Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

A Comparative Analysis of Prevention and Delinquency


Published on

A Comparative Analysis of Prevention and Delinquency - Authors Mary Magee Quinn and Jeffrey Poirier, American Institutes for Research, National Center on Education, Disability,and Juvenile Justice (EDJJ)

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

A Comparative Analysis of Prevention and Delinquency

  1. 1. What is the Price of Failure? A Comparative Analysis of Prevention and Delinquency M ary M agee Q uinn and Jeffrey Poirier, American Institutes for Research National Center on Education, Disability, and Juvenile Justice (EDJJ)
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>The role of school-based prevention in meeting the needs of at-risk youth </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of ensuring at-risk youth are educated </li></ul><ul><li>The financial and social costs of not preventing juvenile/adult crime </li></ul><ul><li>The impact of the justice system on juvenile offenders and their families </li></ul><ul><li>The long-term benefits and savings of reduced delinquency </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  3. 3. Why Prevention? <ul><li>An 18 year old is five times more likely to be arrested for a property crime than a 35 year old </li></ul><ul><li>In 1997, 15-19 year olds comprised 7% of the overall population but 1 out 5 arrests for violent offenses and 1 out of 3 property crime arrests </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, teenagers are responsible for 20-30% of all crime </li></ul><ul><li>Source: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1999 </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  4. 4. Levels of Prevention WWW.EDJJ.ORG Primary Secondary Tertiary
  5. 5. Primary Prevention <ul><li>Strategies applied to intact groups or populations, such as a school-wide discipline plan used to help all students in a school meet behavioral and academic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses on avoiding the initial occurrence of a problem </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  6. 6. Reading Programs <ul><li>Youth in Correctional Facilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Median age 15.5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9th grade (placement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4th grade reading level (mean) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 1/3 read below 4th grade </li></ul></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  7. 7. Adult Literacy WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  8. 8. Reading Programs <ul><li>Prison-based literacy programs are significantly more effective than boot camps or shock incarceration </li></ul><ul><li>The more education prisoners receives, the less likely they are to be re-arrested or re-imprisoned </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  9. 9. Literacy <ul><li>Quality reading programs can reduce recidivism by 20%. </li></ul><ul><li>Probationers had significantly lower re-arrest rates (35% vs. 46%) </li></ul><ul><li>Recipients of GED had significantly lower re-arrest rates (24% vs. 46%) </li></ul><ul><li>Inmates with 2 years of college (10% vs. 60%) </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  10. 10. Education Level WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  11. 11. Levels of Prevention WWW.EDJJ.ORG Primary Secondary Tertiary
  12. 12. Secondary Prevention <ul><li>Focus on preventing repeated occurrences of problem behavior through more targeted interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Efforts provide additional support when universal preventative efforts are not sufficient </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  13. 13. Secondary Prevention <ul><li>Example: students who have more than one disciplinary referral in a given month for fighting may be provided with special instruction in conflict resolution or social skills </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  14. 14. High/Scope Preschool Programs <ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fewer acts of misconduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher grade point averages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>higher rates of employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower rates of welfare dependence </li></ul></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  15. 15. High/Scope Preschool Programs <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$39,278 per child </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$964 increased need for funds for secondary education programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Savings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced need for special education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced crime rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$6,495 lifetime tax payments </li></ul></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  16. 16. Tertiary Prevention <ul><li>Most intensive level of support and intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Attempts to reduce the impact of a condition or problem on the individual's ability to function in the least restrictive setting </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  17. 17. Tertiary Prevention <ul><li>Example: the needs of students identified as having an emotional/behavioral disability are addressed through special education services and behavior intervention plans so that they may benefit from the educational program </li></ul><ul><li>Includes outside agency support </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  18. 18. Home Visit Programs <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$2700/year from third trimester through age 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$6000/year for day care and early childhood education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 serious crimes prevented per million dollars spent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: RAND, 1996 </li></ul></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  19. 19. Parent Training <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$500/year per family for instruction and supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>$2500/year per family for program management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>157 serious crimes prevented per million dollars spent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: RAND, 1996 </li></ul></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  20. 20. High School Graduation <ul><li>Adult Inmates in State Facilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70% have not completed high school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>46% have had some high school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16.4 % have had no high school at all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: U.S. Department of Justice, 1996 </li></ul></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  21. 21. Graduation Incentives <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$3130/year for 4 years for each youth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>258 serious crimes prevented per million dollars spent on incentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: RAND, 1996 </li></ul></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  22. 22. Delinquent Programs <ul><li>Costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$10,000/year per youth (conservative estimate) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>72 serious crimes prevented per million dollars spent </li></ul></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  23. 23. WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  24. 24. Students with Disabilities <ul><ul><li>The arrest rate among high school dropouts with disabilities was 56%, compared with 16% among graduates, and 10% among those who &quot;aged out&quot; of school. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Among dropouts with serious emotional disturbances, the arrest rate was 73% three to five years after secondary school </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: SRI International, 1992 </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  25. 25. The Costs of Crime for Communities and Victims <ul><li>Lost property and wages </li></ul><ul><li>Medical and psychological expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Pain and suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased quality of life/societal well-being (e.g., fear of crime, changing lifestyle due to risk of victimization) </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  26. 26. <ul><li>Incarceration (prisons/correctional facilities) </li></ul><ul><li>Increased demand for criminal/civil justice services </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity costs: since greater percentage of government expenditures must be dedicated to crime-related costs, fewer resources are available for education/other government services </li></ul>The Costs of Crime for Communities and Victims WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  27. 27. Who incurs these costs? <ul><li>Crime victims </li></ul><ul><li>Government agencies </li></ul><ul><li>Taxpayers </li></ul><ul><li>Society </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  28. 28. Cost of Victimization <ul><li>23% of all U.S. households victimized </li></ul><ul><li>Crime victims lost $17.6 billion in direct costs in 1992 (includes losses from property theft/damage, cash losses, medical expenses, and amount of pay lost because of injury/activities related to the crime) </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes included: attempts and completed offenses of rape, robbery, assault, personal and household theft, burglary, and motor vehicle theft </li></ul><ul><li>Source: U.S. Department of Justice, National Crime Victimization Survey, 1994 </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  29. 29. Expenditures for the Criminal and Civil Justice System <ul><li>Total: $147 billion in 1999 (police protection, corrections, and judicial/legal activities) </li></ul><ul><li>309% increase from 1982-1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Local government funded half of these expenses (note: local government funded 44% of education costs in 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: U.S. Department of Justice, 1999 </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  30. 30. Expenditures for the Criminal and Civil Justice System <ul><li>States contributed another 39% </li></ul><ul><li>Criminal and civil justice expenditures comprised 7.7% of all state and local expenditures </li></ul><ul><li>Source: U.S. Department of Justice, 1999 </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  31. 31. Costs of Juvenile Crime <ul><li>A life of crime costs society $1.5-$1.8 million </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of juvenile crime: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victim costs: $62,000-$250,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal justice: $21,000-$84,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total: $83,000-$335,000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For every 10 crimes committed, only one is caught </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic juvenile offenders are very likely to become involved in the adult system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: Cohen, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 1998 </li></ul></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  32. 32. Costs of Dropping Out <ul><li>In 1991, annual cost of providing for youth who fail to complete high school and their families: $76 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Lost wage productivity: $300,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Joint Economic Committee, 1991 </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  33. 33. Cost of Effective Prevention and Intervention Source: Washington State Institute for Public Policy, 2001 WWW.EDJJ.ORG Program Net Cost per Participant Taxpayer Savings Taxpayer Savings and Victim Benefits Benefit-to-Cost Ratio Early Childhood Education for Disadvantaged Youth $8,936 -$4,754 $6,972 $1.78 Quantum Opportunities Program $18,964 -$8,855 $16,428 $1.87 Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care $2,052 $21,836 $87,622 $43.70
  34. 34. The Costs of Crime for Juvenile Offenders <ul><li>Separation and isolation </li></ul><ul><li>In correctional settings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative behaviors are often reinforced </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher rates of sexual victimization and suicide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For youth with cognitive disabilities, it is difficult to un-learn the prison experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of special education services and an absence of skill-based programming </li></ul></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  35. 35. The Costs of Crime for Juvenile Offenders <ul><li>For youth who are sent to adult facilities, there are higher rates of re-offending and the number of serious crimes committed </li></ul><ul><li>More youth today are being referred to correctional settings for behaviors that are mental health related </li></ul><ul><li>Competing missions within the juvenile justice system (protection v. rehabilitation) </li></ul><ul><li>The juvenile court is not familiar with the impact of mental health/cognitive disabilities on behaviors </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  36. 36. The Cost of Ignoring Families <ul><li>Family involvement (surrogates, extended family, etc.) and stability are critical to the success of prevention and corrections programs </li></ul><ul><li>The family will be a part of the youth’s life long after the professionals leave </li></ul><ul><li>When parents do not have the skills/knowledge to advocate for their child’s learning/mental health needs, their children are more likely to drop out of school and become involved in the justice system </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  37. 37. The Cost of Ignoring Families <ul><li>Families are seen as the problem and not part of the solution, leading to increased reliance on foster care and costly, ineffective multiple placements </li></ul><ul><li>Families become distrustful of the systems that have failed their children often for many years </li></ul><ul><li>The rate of recidivism is impacted by the degree to which youthful offenders have a stable adult in their lives </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG
  38. 38. Conclusion <ul><li>Prevention/intervention programs for at-risk youth will not eliminate juvenile crime, but can reduce it and will bring net benefits to both society and the juvenile </li></ul><ul><li>Have a long-term vision when considering the costs of prevention programs </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the impact of incarceration on juvenile offenders and the role of families </li></ul>WWW.EDJJ.ORG