About Child abuse, we have many problems today in the community which wouldn't be there if children were protected and given their right, lets all remember ''protecting the kid is protecting the future world''
MUHIMBILI UNIVERSITY OF HEALH AND ALLIED SCIENCES
WIN AND LEARN ACCADEMIC PRESENTATION-2012.
TOPIC: NON ACCIDENTAL CHILD INJURY.
PRESENTER: GANGATA R.SHAFURI ( DMLS ll).
To have understanding and awareness on non accidental
child injury and use it as a tool to prevent child abuse.
Definition for non accidental child injury
Indicators for non accidental child injury.
Classification of non accidental child injury.
Common myth about non accidental child injury.
Ways to prevent non accidental child injury.
Non accidental child injury
Is an injury to the skeletal, soft tissue and organ of
child sustained as a result of repeated mistreatment or
beating usually by individual responsible for its care
Non accidental child injury this is so called child abuse
Who is a Child?
A Child is any person or individual below the age of
Children in Tanzania constitute more than 46 percent
of the population. Therefore children are important
segment of the society.
Indicators for child abuse
According the study on child abuse, carried out by
Muhimbili University and the US’ Centre for
Disease Control and Prevention, found that almost
three out of ten girls and one out of seven boys had
been victims of sexual violence.
Nearly three-quarters of all children under 18 years
they had experienced physical violence at the hand of
About 150,000 children below age of five die every year
and children with malnutrition number more than
Either children regardless of gender, origin, religion or
possible disabilities need special care and protection.
The government must take action to ensure that
children right are respected
Classification of non accidental child injury
Non-accidental injury in children is not uncommon
and is associated with significant morbidity and
mortality hence they affect children health physically
It is therefore important to identify it at the earliest
opportunity so that appropriate measure can be made
to protects them from further harm.
Children abuse is divided into four classes.
Injuries in the skin can be an important sign of physical
abuse, Skin signs of non-accidental injury are frequently
accompanied by other forms of physical injury (e.g.
Sign and symptoms
Binding injuries occur when the wrists and ankles are
tied. Acute injuries may present with soft-tissue
swelling, redness, warmth or abrasions around the
wrists and ankles
Physical abuse is frequently identified by
bruising, which may be multiple and in different
stages of healing.
Burning is another form of abuse for children.
Typically, cigarette burns can often be suspected
where there are one or more rounded ulcers or
Head and eye injuries
•Intracranial injury with no major confirmed
accidental trauma or medical cause.
•There are other injuries like retinal haemorrhages, rib
or long bone fractures, or with multiple subdural
This is another form of child abuse in which an adult
or older adolescent uses child for sexual
stimulation, asking or pressing a child to engage in
sexual activities and using children to produce child
Children sexual abuse include a number of
acts, including but not limited to:
• Sexual touching of any part of the body, clothed or
• Penetrative sex, including penetration of the mouth;
• Encouraging a child to engage in sexual
activity, including prostitution masturbation;
• Intentionally engaging in sexual activity in front of a
Sign and symptoms
I t can be very difficult to talk about sexual abuse and
even more difficult to acknowledge that sexual abuse
of children of all ages including infants happens today.
The following are possible sign and symptoms for child
• Sudden awareness of genitals and sexual acts and
• Attempting to get other children to perform sexual
• Drawings that show sexual acts.
• Unexplained fear of known adult, example uncle
brother or any relative.
Emotional or behavioural changes, example
depression, self-harm, low self-esteem.
Running away from home.
Pregnancy in girl bellow 18 years.
Genital signs and symptoms
Dysuria, soreness, itching, bleeding or discharge from
genitals or anus, which is recurrent or persistent and
not explained by medical condition, example
UTI, worms, skin condition.
Gaping anus observed during an examination without
a medical explanation,
example; neurological disorder or severe constipation.
Genital, or anal injury without suitable explanation
Sexual transmitted infections including genital
warts, hepatitis B without clear evidence of vertical
This is mentally distortion of child mind
symptoms and signs
Delayed development it may be physical, mental or
emotional; speech disorder.
Low self-esteem, self-blame, over-reaction to mistakes.
Carers repeatedly humiliate the child.
Child neglect a very common type of child abuse is a
pattern of failing to provide for a child's basic
needs, whether it be adequate
food, clothing, hygiene, or supervision.
Signs and symptoms.
Excessive crying, tiredness and hunger.
Poor hygiene and clothing.
Frequent school absence.
Untreated medical problems and failure to attend
important child health programmes
COMMON MYTHS ABOUT CHILD ABUSE
Myth: Child abuse is rare
Fact: In many traditional childrearing practices, such as
hitting, threatening or shouting at children, are
harmful to children's physical and psychological
Myth: It is only abuse if it is violent
Fact: Child abuse does not necessarily involve violence
or anger. Abuse often involves adults exploiting their
power over children, and using children as objects
rather than respecting their rights.
Myth: People who sexually abuse children are
Fact: Most people who sexually abuse children do not fit
the psychiatric criteria for paedophilia
STEPS TO FOLLOW IF YOU ENCOUNTER FEATURES
WHICH ALERTS YOU TO POSSIBLE CHILD ABUSE
1. Listen and observe.
Take into account the history, symptoms and
signs, any other information, child's
appearance, behaviour and interaction of child and
2. Seek an explanation:
Enquire in an open and non-judgemental way, as to
the explanation for injuries or other features and
where possible, have separate communication with the
child, in a way which helps develop trust.
Remember “cultural practices are not an acceptable
excuse for hurting a child”.
Record what is said and observed, by whom, and why.
It is important to document the history and physical
findings. If possible, photographs should also be
There will usually be a legal obligation to report
children abuse. Check with the laws and protocols of
your place of work, and obtain legal advice if you are
4. Treat any injury or infection as appropriate.
The child must be examined in a comfortable and
WAYS TO PREVENT CHILD ABUSE
1.Public awareness and creating supportive
2.Early identification and support of vulnerable children
3. Mental health services for children and families
experienced this kind of abuse.
4.Esterblishing and implementation of child protection
Special thanks to
Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences
(MUHAS) administration for facilitating this event.
My tutors at Institute of Allied and Health Sciences (IAHS)
School of medical laboratory science (SMLS) for their
timely advice and assistance.
My family, my friends members of 117Hallelujah studio and
all my class mates for their support till the completion of
this work. Thank you all.
Above all thanks to Almighty God for being alive and giving
me energy to do this work.
GETTING STARTED ( Running junior farmer field and
life school )
Integrated labour force survey ILFS (2006)
Tanzania Reproductive and Child health survey