413 chapter one


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413 chapter one

  1. 1. Elizabeth Bridgland Special Education in an Era of Inclusion and Standards
  2. 2. Critical Legislature 94-142 94-142 is the original IDEA. This law was once called Education for All Handicapped Children Act (EHA, Public Law 94-142). The original law ensured the rights of all children with disabilities and authorized funding to states to help with the development, expansion, and improvement of special education programs. IDEA IDEA has been reauthorized four times; 1983, 1990, 1997, 2004. IDEA contains six key provisions Free, Appropriate Public Education Appropriate Evaluation Individualized Education Program Least Restrictive Environment Parent and Student Participation in Decision Making Procedural Safeguards IDEA 2004 put a major emphases on access to the general education curriculum for all students identified under the law.
  3. 3. Key Provisions of IDEA Free, Appropriate Public Education School districts must provide special education and related services necessary to meet the needs of students with special learning requirements. Appropriate Evaluation It is required that each student receives a full and individual initial evaluation before they receive special education and related services. Parental consent, evaluation by a team, use of more than one procedure, testing in the student’s native language, and reevaluations conducted when necessary are also required by IDEA.
  4. 4. Key Provisions of IDEA Individualized Education Program A written document summarizing a student’s learning program and is required for every student who qualifies for services. The most important part of the IEP should be the description of how a child’s disability affects the child’s involvement and progress in the general curriculum. Least Restrictive Environment This requires schools to educate students with disabilities in the general education setting with their classmates who are nondisabled. This allows students to attend school in the most inclusive setting possible.
  5. 5. Key Provisions of IDEA Parent and Student Participation in Decision Making Parental consent must be obtained for every decision that affects children with disabilities. Parents are considered participants of the child’s IEP. Therefore, parents have the right to challenge or appeal any decisions that are related to their child’s special education process. Procedural Safeguards Safeguards were implemented to protect the rights of the parents and their children. Parents have the right to their child’s educational records, the right to obtain an IEE, the right to request a due process hearing, the right to appeal decisions, and the right to initiate civil action when appealing a final hearing decision.
  6. 6. Critical Legislature Section 504 Any student who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities can qualify for special services under Section 504. This law is important because it allows students who need special services to have them, even if they may not be categorized under IDEA. Americans with Disabilities Act Also known as ADA. This legislature represents broad civil rights coverage for individuals who are disabled. This law protects people with disabilities from discrimination such as, Employment Public accommodations Transportation State and local government operations Telecommunications systems
  7. 7. Critical Legislature No Child Left Behind NCLB was created to better serve the “neediest” of students in our schools and to hold schools more accountable for the material that children are learning There are five key provisions for NCLB Increased accountability Parent and student choice Greater flexibility to states, school districts, and schools Putting reading first Highly qualified teachers
  8. 8. Key Provisions of NCLB Increased accountability Implementations of statewide accountability systems that are based on state standards in reading and mathematics Parent and student choice Funds that allow parents to move their children who are “failing” to a “better” school within the school district and/or obtain supplemental educational services from a public or private school Greater flexibility to states, school districts, and schools Unprecedented flexibility in the use of federal education funds
  9. 9. Key Provisions of NCLB Putting reading first A goal to ensure that every child can read by the end of third grade Highly qualified teachers This stresses the need to have “highly qualified” teachers in schools
  10. 10. Key Elements in Schools Today Standard-based education What is taught must be tied to the state-derived content and performance standards that now exist in almost all states in the core subject areas of language arts/English, mathematics, social studies, and science. Content Standards Knowledge, skills, and understanding that students should attain in academic subjects Performance Standards Levels of achievement that students must meet to demonstrate their proficiency in the subjects Inclusion The most common theme in special education has been the commitment to providing persons with disabilities the opportunity to have a place in society. Does not refer to a physical space, but to a condition or state of being. The concept implies a sense of belonging and acceptance Student accountability Most students with disabilities can and will take the regular district wide or statewide tests that nondisabled students take. Some take the tests using some type of accommodation Some who have more significant needs will be exempt from taking a regular standards-based test and will be administered an alternative assessment RTI Three tiered model Students do not need to be identified as disabled in order to receive this Tier One: High-quality core instruction High-quality, research-based, and systematic instruction in a challenging curriculum in general education Tier Two: High-quality targeted supplemental instruction Targeted and focused interventions to supplement core instruction Tier Three: High-quality intensive intervention Specialized interventions to meet significant disabilities
  11. 11. Key Elements in Schools Today Universal Design for Learning UDL is the development of educational curricula and materials that include potent supports for access and learning from the start, rendering them effective for a far wider range of students than traditional materials Evidence-Based Practices Evidence-based practices are interventions that have evidence that they work with the populations with whom they are being used Today, instructional practices should have a research base if they are to be used with students with special needs Differentiated Instruction Individualizing instruction A process to approach teaching and learning for students of differing abilities in the same class The intent is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is, and assisting in the learning process Diversity Considerations Diversity implies that many students do not represent the stereotypic image of the typical student The norm of what is typical has changed dramatically in recent years Teachers must develop a sensitivity to the needs of a diverse group of students Teachers must also acquire specific knowledge about diverse students and develop skills to address the needs that these students present in the classroom
  12. 12. According to the Videos What Is Inclusion? Sense of belonging Permission to be yourself Being valued and respected Not a program What is Universal Design for Learning? An approach to curriculum that minimizes barriers and maximizes learning for all students What is RTI? 3 tiered model Children do not need to be identified as disabled to receive
  13. 13. I believe that it is important for children with exceptionalities to feel accepted and like they belong in the classroom with the other students. I feel that it is my responsibility to provide that child with confidence and knowledge to help them feel included among their peers, not “different”.
  14. 14. References Polloway, Edward A., James R. Patton, and Loretta Serna. Strategies for Teaching Learners with Special Needs. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall, 2008. Print.