Means detailed examination of a job role to find out what are the kSA needed in people for superior or effective performance.Job Evaluation , job specification , job description can yield information about the task
Is a detailed plan forwht an individual wil do why they r doin it and best way to reach the training goals
2) Based on holistic alternative to the part or whole sequencing that is usually followed in training. This holistic is more meaning full and motivational for learners,bcozfrm the start they see and get practice to and to complete task3) Sequencing ex: if u r training emp in the use of several software package sequencing is not necessary if we teach OS in windows and if it si part of training then sequencin is must
“Remember, training is not what is ultimately important… performance is.” -Marc Rosenberg 4
Needs Assessment Definition A needs assessment is the process of identifying performance requirements and the "gap" between what performance is required and what presently exists. 5
Training Need Analysis Is the first step in training process to determine who requires training , what kind of training is required and why a particular training is required
Difference in Need Assessment &Analysis Need Assessment : We attempt to find out what is the current level or nature of knowledge , skill or attitude at individual , group or organizational level to determine the future course of HRD activities Need Analysis : We examine the cause of failure or non performance so as to see whether inadequate or inappropriate training was one of the reason. It is more Important because lack of competency is not the only reason for failure. It could be like Negative Org. climate , natural disaster etc..
Democratic Needs Options for training / HRD that are preferred , selected or voted for by employees or managers or both. Programmes that address these needs are likely to be accepted and desired by organization members. Democratic needs can be used to build support for HRD programmes.
Diagnostic Needs Focus on the factors that lead to effective performance and prevent performance problems rather than emphasizing on existing problems. Identified by studying the different factors that may affect performance Goal is to determine how effective performance can be obtained.
Analytic Needs Identify new and better ways to perform a task These needs are discovered by intuition , insight or expert consideration
Compliance Needs Mandatory by Law This needs often deal with mandated training programmes such as safety training , Prevention of sexual harassment programmes , training under apprentice act etc…
Levels of Training Need Analysis Organizational Analysis Task Clarify Analysis Objectives Person Analysis 13
Organizational or Strategic Analysis Purpose is to examine the organization unit or Dept And determine its Basic strategy , objectives , and goals In dealing with changing Business Environment , the Org. may focus on the company’s new business goals & challenges In Conducting org analysis , the company may consider issues like:
Increased Competition More demand for customized products Increased needs on cooperation among companies Research & innovation Merger & acquisition Business strategies of the rival companies Org Analysis must also take into account the product & market Diversification plan , geographical spreads , cost – cutting and profit maximization proposals. The sources for org analysis may include org climate measure , current performance data
Task analysis What must be done to perform a job or complete a process successfully Also called KSA analysis Job Evaluation , job specification (Detail of Person) , job description (role of the job) Superior performers in the jobs can give valuable information Task analysis is a systematic collection of data about a specific job to determine what an employee should taught to achieve optimal performance
Results of a task analysis include standards of performance How task should be performed? Variety of data sources are available including observing the job , asking questions about the job 4 steps involved - Develop a list of task statements : using observations , interview develop a list of task performed in a given sob - Develop a list of task clusters: useful for organizing large number of tasks. It means segregating tasks into groups in accordance with their similarilities
- Develop a list of KSA’s : identify the KSA need forthe performance - Assess the importance of the tasks : which of thetasks are most critical for successful performance ofthe job and difficulties in mastering them
Person Analysis It is to find out who needs to be trained and what kind of training they need Finding out the individual KSA against the successful performance of the job given Education qualification , work experience , skill set , motivational level , attitude matters a lot in person analysis It is done individually Performance appraisal report , self - perception, observations are important sources
Several ways to determineemployee deficiencies Examine the measures of job performance : performance report , work record of actual performance will give enough data Ex: any employee receive less than satisfactory rating on job might be considered as deficient in that area. Measures of job performance is helpful only in case of existing employees in their existing role. Proficiency test or simulations: Some person may have the capability but might not get the chance to prove it
6 Component analyses of needs Context Anlysis : Reason for which the training is desired. The important question being answered by this anlysis are Who decided that training should be conducted Why a training prog. Is seen as the recommended solution to a business problem
Participant s Analysis: It is the analysis dealing with potential learners and instructors involved in the process. The imp quest. Answered are – who will receive the training and their level of existing knowledge in the subject , what is their learning style and who will conduct the training and their expertise to do so Work Analysis: It is analysis of tasks being performed. It involves examining activities , tasks and role of the job and the competency requirement for effective performance. Also task analysis or job analysis it specify the duties and skill level required
Content Analysis: This involves analysis of document , manuals , laws or procedure used on the job. It answer the question about what knowledge or information is used on the job successful performance. It is Imp that content of the training does not conflict or contradict with job requirement. Suitability Analysis: Whether training is the desired solution. Training is one of the several solution to performance problem. But it may not always be the best solution. Cost Benefit Analysis: Analysis of ROI ( Return on Investment) of training. Effective training should result in return of value to the org. that is greater than the initial investment.
Sources of Data for TNA Person Analysis : Education & experience , performance appraisal , supervisor report , customer complaints Organizational Analysis : Business Plan , performance report , audits , inspection , law , market condition Task analysis : job analysis , expert opinion , safety aspects.
Objectives of Training To impart knowledge and skill Equip employees meet the changing requirements New ways of performing the job Building competent employees 25
A training objective has three components: A statement of what the employee is expected to do (performance or outcome). A statement of the quality or level of performance that is acceptable (criterion). A statement of the conditions under which the trainee is expected to perform the desired outcome (conditions).
Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques Technique Advantages DisadvantagesObservation Generates data relevant to Needs skilled observer. work environment. Employees’ behavior may be Minimizes interruption of affected by being observed. work.Questionnaires Inexpensive Requires time. Can collect data from a Possible low return rates, large number of persons. inappropriate responses. Data easily summarized. Lacks detail. 27
Advantages and Disadvantages of Needs Assessment Techniques(continued) Technique Advantages DisadvantagesRead technical Good source of information on You may not be able tomanuals and records procedure. understand technical language. Objective. Materials may be obsolete. Good source of task information for new jobs and jobs in the process of being created.Interview subject Good at uncovering details of Time consuming.matter experts training needs. Difficult to analyze. Good at uncovering causes Needs skilled interviewer. and solutions of problems. 28
Training Design The design of a training program refers to its items , courses or subjects, which are aimed at enabling the program to achieve the desired training objectives. A technique of arranging the course content in a logical manner, so as to enable the trainees to learn maximum from the training course. The program contents must be carefully selected, the contents should determine the success of the program, and justify the organization’s investment in the program. Training design plays an important role in case of the training process; the effectiveness of the training is determined by the training design.
Eight steps for effective trainingprogramsStep 1: Define purpose of training and target audience Be clear about what your training needs hope to accomplish; prioritize Be clear who your target audience will be.
Step 2: Determine Participants’ needs The more accurately you know the needs of your participants the better your training design will be. Find out their needs and expectation by: • Get participants to complete a brief, written survey • Survey a random sample of participants Ask them: - current roles and responsibilities - previous training on this topic - reasons for attendance - specific needs and expectation of event Review past evaluation and feedback forms Collect information early and use it to design your training
Step 3: Define training objectives Clearly defined objective provide criteria for: Clarifying expect outcomes Outlining training content Planning specific training activities Selecting/developing material Designing evaluation procedures Communicating program intent to participants & others Ensuring training is realistic and appropriate Develop overall and segment (lesson) objective Present them to participants at start of each segment.
Step 4: Outline training content Trainings gives 3 components: an introduction; a learning component and a wrap-up and evaluation component. Introduction: Establish a positive learning environment; stimulate interest; reduce anxiety and build bonds. Include some content into introductory activities Learning component: Concepts and ideas taught and explored; skills demonstrated, practiced and discussed. Wrap-up and evaluation component: Here ‘pull it all together’. Highlight essential learnings; summarize central concepts and themes; describe next steps. Open up for questions, concerns, feedback. 3 - 33
Step 5: Develop instructional activities • Organize activities so that outcomes identified are achieved. Activities should have an introduction, a main segment and a wrap-up segment. • Effective training design takes into account principles of adult learning; group size; participant learning style; prior experience/education level of participants, type of skill or information to be presented, and so on. Strategies that promote active learning include brainstorming, games, mini-lectures, small work groups, simulations, role-playing, case studies, etc. Remember you need to develop resource materials, e.g.,handouts, case studies, questionnaires 3 - 34 etc.
Step 6: Prepare the written training design • Write a detailed plan of the training session, including goals and objectives; the sequence of specific learning activities and time allotted to each; directions and key points to cover for each activity, and the trainer who will be responsible for the activity. • Consider the skill, expertise, training style, and comfort level of each trainer and who will lead different sections.3 - 35
Step 7: Prepare participant evaluation form Evaluation determines if the training has achieved its objectives and to identify what needs to be improved. The evaluation form should ask the following: Did participants acquire the skills and knowledge they were supposed to? Were the trainers competent? Were the activities interesting and effective? Was the training format appropriate? Was the training on this topic adequate? 3 - 36
Step 8: Determine follow-up activities for the event Follow-up activities provide continued support and feedback. Prepare follow-up activities as you develop your training design and these activities should make participants reflect on what they have learned and the process of implementation. Some activities include: Newsletters and website postings Peer observation and coaching Mentoring Study groups Ongoing communication between participants and trainees Follow-up activities require more resources but increase the likelihood of significant learning occurring. 3 - 37
Identifying Constraints in Training DesignThe constraints act as a barrier for effective training design, the various constraints involved in training design are: Organization/ environment Budgeting for training Trainee population
Organizationa/ environmental constraints The technological sophistication of the organization affects which type of training can be offered. Decision about training priorities also must follow the law. Certain training requirements are mandated by the occupational safety and healthy association (OSHA) This type of training includes telling employees what hazardous waste they with the KSAs to handle the waste in a safe manner.
Some organizational constraints are: Need high level of simulation. Trainees vary in amount of experience. Trainees have large difference in ability levels. Mix of employee and new hires trained on a new procedure. Long lag between end of training and use of skill on the job. Bias against a type of training. Few trainees available at any one time. Small organization with limited funds
Budgeting for training Once the length of training is determined it is necessary to estimates the amount of time it will take to develop the training program. So when providing estimates, understand that department are competing for resource and that the estimate must be accurate as possible. In many cases when training is requested the client wants a proposed training solution and its associated costs quickly.
The following items are normally included in the budget of a training program: (i) Outfit Allowances (ii) Training fees (iii) Transport and Travelling (iv) Freight (v) Insurance (vi) Subsistence allowances (vii) Accommodation (viii) Incidental Allowances (ix) Book Allowances
In formulating and controlling the budget for a training program, the training officer must consider the following factors: Adequate training plans. The expenses incurred in achieving the training plans must have been identified and estimated The responsibilities for items of expenditure must have been allocated between training specialists and other managers. Account classifications must have been made so that expenditure can be allocated to specific cost areas. Cost information must be recorded accurately and a mechanism for feeding back the collated information must be present so that individuals can take corrective action if and when required.
DEVELOPING OBJECTIVES The term training objectives refers to all the objectives that are developed for the training program These objectives are used to drive the design of training(content , methods , materials , etc.)
TYPES OF TRAINING OBJECTIVE : Trainee Reaction Objectives. Learning objectives. Transfer of training Objectives. Organizational outcome objectives.
OBJECTIVES WRITING : Objectives are the key learning outcomes desired from the instruction. Classically, instructional objectives have three elements: conditions, performance, standards .
CONSIDERATION WHILEDESIGNING A PROGRAMME Cover all contents of the training programme Motivating/interesting training programme Simplex to complex Timing Combination of training methods
THEORIES OF TRAINING DESIGN Theories of training design are not traditional Don’t predict cause and effect relationship Prescribe methods of presenting material to enhance the likelihood of the material being learnt Several theories related to effective design of training We will examine two theories Elaboration theory Gagne-Briggs theory Offer guidelines to what technique to use in what situation to design effective training
ELABORATION THEORY Macro theory of design Based on holistic alternative Relevant for complex tasksSEQUENCING It is a process of coming together as a group and order the content of training Important when strong relationship exists among the topic of the course
Purpose of training two different topics Topical sequencing Spiral sequencing Topical requires complete learning of one topic before moving to the next task Spiral requires learning the basics of
Advantage DisadvantageTopical Concentrate on topic, no Once learned move to interference from other topic the next topic and first is forgottenSpiral Built in synthesis and review
Consider……WORKSHOP FOR SUPERVISOR Effective feedback, effective communication, performance review, running on effective meeting They will provide help in doing an effective performance review. They
SIMPLIFYING CONDITIONMETHOD(SCM) Based on notion that for all complex task, simple and more complex version exist SCM based on two parts Epitomizing Elaborating Epitomizing is the process of identifying the simplest version of the task, which is still representative of the task as whole.
Elaborating is the process of identifying progressively more complex versions of the taskAdvantage More complete task is presented immediately Motivate trainees Relationship between what they are learning and job related tasks It is not only effective it is appealing also
Gagne-Briggs Theory A micro theory of design It provides a set of procedures for each instructional event to facilitate increase in the level of learning.
THE NINE EVENTS OF INSTRUCTION Event of Instruction Learning Process 1. Gaining attention Attention Giving learner a stimulus to ensure reception of coming instruction 2. Informing the learner of the objective Expectancy Telling learner what they will be able to do for the instruction 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning Retrieval to working memory Asking for recall of existing relevant knowledge 4. Presenting the stimulus Displaying the content 5. Providing learner guidance Pattern recognition; selective Supplying organization and perception relevance to enhance understanding Chunking, rehearsal, encoding
THE NINE EVENTS OF INSTRUCTION (CONT’D) Events of Instruction Learning Process 6. Eliciting performance Retrieval, responding Asking learners to respond, demonstrating learning 7. Providing Feedback Giving immediate feedback on Reinforcement, error learners performance. correction 8. Assessing performance Providing feedback to learners more performance for Responding, retention reinforcement 9. Enhancing retention and transfer Providing diverse practice to Retention, retrieval, generalize the capability generalization
Gaining Attention Attention of the trainees can be done in many ways. The method of questioning and requesting trainees to answer. CEO/Chairman of the organization indicating the importance of training to the employees for the future growth of the company, when someone who is heading the organization is
Informing the Learner of the Goal It is important to get the trainees to focus on what is to be learnt also be aware of the requirement of each individual. With training needs analysis it
Stimulating Recall of Prior RelevantLearning Trainees should make sure they have accessed the information necessary for training. Previous relevant capabilities are part of the learning event.
Present Material to beLearned Materials to be learned should be presented in and logical and understandable format. The questions designed should elicit responses from the trainees ,which will indicate the level of understanding. Highlighting the importance aspects to
Provide Guidance for Training Guide trainees to appropriate answers in difficulty, but not indicate the answers. A discussion at the end of the session ,when the answer is derived, will help the trainees to gain in depth knowledge and understanding of the topic. Give them problems and ask to come up with possible alternative solutions-this kind of task ignites the thinking and creative powers and
Elicit the Performance Allowing the trainees to perform the task, so that their practice allows them to master the task and are able to transfer the training to the job successfully.
Provide Feedback The feedback should be given, when a task is been completed by the team to know their performance, it can be in various ways depending on the time available and the number of trainees. This helps them to be aware of their performance and thereby make
Assess Performance The Gange Briggs Theory propagates that assessment of learning should take place after each session, so that after the training on feedbacks kills it is essential to assess the level of learning that took place regarding feedback skills, before moving onto performance appraisal training. This approach has two purpose: - To confirm that the learning has taken place
Enhancing retention AndTransfer It is important that a programme is designed such that it facilitates retention and effective transfer.