athletic competition Great prizes Poetry readings Religious events Homer recited Meat available Made people feel good to be ‘athenian’ Sense of patriotism
  90. 90. Hipparchus 527-514 – When Peisistratus died, his son hipparchus took power as tyrant in athens Hipparchus was assassinated in 514 by Harmodius & Aristogeiton Homosexual love triangle gone bad Both assassins are executed Hipparchus’ brother hippias takes power
  91. 91. Assassination of hipparchus
  92. 92. Hippias 514-510 After hipparchus was assassinated his brother, hippias took control as tyrant In 510, with help from the spartans, hippias was overthrown by the family of megacles – the alcmaeonids Hippias was evil and the athenians once again were in need of a new governmental system
  93. 93. Athenians adopt democracy 508 Cleisthenes – father of democracy Revamp social/economic system into 10 tribes/administrative districts 10 Archons – 1 from each tribe Council of 500 – 50 from each tribe Ten strategos – 1 military general from each tribe Strategos held the real power over archons
  94. 94. 508 – 417 ostracism Method to head off tyranny Many popular athenians were ostracized Ostrakon – pottery shard – used to vote Assembly met 40 times per year 6,000 votes needed to ostracize Honorable exile – 1o years
  95. 95. Ostrakon
  96. 96. Ostrakon
  97. 97. Sparta Spartiates Aristocrats with special privledges Blood related Prideful High expectations 20% of population
  98. 98. Perioikoi Perioikoi Those dwelling about in Laconia Not Spartans Served as infantry Allowed to vote Owned farms Not allowed to hold public office 25-30% of the population
  99. 99. Helots To Capture (helen) POWs – Messenia Owned by the state Worked the land Largest % of the population Posed a threat of revolt
  100. 100. The 5th c. BC & The Greco-persian wars Unit #3 – Greco-Roman History Mr. Hoke
  101. 101. Unit #3 Big Questions: What set the stage for the greco-persian wars? What did lydia have to do with the origins of the wars? What caused the greco-persian wars? High Taxes? Tyrants in greek colonies? Persian imperialism? The Ionian Revolt The major battles of the Greco-persian wars: Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis, Plataea and mycale Aftermath of the Greco-persian wars
  102. 102. The Greco-Persian Wars - Introduction Timeline of events 546 BC – Persians take Lydia 530-522 BC – Persians take egypt 522-486 bc – Persians move into Thrace, imperial ambitions in europe Persian Collusion with hippias
  103. 103. The Greco-Persian Wars Timeline - continued 499-494 BC – Ionian Revolt – Persian victory 490 bc – Battle of Marathon: The first persian invasion 483 BC – Athenians strike silver 480 BC – Battle of Thermopylae: The second Persian invasion 480 BC – Battle of salamis 479 BC – Battle of plataea 479 BC – Battle of mycale: The final battle
  104. 104. The Enemy of the Greeks: The persians Iranian Iran, Iraq – center of persian empire 6th c. BC – Persia emerges as a powerful empire under the leadership of cyrus the great (559-530) The next three persian kings added enormous territory to the empire from north africa to modern day india
  105. 105. Croesus of lydia No external threat existed between 800-500 (The Archaic Age) Story of the lydian king 544 Croesus, king of lydia decided to invade the persian empire Went to consult the delphic oracle Question posed: “what will happen if I cross the halys river?” Pythia says, “If you cross the Halys river, you will destroy a great kingdom.” It was lydia that was wiped out First contact between the Persian empire and the greek colonists of asia minor
  106. 106. Persians vs. Greeks The persian empire was 50 times larger than greece The population was 50 times larger than greece The Greeks referred to the non-greeks as ‘barbaroi’ – those who do not speak greek 544-499 – Persians in control of Greek colonies on the coast of asia minor Persian taxation on greek colonists Persians install puppet Greek tyrants to police state and collect taxes
  107. 107. The ionian revolt Greek colonists of ionia revolt against persian controlled tyrants They ask sparta for help and are denied They then ask athens for help and they send 20 ships and 4,000 men The greek alliance burns sardis The temples of sardis are destroyed Persians swear revenge
  108. 108. Ionian Revolt Aristagoras orgainzed a revolt to expel Persian Puppet tyrants 498 – Burning of sardis 495 – Persians crush revolt at the battle of lade
  109. 109. Marathon
  110. 110. Marathon
  111. 111. After Marathon • Proud moment for the athenians • Persians attempt to sail around the coast to attack athens • Athenians are waiting for the persians • The persians turn and head home • Intermezzo – break between combat between greece and persia
  112. 112. Events of the intermezzo 487 – voting by lot in athens – themistocles becomes strategos 486 - Persian king darius dies 483 – Athenian silver strike – Laurium Athenian’s decide! Athenians double the size of their fleet From 100 ships to 200 Athenians build Piraeus (port) Themistocles is the most prominent politician and is responsible for persuading the athenian people to add the ships
  113. 113. Triremes Ancient battleships Made of timber Expensive Three tiers of rowers 170 rowers Ram made of iron or bronze 120 feet long 20 feet wide Had sails (not used during combat) 20-30 marines
  114. 114. Trireme
  115. 115. Triremes
  116. 116. hellespont
  117. 117. The hellespont
  118. 118. The hellespont – the narrows
  119. 119. The hellespont
  120. 120. Modern day turkey
  121. 121. Hellespont 482-481 – the great king of persia, Xerxes orders a bridge to be built across the helespont The bridge is built using old ships and papyrus cables Built two bridges one mile long One bridge had walls for the animals It took the persian army two weeks to cross the hellespont The army was provisioned by sea
  122. 122. The second invasion The persians Herodotus & modern scholars 100,000 – 150,000 Men The Greeks Not surprised 481 – form hellenic league Out of 600 city-states only 31 join
  123. 123. Hellenic League They meet in Corinth and select the Spartans as the overall commanders Greek troop strength – 30,000 to 35,000 outnumbered 3-5 to 1 Greeks debated over what battlefield to select many city-states wanted to defend the isthmus of Corinth (not Athens) – they finally decided on Thermopylae (a bottleneck)
  124. 124. Battle of Thermopylae 480 BC Xerxes thinks the battle will be easy Wood chipper effect Persians get crushed the first two days Xerxes’ half-brother was killed on the second day
  125. 125. Thermopylae Pass
  126. 126. Thermopylae Pass
  127. 127. Battle of Thermopylae 3rd day – Xerxes sends the Immortals (always 10,000) and they get clobbered Xerxes gets word from a local named Epilates on a pass that leads to the Greek rear Xerxes sends the Immortals at night Leonidas had 1,000 Phocians blocking the path and they are slaughtered by the Immortals One Phocian gets away and gets word to Leonidas Leonidas sends troops home except 400 Thebans, 700 Thespians and 300 Spartiates
  128. 128. Battle of Thermopylae Leonidas selected the Thebans and the Thespians because both states were active in medizing Thebans bail out Thespians fight and die to the last man (like the Spartans) Horrific fighting Xerxes mutilated the body of Leonidas Persians move south towards Attica
  129. 129. After Thermopylae The persians move south towards attica Athenians evacuate Athens Athens burnt to the ground including the acropolis by the persians Spartans want to build a wall at corinth Themistocles believes building the wall was a big mistake Themistocles wanted to sucker the persians into a narrow bay (salamis)
  130. 130. The Battle of Salamis
  131. 131. The battles of Plataea & Mycale The persian land force was defeated by the greek alliance in the battle of plataea. 5,000 spartans each brought 7 helots The Greek fleet that followed the persians on their retreat engaged and defeated the king’s navy in the battle of mycale
  132. 132. The Persian Threat After the catastrophic defeat the Persians no longed posed a threat to the greek world. The fifty year period known as the Pentekoetaetia began.
  133. 133. Pentekontaetia – The Fifty-Year Period: 478-431 Athens is moving into military/naval dominance and empire building 478- Post War Persians gone The Greek city-states form an alliance – THE DELIAN LEAGUE
  134. 134. Delian League Delian – Delos – met on the island of Delos – religious place sacred to Apollo When Sparta is asked to head the league they refuse Athens accepts leadership of the Delian League (logical choice – Athens has the largest navy) 170 city-states in the Delian League
  135. 135. The Birth of the Athenian Empire Athens was now making foreign policy decisions for 170 city-states Terms of Treaty Offensive and defensive alliance All city-states paid dues to Athens to maintain the fleet or add men and ships to the fleet (most city states paid)
  136. 136. Delian League continued Aristeides – ‘The Just’ – honest man/politician/Athenian strategos Set fees/dues on the members of the Delian League Later ostracized 471 - Themistocles ostracized
  137. 137. Cimon Cimon – Son of Miltiades, elected strategos, head of Delian League (NATO), wants the best few men to lead (oligarch)
  138. 138. Cimon Proxemos/proxy (fill-in) there were no ambassadors in ancient Greek instead a member of the city-state would act as Proxemos and represent another city-state Cimon – Proxemos for Sparta – because Cimon liked the Spartan Oligarchy he represented Sparta and even named his son Lacedaemonius (Sparty)
  139. 139. Actions between 15-year period: 478-464 No exact dates unless noted #1 Eion Northern Greece (located on the invasion route of Xerxes 480) Persian presence Cimon calls Delian League forces
  140. 140. #1 - Eion Mt. Pangaeus – close to Eion/gold and silver mines in the region Delian League forces drive out the Persians Athenians establish Amphipolis Athenians want to control the mines
  141. 141. #2 Scyros Island Populated by pirates (like Somali pirates) Located on major trade routes: timber in northern Greece and grain in the Ukraine Cimon lands fleet and crushes Scyros Economic benefit – Free sea lanes for trading which benefited the league & most of all the athenians
  142. 142. #3 Carystus Southern tip of Euboea Nice natural harbor ‘Medized’ in Persian Wars Did not join Delian League Cimon leads the Delian forces to victory over Carystus Forced to join the Delian League
  143. 143. #4 Naxos Island in the southern Aegean Big Island Paid higher dues Refused to pay dues
  144. 144. The Naxian Treatment It would be bad precedence if the Naxians were allowed the leave the Delian League Cimon leads forces to Naxos Tough fighting Delian League increased Naxos dues Thucydides – “Athenians began to enslave other city-states”
  145. 145. #5 Eurymedon River - 468 Modern day Turkey Close to Cypress Approx. 468 Phoenician fleet (Persians) were operating off the coast of Asia Minor Cimon crushes the Persians on land and at sea in the Battle of Eurymedon River
  146. 146. #6 Thasos - 465 Island in the northern Aegean close to Mt. Pangaeus (silver and gold mines) Paid big tax to Delian League Wanted to opt out of the Delian League Did not want to make the same mistakes the Naxians made Thasos created an alliance with Sparta Sparta agreed to attack Athens if they attacked Thasos
  147. 147. Delian League forces attack Thasos 464 – The earthquake in Sparta prevented them from sending help Thasos is forced back into the league and their dues are raised Helots revolt in Sparta Helots hold out on Mt. Ithome Spartans ask Athenians for help – ekklesia agrees
  148. 148. The end of Cimon Cimon uses his political credit to gain support to help the Spartans Cimon takes 4,000 hoplites 156 miles to Sparta When Cimon arrives the Spartans reject the help Cimon leaves with egg on his face 461 – Cimon is ostracized Athens takes a hard shift to the left
  149. 149. Thucydides Thucydides “Cannot trust Athenians – they may join the Helots” “Growing Spartan fear of growing Athenian power” The Spartans wanted to derail the Athenians similar to the Cold War
  150. 150. Mt. Ithome – Proxy War Helots hold out Spartans make an offer to the Helots – Give up and leave Messenia and Laconia Helots had no where to go Athenians offer to help the Helots – Athenians evacuate more than half the Helot population to Naupactus (close to Corinth) – on major trade route
  151. 151. Mt. Ithome Corinth – Spartan ally Athenians boot out the Naupactians Athens now has a strategically important naval base
  152. 152. 461 – Cimon is now out of power – Pericles takes over Leading Democrat is now Ephialtes Ephialtes takes power from Aeropagus and gives it to the Boule of 500 Oligarchs do not like this change – hire an assassin from Boeotia to kill Ephialtes Did not solve problem
  153. 153. Pericles & The Golden Age of Athens Pericles – more democratic than Ephialtes Took over in 461 Very distinguished career Strategos (many times including the last 14 years of his life)
  154. 154. The US ‘Boot print’ on the modern world
  155. 155. 1st Peloponnesian War 461-446 Misleading Minor skirmishes Sporadic fighting for 15 years
  156. 156. Pericles Foreign Policy Anti-persian Anti-spartan Uses his fleet aggressively
  157. 157. Pericles & Radical Democracy 1. Payment for public service 1. Poorer Zuegitae could now run for office 2. Payments came from delian league (not part of te treaty) 3. Jurors now paid 1. Elders served on juries – welfare system PERICLES does not have to raise taxes – Delian Treasury
  158. 158. Pericles & Radical Democracy 2. Wider Eligibility for office • Pericles allowed citizens Archons • Thetes could now run for town councilmen • 1st expansion since 508
  159. 159. Pericles & Radical Democracy 3. Increased use of the lot Lower offices chosen by lot Other greeks viewed this as radical
  160. 160. 457 – the long walls Athenians decide to build walls from Athens to Piraeus 4 miles long Use delian league funds Athens strength is their fleet Defensive action against Sparta Angered Spartans Pericles was very smart – planned a defense for a war that would be fought 25 years later
  161. 161. The Long Walls
  162. 162. Athenian setback in Egypt 454 Egyptians are in revolt against Persian rule Athenians send 100 ships to help rebels Disaster for Athens Persians crush revolt Huge loss for the Athenians
  163. 163. Delos Delos Treasury The Athenians felt less secure in the Aegean Athenians decide to relocate the treasure on Delos to the Acropolis in Athens The treasure becomes Athenian property
  164. 164. Epigraphy & the Athenian Tribute Quota List The study of inscriptions Studies showed how much each city-state paid in dues to the Delian League Athenians skimmed 1/60 off the top for Athena and the games List continues for 30 years Surplus of money in Athens Athens was the wealthiest state and could fund a powerful military
  165. 165. Peace of Callias - 449 Athens and Persians agree to non-aggression pact Now there is no reason for the Delian League Allies are stirring Athens clamps down on city-states Athenian garrisons are placed strategically throughout city-states
  166. 166. Colony vs. Cleruchy Colony vs. Cleruchy Colony – Different meaning in ancient times Example: Athens is growing too big and then establishes a colony in southern Italy and the new area becomes its own new city-state; used for 200 years before peace Cleruchy – After Peace of Callias – Athens would seize a portion of land (after revolt) Athenian citizens would move into the strategically important territory and would become both the eyes and ears of Athens, famers and a hoplite force Cleruchies exist – Euboea, Naxos, Andros and the Chersonese
  167. 167. Athenian Empire Height of Athenians Imperialism Ache – Empire City-states are now subjects of Athens
  168. 168. 446 – Thirty Years 446 – Thirty Years Peace Treaty signed between the Peloponnesian League (led by Sparta) and the Athenians Terms of the Treaty: Each side agrees to respect each other’s sphere of influence All states are listed – Hands off Agreed not to attack one another or allies 400 city-states (could join or remain unallied) If conflict arose – an arbitrator would be utilized (never happened)
  169. 169. Power of Pericles 443 – Thucydides, son of Melesias (not the famous historian) Leading Oligarch figure Ostracized Chief opponent of Pericles
  170. 170. Establishment of Athenian Citizenship If both parents were Athenians the child was granted citizenship (Pericles) When a son reached adulthood – his father took him to the Deme/city hall and introduced the son as an Athenian citizen (ceremony) There were 131 Demes in Athens
  171. 171. Establishment of Athenian Citizenship The Demesmen could then vouch for a fellow citizen All Demes had names Typical Name: Your Name, Son of ?, from Name of Deme Thetes – loved Pericles for providing jobs (mostly on ships as rowers) The Thetes helped Pericles get reelected as Strategos
  172. 172. Building of the Parthenon Built after the Peace of Callias 449 – Pericles calls conference of the 31 states that allied against the Persians None of the states attend Pericles authorized funds to start building Parthenon (solid marble) Obscenely expensive 447-442 – building period Golden Era of Athens
  173. 173. The Parthenon
  174. 174. The Parthenon
  175. 175. The Parthenon
  176. 176. The Parthenon
  177. 177. The Parthenon
  178. 178. 440 – Revolt of Samos Island off the coast of Asia Minor Samos had 50-60 ships Most serious revolt by far Atrocities committed by both sides During the revolt Sparta calls on its allies – tries to encourage them to invade Attica Corinth wants to abide by the 30-Years Peace Spartans want to help Samos Samos ends up getting the Naxian treatment
  179. 179. Revolt of Samos
  180. 180. Xenophon Zen-o-Phen – Writer 420s – Pseudo-Xenophon or “Old Oligarch” – Constitution of Athens Essay – Does not like democracy but gives it praise – demos (99%) is very important to Athens (rowers)
  181. 181. SHORT FUSES TO PELOPONNESIAN WAR SHORT FUSE #1: 433 – Athens and Corcyra (Modern day – Corfu) NW island of Greece Corcyra – Big fleet, on trade route to Italy, Non-aligned in 30 yrs. Peace, colony of Corinth (bad blood), free for 200 years Epidamnus – Colony of Corinth, engaged in civil war, Dems vs. Oligarchs, Dems temporarily expel the Oligarchs, Dems ask Corcyra for help they say no, Dems go to Corinth (Oligarch) and they send ships
  182. 182. SHORT FUSE #1: 433 – Athens and Corcyra - continued Corcyra helps the Oligarchs of Epidamnus and intercepts and defeats the Corinthian fleet The Corinthians go home and add more ships and allies and return Corcyra goes to Athens for protection Corinthians tell the Athenians not to ally with Corcyra (interferes in Peloponnesian League territory) Ekklesia meets and decides to help Corcyra only if they are attacked
  183. 183. Battle of Sybota Athens sends two convoys – the first a meager ten ships The battle unfolded with both sides making some ground, the Corcyra left and the Corinthian left – it appeared the battle could go either way The Athenians had sent the second convoy of 20 ships – this threw the Corinthians into disarray and they were routed by Corcyra Athenians now enemies of Corinth (the second leading member of the Peloponnesian League)
  184. 184. Battle of Sybota
  185. 185. SHORT FUSE #2 – Athens and Potidaea – 432 Potidaea – Delian League member, colony of Corinth, revolt against league, go to Corinth for help Corinth – sends ships – siege on Potidaea Two to three years to put down siege
  186. 186. SHORT FUSE #3 – Athens and Megara – 432 Megara – close to Attica member of the Peloponnesian League on invasion route from Sparta to Athens fighting took place in this area in the ‘1st Peloponnesian War’ survives on Trade Athens – issues economic sanctions against Megara – Megara could not trade in any Athenian port which included the 170 city-states of the Delian League A hostile act, Athens expected Megara to come to them to end the sanctions
  187. 187. 432 – Meeting of the Peloponnesian League Allies (Megara, Corinthians, Aegina) air grievances against athens The Corinthians speak for the allies – to the Spartans “If you don’t help now, we will seek other alliances.” (Argos – enemy of the spartans) In a culture of shame the Spartans prepare for war
  188. 188. 431 – THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR BEGINS Spartans mobilize troops Athens ask for arbitration (part of the 30 yrs. Peace) Spartans tell the Athenians to drop the sanctions on Megara and expel Pericles Ekklesia meets – does not end sanctions on Megara
  189. 189. Pericles Charismatic hot wife genius compelling
  190. 190. Pericles “The issue is not whether we give up Megara, it is do we give up the empire? If we give into the Spartans they will keep coming, Pericles took a stand against appeasement, say no or you will say no from a weaker position later.”
  191. 191. Aftermath Ekklesia votes not to lift the decree on Megara Archidamus – Spartan King and 60,000 troops march into Attica – The ground invasion had begun
  192. 192. Athenian/Pericles – strategy to win the war Play to Athenian strengths Do not expand the empire during the war Use fleet Avoid ground battles War of attrition
  193. 193. In Athens… Pericles becomes less and less popular as Attica is invaded Athenians performing hit and run attacks with its fleet around the Peloponnese
  194. 194. Pericles – The Epitaphios Athens is a model to others Ekklesia voted to go to war We have a legal system which allows the best men to rise (meritocracy) Men die for our way of life because it is worth protecting Enjoyment of day to day life (sports, theatre, festivals, philosophy) We enjoy both foreign and domestic goods Athens is open to the world Sparta deposes foreigners
  195. 195. Pericles – The Epitaphios We have education, they send boys to the agoge We have both powerful land and sea forces Sparta is a land force Athens discuss (debates) political decisions and then votes Spartans obey mindlessly Athenians have something to live for and the future ages will wonder at us Your sons nobly fought and died Fall in love with Athens every day
  196. 196. 430 – PLAGUE AT ATHENS Occurs almost immediately after the speech of Pericles Disease spread from Egypt Hit the port of Piraeus first and then spread to Athens Athens was overcrowded and poor sanitary conditions existed as more and more Athenians entered to city walls to escape the war
  197. 197. The Plague Contagious Spread like wildfire Highly contagious Doctors that helped contracted the disease (enflamed the problem) Febrile Fevers Burning up Rash Like the chicken pox Lethal High case mortality rate 26% Athens loses ¼ of its population Pericles dies
  198. 198. The Plague Immune Survivors Gangrene Fingers and toes would lose circulation, fall off Birds and 4 legged animals contracted the disease Rare 2nd afflictions
  199. 199. 429 – Death of Pericles Two sons also die – Xanthippas and Paralos (beside the sea) Pericles has another son by a non-Athenian women named Aspasia Pericles goes to ekklesia and asks for citizenship to be granted to his son – ekklesia agrees 429 – Pericles was fined and impeached then reelected then dies in office
  200. 200. After Pericles Cleon – Strategos Takes over for Pericles Blue collar Disliked by Thucydides
  201. 201. Rebellion of Mytilene Island of Lesbos Big fleet Athens engages in bitter fighting/atrocities committed by both sides Athens puts down revolt Ekklesia meets and decides to execute the male population and enslave the women and children Cleon vs. Diodotus see notes Ekklesia meets again and adheres to Diodotus and put cluarchy on Lesbos
  202. 202. 425 – Pylos/Sphacteria Southwest Peloponnese Athenian fleet built fort on Peloponnese Wall to protect themselves from Sparta Turns into base Athenians tell Helots to make it to Pylos and they will deport them Ekklesia votes to keep the base Cleon and 5,000 troops forced Spartans to surrender on island of Sphacteria Shock to Greek world – Athenians riding high Cleon pushes on – wiser to end the war at this point
  203. 203. Archidamus – Spartan leader Did not want war with Athens Led invasion on Attica Spartans want to take Amphipolis Brasidas – Hawkish Spartan general frees Helots and has them serve the military to earn their freedom Brasidas gains allies and besieges Amphipolis Thucydides now strategos gets there too late and Sparta takes Amphipolis Thucydides exiled, travels and writes
  204. 204. 422-21 422 Cleon is killed in the failed attempt to retake Amphipolis 421 Peace of Nicias Nicias is a battlefield commander Senior Athenian statesmen goes to find peace Agrees to exchange hostages for the return of Amphipolis Athens never gets Amphipolis back
  205. 205. 416 – Athens and Melos Southern Aegean island, Dorians Neutral Athens decides that Melos is helping Spartans Athenian fleet forces Melos into slavery Atrocities committed by both sides Athenians have become brutes after 15 years of war 413 – Sparta and Athens continue fighting
  206. 206. 415 – Sicilian Expedition Athenians sent huge force with three commanders: Alcibiades – brilliant, hawkish, wild lifestyle Nicias – Against expedition, should have listened to Pericles who told Athenians not to expand the empire while they were at war Lamachus – good general, not a strategist The city-states around Syracuse said they would support the Athenian invasion (they never came through)
  207. 207. 415 - Syracuse
  208. 208. 4th c. Through the career of Philip II Post war Greece War hard on both sides Cost of war was tremendous Horrific loss of life Sparta now #1 power in Greece Patriotism takes a hit
  209. 209. The Polis System Intellectuals now asking if the polis system What is the alternative? One king ruling over a unified greece
  210. 210. Post-War Sparta Sparta attempts to keep Ionian Coast Persia does not react right way Problems in persia Problems in royal house Cyrus vs. artaxerxes
  211. 211. Persia: March of the 10,000 Cyrus (Satrap) wants to overthrow artaxerxes II Cyrus builds force of 13,000 greek hoplites Xenophon writes the history (embedded reporter) This is the first time greeks had marched on the persian empire March is fast Close to babylon
  212. 212. Battle of cunaxa Cyrus (25,000-30,000) vs. Artaxerxes (larger army) Heavy fighting Greeks are the only soldiers left at the end of the battle Cyrus is killed in battle Greek army left leaderless in the middle of the persian empire
  213. 213. After the battle Artaxerxes sends a message to the greeks calling for a meeting Greeks send their officers and they are all killed Greeks elect new leaders Greeks retreat to the coast of the black sea “Thalatta” men screaming “The Sea” – “we made it” Word spreads in greece
  214. 214. 4th Century Greece Era of shifting alliances and leagues of more equal types Battle of Coronea – 394 Quad alliance vs. Sparta Quadruple Alliance included Athens, Thebes, corinth & argos Spartans win battle
  215. 215. Battle of Cnidas 394 Persian fleet vs. Spartan Fleet Persians ally with athens Persians win the naval battle Spartan naval power greatly deminished
  216. 216. The kings peace 387 Persians regain control of the ionian coast Embarrassment to the Greeks
  217. 217. Second Athenian league 378 Rebuilt long walls No dues paid to athens Easier to opt out
  218. 218. Athens and sparta 374 Athens and Sparta agree on a non-aggression pact Sparta is greatly weakened Only 1200 full blooded spartans
  219. 219. Thebes: Emerging power Thebes 394-374: Theban power growing and spartan power waning Biggest city in Boeotia Better soil Bigger population than attica Epaminondas – theban military genius
  220. 220. Battle of Leuctra 371 Thebes vs. Sparta and allies Spartans outnumbered the thebans 10,000 – 7,000 Sacred band of thebes 300 members 150 pairs of homosexual lovers Special forces Thebans are victorious 400 of 700 spartans are killed Spartans are never significant again
  221. 221. Theban Power Thebans are #1 power for a decade Thebans free the helots Create city for the helots – megalopolis Preventative measure – take slaves away from spartans Eliminate threat – spartans now have to farm their own land Epaminondas – brilliant post war planner
  222. 222. Philip II – Hostage of thebes Treaties include the taking of royal hostages Philip II – Hostage of Thebes 14 years old – hostage for three years Lives with pammenes (3-star general) Philip watches troops train Views leadership of epaminondas Like going to west point
  223. 223. 362 – Battle of mantinea Takes place in the Peloponnese Sparta vs. Thebans Tactical Draw or victory for thebans Epaminondas killed in battle Terrible loss for thebes Power vacuum – filled from the north – macedon End of the theban dominance
  224. 224. The macedonians thick accent – hard to understand Bias sources – ‘hill people’ ‘country bumkins’ Can’t control their own territory Political assassinations were common Monarchy viewed as archaic Sold timber to both sides Archalaus – example of Macedonian king
  225. 225. Macedonians Never organized into a centralized state until Philip II – 359 BC Timber, metals, Grain in excess Took Thessaly – Horse breeding territory Philip comes to Power in 359 Philip was 22
  226. 226. Philip II Military reforms – most power ancient military Creates standing professional army Philip – 25 thousand Alexander – 75-100 thousand Best trained and largest military in greece Hetairoi – companions Highly mobile – rapid movement Can move quickly over long distances
  227. 227. Philip’s Army Bulk of force is heavy infantry Force includes lightly armed troops – gymnoi Slingers/archers – softened up the enemy Cavalry – covered the flanks/used lances Philip introduced the sarissa – 18 ft. pike Used theban tactics
  228. 228. Macedonian Phalanx
  229. 229. Philip’s Tactics Philip’s infantry – the macedonian phalanx will make up the center The slingers/archers initiate the battle by softening up the enemy The cavalry will be placed on the flanks The infantry engages the center and then the cavalry folds up the enemy
  230. 230. Philip’s finishes off his enemies Philip will now pursue his enemies even after the battle Total destruction of the enemy Warfare became much bloodier Philip improved siege machinery – torsion catapult
  231. 231. Philip’s personality Three addictions Alcohol Sex Power Philip had 5-7 wives & many mistresses Hyper-active sexdrive
  232. 232. Philip secures his borders It took several years to secure the border of macedon
  233. 233. The history of Philip:358-56 358-356 – victories over the hill tribes Lays siege on Amphipolis, mines of crenidas) 1,000 talents per year (twice as much as Athens collected from delian league) Used money to support army Marries myrtale (Olympias) – mother of alexander
  234. 234. The history of Philip: 356 Philip uses his army to secure his borders 356 – receives three messages all bearing good news Best general, parmenio – victory in battle Chariot wins in olympic games Birth of son, Alexander
  235. 235. Philip: 354-348 354: Siege of methone Philip loses an eye 352: Involvement in thessaly Becomes adjunct of macedon Horse breeding 352-350: Begins to build a fleet Initially to protect borders Later to seize the hellespont and the grain route
  236. 236. Philip: 348-340 348: takes olynthus: leading city of the chalcidian league Savior of apollo Athenian reaction Demosthenes: warned athenians about philip several times: Phillipics 345-42: Philip reorganizes macedon Moves population around to have a greater portion of them on the borders, mines and timber to protect his most valuabe resources 341-340: Athens battles macedon in the straits
  237. 237. 338: battle of chaeronea 4th august Critical battle on western civilization and greek history End of greek liberty Battle fought between stream and mountain 30k Macedonians vs. 35k Greeks 10k thebans, 10k athenians, 15k allies
  238. 238. 338: battle of chaeronea Mr. Hoke will draw! Macedonians backing off/holding ranks Alexander attacks break in line Philip moves forward Athenian-theban line is decimated Philip allows athenians to bury their dead Sacred band destroyed End of old greek city states as military powers
  239. 239. The end of Philip:338-6 Meeting at corinth New hellenic league Philip named hegemon (leader) Offensive league (Ionian coast) Philip: Master of greece Prepares invasion of persia 337: Marries cleopatra: Pure macedonian women
  240. 240. The end of Philip:336 To settle a family dispute philip offers his daughter cleopatra to alexander of epirus Wedding ceremony – 336 Philip makes a grand entrance Preceeded by statues of the 12 olympian gods Philip tells his somatophylakes (bodyguards) to stand down
  241. 241. The end of Philip:336 Philip enters with alexander One of philip’s bodyGuards steps forward and plunges a dagger into philip Philip dies instantly Killer runs, trips over a vine Caught and killed immediately Army proclaims alexander king Parmenio & attalus are in asia
  242. 242. Who killed philip II? Pausanius (1) – lover of philip Philip dumped him Pausanius is invited to attalus’ house He is gang raped and beaten Complains to philip Philip tells pausanius that he will take care of it and then promotes his to bodyguard Revenge is the motive
  243. 243. After philip Who killed philip? Cui bono? – Who does it benefit? Olympias & alexander Olympias puts flowers on Pausanius’ grave Greek city-states think they are free from hegemon Alexander takes over and immediately moves to secure his borders Whack-a-mole on the border
  244. 244. Philip’s accomplishments • Unification of macedonia • Fostering of greek culture (hellenization) • Promotion of urbanization and trade • Time of prosperity • Forging of a professional army & a nationalistic spirit • Left a potent army in the hands of his son, Alexander
  245. 245. Alexander of Macedon Put notes in on Alexander
  246. 246. The hellenistic age The hellenistic age is the name given to the period from the reign of Alexander (336-323) to the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. A span of 300 years. It was an age of Monarchies
  247. 247. The hellenistic age
  248. 248. The hellenistic age Many of the old cities of greece continued to exist as important cultural and political centers. The power was held by the strong men who carved kingdoms from the conquests of Alexander.
  249. 249. Hellenistic monarchies The typical hellenistic monarch had to be a military commander. Frequent disputes Large armies 80,000 men Mostly mercenaries
  250. 250. Hellenistic monarchies Frequent Celtic (gauls) raids Sacked delphi in 279-77 Settled on the coast of asia-minor in 238 The monarchs had to rally support to stay in power Bread and circuses Hospitality to friends (patronage)
  251. 251. Alexandria, Egypt Alexandria, Egypt Ruled by the ptolemic dynasty Grandest capital Intellectual capital Library of Alexandria Goal was to obtain a copy of every important literary work Aeschylus, Sophocles & Euripides works were borrowed from athens and never returned
  252. 252. Alexandria, Egypt Museums – means a place of the Muses Cultivation of the arts and a place where learning takes place. Founded by ptolemy Museums and libraries played an essential role in keeping greek culture alive and intact
  253. 253. Cities in the hellenistic age the founding of cities was important in the hellenisitic age Grid patterns Example of a Hellenistic city Ai Khanum – on the frontier of northern afghanistan huge theatre Gymnasium library
  254. 254. Monarchs & politics Kings would boast that they were preserving his city’s independence Democratic assemblies continued to meet Leagues formed The 3rd c. BC was the most settled in history – until the romans invaded The league was crushed by the romans in 146 BC
  255. 255. Athens Athens maintained its independence 3rd century bc – Economic crisis Rising grain prices Falling olive oil prices Pottery replaced with silverware Mines closed Remained the center of moral philosophy
  256. 256. Precedent of Alexander The monarch was accepted as a favorite of the gods Dead kings became the focus of dynastic cults Rosetta Stone is a record of thanksgiving of the priests of memphis to ptolemy v in 196 BC In it ptolemy was addressed as a god who was also the son of gods
  257. 257. The ptolemies Needed revenue to build their capital city and defend it Aroused deep resentment among the local people In a desperate attempt to keep control, the ptolemies were forced to bring egyptians into their administration By the time of cleopatra VII the kingdom was already disintergrating It is not surprising that the scheming queen looked to roman commanders (Caesar & Antony) to bolster her power
  258. 258. Hellenism It was essential to speak greek Greek values and customs were spread all over the mediterranean world and to the east Spread of games – Romans competed in the isthmian games starting in 189 BC Wealth was concentrated in fewer hands
  259. 259. Women in the hellenistic world women were given a higher profile Right to divorce Mutual affection – love Women held public office
  260. 260. Conclusion Began to lose their vigour by the 3rd century By 241 all the greek cities of sicily except syracuse were under the control of the romans
  261. 261. The etruscans & Early Rome Etruscans originated in italy Alphabet derived from the greeks Highly religious Archaeologists are still reconstructing etruscan culture Evolved around 12oo BC Dominated trade along the west coast of italy Society made up of clans led by a king Built fortified city walls Highly influenced by the greek world

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