Chapter ??6Focusing on the SportFocusing on the SportOrganization–MediaOrganization–MediaRelationshipRelationshipC H A P T E R
Objectives• Define mass media• Denote the significance of rights fees in thesuccess of sport organizations• Describe adaptations sport organizations havemade to accommodate television• Identify historical methods of public relations insport
Mass Media Defined• Traditionally, scholars have divided massmedia forms into print and electronic.-Print media are newspapers, magazines, and books.-Electronic media are radio, television, and film.(continued)where do new forms of media likemobile fit in?
Mass Media Defined• Pedersen, Miloch, and Laucella (2007)conceived a strategic sport communicationmodel in which one of three componentsfocused on sport mass media.• They distinguish among three segments ofsport mass media– Publishing and print communication– Electronic and visual communication– New mediaWhat arethe prosand consof each?How dothey worktogether inPR?
Sport and Mass media are two partners deliveringsport content to consumersWhat led to thepartnership betweensport and media?Improvements in communication!telegraph & newspapersImprovements in transportation!
Early Newspapers (print)Evolution =factual --> creative
The media turnedAthletes into Heroes!Athletes into Heroes!
Electronic Media and Rights Fees• Early Broadcast (radio/TV) initiated theimportance of rights fees for sporting events• Mass media outlets pay league rights fees forpermission to broadcast sporting events• Rights fees contribute a significant amount toleague yearly revenues• Profit Sharing (Sports Broadcasting Act)• See Table 6.2 on rights fees of major sportingeventsWhy is the media willing to pay so much???
Evolution of SportPublic Relations• 1800s baseballmanagement–labordispute– Brotherhood ofProfessionalBaseball Players– The Players League
College Sports Public Relationswalter campFather of FootballExposure of College Footballknute rockneSport Brand EquityMore than 1,800 members
Power of Mass Media(Sage, 1998)(Sage, 1998)Sources of Power•Constitutional protection - profession vs. activity•Universal access to the public - 74% of householdsin north America have internet. Balancing mass medianeeds and org. media•Corporate organization - reduction of outlets,increase in size of media companies, changes in medianeeds/wants (vertical integration, no rights fees)•Ability to construct ideology - gatekeepers
Mass Media Structures• Print media• Electronic media
Print Media• Newspapers• Magazines• Wire serviceElectronic Media• Radio• Television– Broadcast television– Cable and satellite television– Ratings and shares• Internet• StreamingDifferences in engagement and sports content?
Relationship BetweenMass Media and Sport• Symbiotic relationship - sports as a socialinstitution, rights fees, free publicity, mediaratings and viewership/readership• Creation of programming - X Games, Goodwillgames• Sister relationships: ESPN and ABC
Sport Adaptations for Television• Baseball– Designated hitter– League expansion– Divisional split– Additional postseasoncompetition– World Series nightscheduling• Football– Monday Night Football– Rule changes– Television time-outs– Wild-card playoff berths(continued)
Future of Sport Public Relations• Breaking news on an organization’s ownwebsite• Instantaneous dissemination of information– Facebook, Twitter, Blogs, Instagram