Black/White history <ul><li>Jim Crow: Late 1800s to 1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System of formal Black-White segregation <...
Civil Rights era <ul><li>Civil Rights era </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court:  Brown v. Board of Ed  (1954) </li></ul></u...
Civil Rights Act (1964) <ul><li>Bans employer discrimination based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
1884-1914: 3,600 lynchings Murder of James Allen and John Littlefield, Marion, Indiana, 1930
Executions for rape, 1930-1967
Men in Prison, 2004 Source: BJS, &quot;Prisoners in 2004.&quot;
The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison
U.S.  v . the world: Incarceration Rates per 100,000 population: US 2004, others most recent. Source: sentencingproject.org.
People in prison and jail Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys. Update : prison clock
People without freedom Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys.
Chance of ever going to prison, men Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Populati...
What the justice system does <ul><li>Maintain a visible ‘class’ of criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Project an image </li></ul>...
And how it maintains crime <ul><li>Criminalizes victimless crimes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes with no unwilling victim </...
And how it maintains crime (2) <ul><li>Failure to provide job training or jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Life-long stigma </li></u...
Florida’s ex-felons in 2000 Bush’s margin in Florida: 537 votes If ex-felons could vote: Gore wins by 31,003 With 613,514 ...
Failure to stop crime <ul><li>Recent declines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partly the result of anti-crime policies? </li></ul></...
California, thousands in prison Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics; Bureau of Labor Statistics. Imprisonment (left)
California prison, murder rate Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics; Bureau of Labor Statistics. Imprisonment (left) Murd...
California prison, murder, jobs Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics; Bureau of Labor Statistics. Imprisonment (left) Une...
Reiman’s  Pyrrhic defeat  theory <ul><li>Pyrrhic victory: victory at such a high cost, it’s really defeat </li></ul><ul><l...
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Social Stratification

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Black/White history in Prisons and Society - Social Stratification

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  • Social Stratification

    1. 1. Black/White history <ul><li>Jim Crow: Late 1800s to 1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System of formal Black-White segregation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After ‘Reconstruction’ in the South </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court: Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plessy: ‘of seven-eighths Caucasian, and one-eighth African blood’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Denied a seat on a first class coach in Louisiana </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Court upheld ‘separate-but-equal’ </li></ul></ul></ul>
    2. 2. Civil Rights era <ul><li>Civil Rights era </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court: Brown v. Board of Ed (1954) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Court overturned Plessy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rejected ‘separated-but-equal’ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>School districts can’t segregate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social movement mobilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge to segregation, 1950s-1960s </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Civil Rights Act (1964) <ul><li>Bans employer discrimination based on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>national origin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows current inequalities to persist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Past discrimination affects qualifications </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. 1884-1914: 3,600 lynchings Murder of James Allen and John Littlefield, Marion, Indiana, 1930
    5. 5. Executions for rape, 1930-1967
    6. 6. Men in Prison, 2004 Source: BJS, &quot;Prisoners in 2004.&quot;
    7. 7. The Rich Get Richer and the Poor Get Prison
    8. 8. U.S. v . the world: Incarceration Rates per 100,000 population: US 2004, others most recent. Source: sentencingproject.org.
    9. 9. People in prison and jail Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys. Update : prison clock
    10. 10. People without freedom Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics Correctional Surveys.
    11. 11. Chance of ever going to prison, men Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics, “Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001.”
    12. 12. What the justice system does <ul><li>Maintain a visible ‘class’ of criminals </li></ul><ul><li>Project an image </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat of crime = threat from the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A system designed to fail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Practices that lead to crime, not prevent it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turns the middle class against the poor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ideological function </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. And how it maintains crime <ul><li>Criminalizes victimless crimes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes with no unwilling victim </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arbitrary power for enforcers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases alienation, mistrust of the system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prisons are painful and demeaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcomes any deterrent effect </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. And how it maintains crime (2) <ul><li>Failure to provide job training or jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Life-long stigma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No voting rights for former felons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Registration laws and police records </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No legitimate means of success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No opportunity for ‘legitimate’ means </li></ul></ul>Update : Today’s NYT
    15. 15. Florida’s ex-felons in 2000 Bush’s margin in Florida: 537 votes If ex-felons could vote: Gore wins by 31,003 With 613,514 disenfranchised ex-felons: Assumes 14% would have voted, 69% of them for Gore.
    16. 16. Failure to stop crime <ul><li>Recent declines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partly the result of anti-crime policies? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But still higher than 1960 rates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same policies didn’t work for many years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other explanations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilization of the drug trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer teenagers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic improvement </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. California, thousands in prison Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics; Bureau of Labor Statistics. Imprisonment (left)
    18. 18. California prison, murder rate Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics; Bureau of Labor Statistics. Imprisonment (left) Murder (right)
    19. 19. California prison, murder, jobs Sources: Bureau of Justice Statistics; Bureau of Labor Statistics. Imprisonment (left) Unemployment (right) Murder (right)
    20. 20. Reiman’s Pyrrhic defeat theory <ul><li>Pyrrhic victory: victory at such a high cost, it’s really defeat </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrrhic defeat </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to stop crime benefits the powerful so much it amounts to success. </li></ul>

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