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theories of leadership


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in this presentation we present the theory of leadership

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theories of leadership

  1. 1. TheoriesOf Leadership Presented By:- Pooja Yadav Prachi Keshari Pramod Kumar Pritosh Upadhyay Rajkumar Singh
  2. 2. LEADERSHIPTHEORIES Great Man Theory Trait Theory Behavioral Theory Participative Leadership Situational leadership Contingency Theory Transactional Leadership Transformational Leadership
  3. 3. Greatmantheory Assumptions  Leaders are born not made  Great leaders arise when there is a great need.
  4. 4. GreatManTheory Description  Leaders are often from aristocracy, rarely from lower classes  In times of need great man would arise almost by magic. For exa. – Jesus, Mohammad & Buddah
  5. 5. GreatManTheory Discussion Proposed by Thomas Carlyle No woman leadership History is nothing but stories of great man.
  6. 6. Trait Theory Assumptions  People are born with inherited traits  Some traits are particularly suited to leadership  People who become good leaders have the right combination of traits
  7. 7. TraitTheory Descriptions Traits skills Adaptable to situations Alert to social environment Ambitious and achievement- orientated Assertive Cooperative Decisive Dependable Dominant (desire to influence others) Energetic (high activity level) Persistent Self-confident Tolerant of stress Willing to assume responsibility Clever (intelligent) Conceptually skilled Creative Diplomatic and tactful Fluent in speaking Knowledgeable about group task Organized (administrative ability) Persuasive Socially skilled
  8. 8. Trait Theory Discussions Identification of 4 traits by which leaders could succeed or derail:-  Emotional stability & composer  Admitting error  Good interpersonal skills  Intellectual breadth
  9. 9. BehaviouralTheory Assumptions  Leaders can be made rather than are born  Successful leadership is based in definable, learnable behaviour
  10. 10. Behavioural Theory Descriptions  Do not seek inborn traits or capabilities rather they look at what leaders actually do  Easy to teach & learn then to adopt ‘traits’ or ‘capabilities’.
  11. 11. Behavioural Theory Discussions  Behavioral is a big leap from Trait Theory, in that it assumes that leadership capability can be learned, rather than being inherent. This opens the floodgates to leadership development, as opposed to simple psychometric assessment that sorts those with leadership potential from those who will never have the chance.  A behavioral theory is relatively easy to develop, as you simply assess both leadership success and the actions of leaders. With a large enough study, you can then correlate statistically significant behaviors with success. You can also identify behaviors which contribute to failure, thus adding a second layer of understanding.
  12. 12. ParticipativeTheory Assumptions  Involvement in decision-making improves the understanding of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions.  People are more committed to actions where they have involved in the relevant decision-making.  People are less competitive and more collaborative when they are working on joint goals.  When people make decisions together, the social commitment to one another is greater and thus increases their commitment to the decision.  Several people deciding together make better decisions than one person alone.
  13. 13. ParticipativeTheory Style  More participative rather than taking autocratic decisions, seeks to involve other people in the process, possibly including subordinates, peers, superiors and other stakeholders. Autocratic decision by leader Leader proposes decision, listens to feedback, then decides Team proposes decision, leader has final decision Joint decision with team as equals Full delegation of decision to team
  14. 14. ParticipativeTheory Discussions Also known as consultation, empowerment, joint decision-making, democratic leadership, Management By Objective (MBO) and power-sharing. Participative Leadership can be a sham when managers ask for opinions and then ignore them. This is likely to lead to cynicism and feelings of betrayal.
  15. 15. SituationalLeadership Assumptions  The best action of a leader depends upon a range of situational factors
  16. 16. SituationalLeadership Style  When a decision is needed, an effective leader does not just fall into a single preferred style.  Yukl (1989) identifies six variables:  Subordinate effort  Subordinate ability and role clarity  Organization of the work  Cooperation and cohesiveness  Resources and support  External coordination
  17. 17. SituationalLeadership Discussions  Tannenbaum and Schmidt (1958) identified three forces that led to the leader's action: the forces in the situation, the forces in then follower and also forces in the leader.  Maier (1963) noted that leaders not only consider the likelihood of a follower accepting a suggestion, but also the overall importance of getting things done.
  18. 18. ContingencyTheory Assumptions  The leader's ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors, including the leader's preferred style, the capabilities and behaviors of followers and also various other situational factors.
  19. 19. ContingencyTheory Descriptions  There is no one best way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others.  leaders who are very effective at one place and time may become unsuccessful either when transplanted to another situation or when the factors around them change.
  20. 20. ContingencyTheory Discussions  Contingency theory is similar to situational theory. The main difference is that situational theory tends to focus more on the behaviors that the leader should adopt, given situational factors, whereas contingency theory takes a broader view that includes contingent factors about leader’s capabilities and other variables within the situation.
  21. 21. TransactionalTheory Assumptions  People are motivated by reward and punishment.  Social systems work best with a clear chain of command.  When people have agreed to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede all authority to their manager.  The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do what their manager tells them to do.
  22. 22. TransactionalTheory Style  The transactional leader works through creating clear structures whereby it is clear what is required of their subordinates, and the rewards that they get for following orders  Negotiating the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company gets authority over the subordinate  Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it.
  23. 23. TransactionalTheory Discussions  Behaviour of the subordinates is predictable as they are largely motivated by money and simple reward.
  24. 24. TransformationalTheory Assumptions  People will follow a person who inspires them.  A person with vision and passion can achieve great things.  The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy.
  25. 25. TransformationalTheory Style  Developing the vision  Selling the vision  Finding the way forwards  Leading the change
  26. 26. TransformationalTheory Discussions  They transform the organization  Also a tacit promise to followers that they also will be transformed in some way.
  27. 27. CONCLUSION
  28. 28. Any queries ?