UNIT - IM. Mano SamuelLecturer , HRThe American College 1
Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies for the achievement of organizational goals. 2
◦ Master the knowledge, skill, and behaviors emphasized in training programs, and◦ Apply them to their day-to-day activities 3
Training is the process of proving employees with specific skills or helping them correct efficacies in their performance 4
Development is an effort to provide employees with the abilities that organization will require in the future 5
3 important terms Training Education Development 6
In all training there is some education In all education there is some training And two process cannot be separated from development 7
Training DevelopmentFocus Current Job Current/Future JobsScope Individual Group/ OrganizationTime Frame Immediate Long TermGoal Fix Skill Deficit Prepare for Future 8
Training EducationOrientation Application Theoretical conceptualLearning On-the-job and off-the Class-room jobScope Specific tasks General conceptsGoal Trainee is paid to Student pays to learn learn V.SUGUMARAN T&D UNIT-1, KSM 9
Training is required for improving performance on the job Training is essential to keep pace with technological advances and avoid obsolence To cope with changing environment such as competition. Training is needed for promotion to higher jobs I,e for future role succession
For tackling human problems, 1.e imparting training in human relations. Training helps to harness human potential, i.e. creativity Training for creating favorable attitudes and motivation of employees. To train for better adjustment to the organization and commitment to work. To train employees in the company culture. Training of employees is required for achieving organization’s efficiency, growth and to reduce costs.
Gives the supervisor more time to manage, standardized performance, less absenteeism, less turnover, reduced tension, consistency, lower costs, more customers, better service Gives the workers confidence to do their jobs, reduces tension, boost morale and job satisfaction, reduces injuries and accidents, gives them a chance to advance. Gives the business a good image and more profit. 12
Managing Alignment ◦ Clarify team goals and company goals. ◦ Help employees manage their objectives. ◦ Scan organization environment for useful information for the team. Encouraging Continuous Learning ◦ Help team identify training needs. ◦ Help team become effective at on-the-job training. ◦ Create environment that encourages learning. 13
A number of studies indicate that employee training has a positive impact on corporate performance. Training also improves ◦ Productivity ◦ Firm’s performance ◦ Revenues ◦ Profitability ◦ Client Satisfaction 14
Training and development activities have been increasing ◦ Tight labour market - Organizations compete to attract & retain employees, by offering better Training & Development opportunities ◦ New and changing technology ◦ Globalization – training for employees with international assignments ◦ Mergers, acquisitions, restructuring 15
Learning is the acquisition of skills, knowledge, or attitudes.
When they are actively involved in the learning process Training is relevant and practical. Training material is organized and presented in chunks. Training is in an informal, quiet, and comfortable setting. When they have a good trainer. When they receive feedback on performance. When they are rewarded.
There are 3 theories:1. Behavioral Learning Theory2. Social Learning Theory3. Cognitive Learning Theory
Primary Focus ◦ Observable behaviour ◦ Stimulus-response connections Assumptions ◦ Learning is a result of environmental forces
1.1 Respondent or Classical Conditioning- Pavlov ◦ We make associations with stimuli ◦ Example: The Pavlov Dog.1.2 Operant or Instrumental Conditioning- Skinner ◦ Learning is the result of the application of consequences; that is, learners begin to connect certain responses with certain stimuli. ◦ Examples: Positive Reinforcement, Negative Reinforcement
Classical conditioning was the first typeof learning to be discovered and studiedwithin the behaviorist tradition (hencethe name classical). The major theorist in the developmentof classical conditioning is Ivan Pavlov, aRussian scientist trained in biology andmedicine.
Examples Employee is harassed at work Employee feels bad when harassed Employee associates being harassed and work Employee begins to feel bad when she thinks of work
Operant Conditioning - SkinnerThe response is made first,then reinforcement follows.
ExamplesBehaviours ConsequencesThe Individual works and is paid. is late to work and is docked pay. enters a restaurant and eats. enters a football stadium and watches a football game. enters a grocery store and buys food.
Social Learning Theory- Albert Bandura The social learning theory emphasizes the importance of observing and modeling the behaviors, attitudes, and emotional reactions of others.The learning cycle Attention Retention Reproduction Motivation
Discovery Learning1. Bruner said anybody can learn anything at any age, provided it is stated in terms they can understand.
Discovery Learning2. Powerful concepts (not isolated facts) a. Transfer to many different situations b. Only possible through Discovery Learning c. Confront the learner with problems and help them find solutions. Do not present sequenced materials.
Principles of Learning is also referred as Laws of Learning Readiness ◦ Individuals are best when they are physically , mentally and emotionally ready to learn. Exercise ◦ It is the basis of practice Effect ◦ Based on emotional reaction Primacy ◦ Things learned first create a strong impression in mind Recency ◦ The most recently learned are best remembered Intensity ◦ Real thing has a greater impact than a substitute
What type of a trainer are you? The ‘guru’: An expert. Has a deep knowledge of her subject and loves to share it. ‘Showman’: A would-be actor. Loves to be ‘on stage’, to perform before the audience. Often jokes and tells stories. A great entertainer. ‘One of the boys’ (‘one of the girls’) Communicates on a very friendly level with the participants. Perhaps mixes socially with them. 34
The quiet one: Tends to keep a low profile, preferring the participants to do all the work. Likes to stand back and let them get on with it. Disciplinarian: Strict. Likes to push the participants hard and exert strong control over the group. 35
Referred as training need analysis (TNA) Effective training system begin with identification of training need These need creates performance gap Ex: low profit , low customer satisfaction , more scrap Another type of performance gap is future oriented Company can perform poorly until changes are made
Development of training objective What will be trained and how Identifying factors needed in training program Identifying alternative factors methods of instruction
Formulating a instructional strategy to meet a set of training objectives Instructional strategy consist of order , timing , material , media , and combination of methods and elements used in training program Output of development phase act as input for implementation phase
All aspects of training program come together during the implementation phase It is mistake to assume that everything will happen as planned It is useful to conduct a dry run or pilot study of the program
Output becomes input for Evaluation Phase Two Types of Evaluation : Process , Outcome Process: Determined how well a particular process achieved its objectives ( I,e ouputs) Outcome: Is evaluation conducted at end of training to determine the effect of training on the trainee , job , and organization
Reduce fear with a positive approach Increase motivation: emphasize whatever is of value to the learner, make the program form a series of small successes, build in incentives and rewards. Limited abilities: adjust teaching to learners level. Laziness, indifference, resistance: May mean a problem worker.
Adapt teaching to learners: Deal with people as they are. Poor training program: revise to include objectives. Poor instructor: The trainer needs to know the job, be a good communicator and a leader, sensitive, patient, helpf ul, etc.
Process used to determine how best to pursue the organizations mission while meeting the demand of the organization in the near and long term. 2 types of strategy Proactive strategy Reactive Strategy
Focus on longer term Process is more formalized Purpose is to build a good fit between the organization and its future environment Help to make a best guess about what the future will bring
Focus on short term Process is less formalized It address how operations will confront what exist now and the next two years.
Identify current mission, goals and objectives Environmental assessment Development of operational plans and budgets Implementation Evaluation and feedback
A collection of planned change interventions , built on humanistic – democratic values, that seeks to improve organisational effectiveness and employee well-being ◦ Strong emphasis on colloboration ◦ Respect for people, trust and support, power equalisation, participation
Sensitivity training Survey feedback Process consultation Team building Inter-group development Appreciative enquiry
Also called laboratory training, encounter groups, T-groups( training groups) Changing behaviour through unstructured group interaction Free and open environment Members discuss, loosely directed by a professional behavioural scientist
Group is process-oriented Individuals learn through observing and participating Objective is to increase awareness of their own behaviour, and others perception Results in increased empathy, listening skills, greater openness, increased tolerance, conflict resolution skills
Use of questionnaires Identifies discrepancies among member perceptions, discussion follows and remedies are suggested Manager and his subordinates participate Concentrates on DM practices, communication effectiveness, coordination between units, job satisfaction Data is tabulated and distributed to employees Identify issues creating differences to employees
An outside consultant helps client to deal with problems that need improvement More task oriented Consultants help clients in understanding the environment Guides client to solve his own problems
Joint approach between client and consultant Develops greater understanding of the process and less resistance to the plan chosen Consultant only helps in problem identification Refers to an external expert if needed
To increase trust and openness Activities include goal setting, role analysis Begins with defining goals and priorities Identify potential problem areas Analyzing key problems and effective ways of performing it
To reduce conflict among groups To change attitudes, stereotypes & perceptions that groups have of each other Popular method is problem solving ◦ Each group meets independently to develop lists of perception of itself and how others perceive it ◦ Differences are identified and discussed
Identifies the unique strengths/qualities of an organisation 4 steps Discovery – identifying strengths Dreaming – speculating possible futures of the organisation Design – finding a common vision and agree on unique qualities Destiny – how organisation is going to fulfill its dream . Writing of action plans and development of implementation strategies