Non accidental child injury 01


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About Child abuse, we have many problems today in the community which wouldn't be there if children were protected and given their right, lets all remember ''protecting the kid is protecting the future world''

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Non accidental child injury 01

  2. 2. Objectives To have understanding and awareness on non accidental child injury and use it as a tool to prevent child abuse. 2
  3. 3. content      Definition for non accidental child injury Indicators for non accidental child injury. Classification of non accidental child injury. Common myth about non accidental child injury. Ways to prevent non accidental child injury. 3
  4. 4. Introduction Non accidental child injury  Is an injury to the skeletal, soft tissue and organ of child sustained as a result of repeated mistreatment or beating usually by individual responsible for its care  Non accidental child injury this is so called child abuse 4
  5. 5. Who is a Child? A Child is any person or individual below the age of eighteen years. Children in Tanzania constitute more than 46 percent of the population. Therefore children are important segment of the society. 5
  6. 6. Indicators for child abuse  According the study on child abuse, carried out by Muhimbili University and the US’ Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, found that almost three out of ten girls and one out of seven boys had been victims of sexual violence. 6
  7. 7.  Nearly three-quarters of all children under 18 years they had experienced physical violence at the hand of an adult.  About 150,000 children below age of five die every year and children with malnutrition number more than two million.  Either children regardless of gender, origin, religion or possible disabilities need special care and protection. The government must take action to ensure that children right are respected 7
  8. 8. Classification of non accidental child injury  Non-accidental injury in children is not uncommon and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality hence they affect children health physically and emotionally.  It is therefore important to identify it at the earliest opportunity so that appropriate measure can be made to protects them from further harm. 8
  9. 9. Children abuse is divided into four classes. 1.Physical abuse. 2.Sexual abuse. 3.Emotional abuse. 4.Neglect. 9
  10. 10. PHYSICAL ABUSE Injuries in the skin can be an important sign of physical abuse, Skin signs of non-accidental injury are frequently accompanied by other forms of physical injury (e.g. fractures). 10
  11. 11. Sign and symptoms Binding injuries  Binding injuries occur when the wrists and ankles are tied. Acute injuries may present with soft-tissue swelling, redness, warmth or abrasions around the wrists and ankles Bruises  Physical abuse is frequently identified by bruising, which may be multiple and in different stages of healing. 11
  12. 12. Thermal burns Burning is another form of abuse for children. Typically, cigarette burns can often be suspected where there are one or more rounded ulcers or erosions. 12
  13. 13. Head and eye injuries •Intracranial injury with no major confirmed accidental trauma or medical cause. •There are other injuries like retinal haemorrhages, rib or long bone fractures, or with multiple subdural haemorrhages. 13
  14. 14. SEXUAL ABUSE  This is another form of child abuse in which an adult or older adolescent uses child for sexual stimulation, asking or pressing a child to engage in sexual activities and using children to produce child pornography. 14
  15. 15. Children sexual abuse include a number of acts, including but not limited to: • Sexual touching of any part of the body, clothed or unclothed; • Penetrative sex, including penetration of the mouth; • Encouraging a child to engage in sexual activity, including prostitution masturbation; • Intentionally engaging in sexual activity in front of a child; 15
  16. 16. Sign and symptoms I t can be very difficult to talk about sexual abuse and even more difficult to acknowledge that sexual abuse of children of all ages including infants happens today. The following are possible sign and symptoms for child sexual abuse • Sudden awareness of genitals and sexual acts and words. • Attempting to get other children to perform sexual acts. 16
  17. 17. • Drawings that show sexual acts. • Unexplained fear of known adult, example uncle • • • • • brother or any relative. Emotional or behavioural changes, example depression, self-harm, low self-esteem. Running away from home. Eating disorders. Insecurity. Pregnancy in girl bellow 18 years. 17
  18. 18. Genital signs and symptoms  Dysuria, soreness, itching, bleeding or discharge from genitals or anus, which is recurrent or persistent and not explained by medical condition, example UTI, worms, skin condition.  Gaping anus observed during an examination without a medical explanation, example; neurological disorder or severe constipation. 18
  19. 19.  Genital, or anal injury without suitable explanation  Sexual transmitted infections including genital warts, hepatitis B without clear evidence of vertical transmission. 19
  20. 20. EMOTIONAL ABUSE This is mentally distortion of child mind symptoms and signs  Delayed development it may be physical, mental or emotional; speech disorder.  Low self-esteem, self-blame, over-reaction to mistakes.  Carers repeatedly humiliate the child. 20
  21. 21. NEGLET Child neglect a very common type of child abuse is a pattern of failing to provide for a child's basic needs, whether it be adequate food, clothing, hygiene, or supervision. Signs and symptoms.  Malnutrition.  Excessive crying, tiredness and hunger.  Poor hygiene and clothing.  Frequent school absence.  Untreated medical problems and failure to attend important child health programmes 21
  22. 22. COMMON MYTHS ABOUT CHILD ABUSE Myth: Child abuse is rare Fact: In many traditional childrearing practices, such as hitting, threatening or shouting at children, are harmful to children's physical and psychological health. Myth: It is only abuse if it is violent Fact: Child abuse does not necessarily involve violence or anger. Abuse often involves adults exploiting their power over children, and using children as objects rather than respecting their rights. 22
  23. 23. Myth: People who sexually abuse children are mentally ill Fact: Most people who sexually abuse children do not fit the psychiatric criteria for paedophilia 23
  24. 24. STEPS TO FOLLOW IF YOU ENCOUNTER FEATURES WHICH ALERTS YOU TO POSSIBLE CHILD ABUSE 1. Listen and observe.  Take into account the history, symptoms and signs, any other information, child's appearance, behaviour and interaction of child and carers. 24
  25. 25. 2. Seek an explanation:  Enquire in an open and non-judgemental way, as to the explanation for injuries or other features and where possible, have separate communication with the child, in a way which helps develop trust. Remember “cultural practices are not an acceptable excuse for hurting a child”. 25
  26. 26. 3. Record:  Record what is said and observed, by whom, and why. It is important to document the history and physical findings. If possible, photographs should also be taken.  There will usually be a legal obligation to report children abuse. Check with the laws and protocols of your place of work, and obtain legal advice if you are unsure. 26
  27. 27. 4. Treat any injury or infection as appropriate. NOTE  The child must be examined in a comfortable and supportive environment. 27
  28. 28. WAYS TO PREVENT CHILD ABUSE 1.Public awareness and creating supportive communities. 2.Early identification and support of vulnerable children and families. 3. Mental health services for children and families experienced this kind of abuse. 4.Esterblishing and implementation of child protection laws. 28
  29. 29. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Special thanks to  Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) administration for facilitating this event.  My tutors at Institute of Allied and Health Sciences (IAHS) School of medical laboratory science (SMLS) for their timely advice and assistance.  My family, my friends members of 117Hallelujah studio and all my class mates for their support till the completion of this work. Thank you all.  Above all thanks to Almighty God for being alive and giving me energy to do this work. 29
  30. 30. References.        GETTING STARTED ( Running junior farmer field and life school )  Integrated labour force survey ILFS (2006)  Tanzania Reproductive and Child health survey TRCHC (1999). 30
  31. 31. What bout you? THANK YOU 31