Radio Journalism● What is Radio journalism? ● Current Audio -Radio or audio journalism is Mediums: AM/FM a relatively new medium in HD which news or information is Satellite Internet broadcast electronically rather than print methods such as newspapers or posters.
Audio Vs. Broadcast● What is the difference between broadcast journalism and audio journalism?● Do audio and broadcast journalism share any mediums on which content is presented?
Tied Down● With the establishment of the telegraph and telephone long distance communication was achieved at exceedingly fast speeds.● “But as wonderful as these amazing devices were, they shared a common weakness - their messages could only go where their wires led.” -FCC
The First Transmission● In 1864 James Clerk Maxwell predicted the existence of electro-magnetic waves.● It wasnt until 1890, however, that Hertz was finally able to send the first wireless signal.
The Coherer Wireless Detector “In 1890, Edouard Branly, Physics Professor at the Catholic University of Paris, found that a nearbyCoherer Device In Use electromagnetic disturbance (spark) can lower the resistance of a thin layer of platinum deposited upon glass and he is, thus, credited as the inventor of the coherer wireless detector.”
The Coherer Device Cont.● The lowered resistance in the tube allows a greater current to pass through the device ● With the addition of a tapper, ● The filings for some reason dd the morse code could be sent not un-clump after the wireless wirelessly across the country signal ended and therefore a and eventually across the globe. tapper was added to break each signal.
When the Coherer device completes the circuit, a “Click-Clack” sound isproduced. With some tweaks Morsecode was sent clearly and concisely.
The Birth of Wireless With the joining of Coherers and Hertzs technology practicalwireless devices were possible. Wireless telegraphy became a staple of news broadcasting from the late 1890s to early 1920s. Most notably, wireless telegraphy played out the events of the titanic sinking in 1912.
The Man Behind The Broadcast● It wasnt until the first year of the 20th century that radio as we know it took form. Up until December 23rd, 1900 only wireless telegraphs were possible.● Reginald Aubrey Fessenden became the voice of a new era by sending the first “broadcast” with voice superimposed on radio waves.● By 1906 Fessenden was the first disc jockey, playing a music broadcast to the ships of the United Fruit Company.
Fressendens First Wireless Broadcast First Wireless Broadcast
● In the early 1920s The 1920s broadcast radio was starting to take hold. It ● Some notable early radio was popular since broadcasts: journalist could be at the -November 2, 1920 and the scene of the news being announcement of the covered. Harding-Cox presidential election results on KDKA. -1925 and the following of the Scopes Trial by WGN -1927 and Charles Lindberghs transatlantic flight.
The 1920s Cont. ● The intersection of radio, news, and politics created a prime environment for radio and technology to grow.● The earliest broadcast, such as that of Lindberghs crossing of the Atlantic captured the attentions of thousands of people of all ages.
The Biltmore Agreement Cont.● The Biltmore Agreement created several key points: – Radio networks could only produce two, five-minute news broadcasts per day. – Networks could not broadcast “breaking news” – News advertising support was strictly not allowed. – News could not be broadcast during newspaper- selling periods – Radio networks had to encourage listeners to read newspapers for more details on stories.
The Press-Radio War Begins● 1922 brought the release of a ● With radio gaining a statement by the AP that footing as a news prohibited radio stations from medium, the broadcasting their news from Associated Press(AP) their paper. Though largely started getting nervous. ignored by stations at the time, it Newspapers wanted to is believed to be the shot that overpower radios started the war. growth● The ban by the Associated Press only fueled radios popularity and influence through the 1920s. With more wire services denying rights to their papers for broadcasts, radio networks began to turn away and form their own news bureaus.
Gaining Speed H.V Kaltenborn● With news networks forced to create their own news bureaus, 1929 and 1930 brought organized programming to the table.● Three regularly scheduled newscast began and took over the air as flagship shows. -1929 brought The Headline Hunter with Floyd Gibbons on NBC. -1930 next brought us the Lowell Thomas and The News broadcast and H.V Kaltenborns regular newscasts on CBS.
The 1930s: A Decade of War● With regular news shows broadcasting almost daily, there came an exponential growth in listeners.● The Lindbergh kidnapping and eventually the trial of Bruno Hauptman only fueled radio journalisms growth.● Despite growth, network executives could feel the pressures of establishing news bureaus, while publishers were feeling the pressures of radios popularity. By the end of 1933, both reached their breaking points.
The Biltmore AgreementIn December of 1933, At the BiltmoreHotel in New York City, a meetingcommenced between wire servicerepresentatives, network executives, andnewspaper publishers. To discuss thegrowing tensions between newsmediums.
A New Type of Broadcast Commentary● With radio networks limited in content and loosing revenue from advertising, it wasnt long before executives went in search of loopholes.● In no time, a hole in the agreement was found and a new chapter of radio journalism began.● News commentary became the pillar of major network shows. The Biltmore Agreement limited broadcasters to certain rules, not commentators. Therefore allowing networks to gain advertising revenue once again.● All the major network hosts, like Lowell Thomas and H.V. Kaltenborn soon dropped the broadcaster title for the new commentator title.
The Flames of Radio● Despite setbacks created by the Biltmore Agreement, radio still managed to build its audience base thanks to one very important person: President Roosevelt.● After his inauguration in 1933, he began addressing the people through his radio Fireside Chats. These addresses generated strong listener-ship for radio networks, with as much as 30% of the population tuning in.
The Flames of Radio Cont. Hindenburg Recording● The Hindenburg Disaster of 1937 played a defining role in the history of radio journalism.● After touching the docking pole, the Hindenburg burst into flames and was completely destroyed within 2 minutes.● Herb Morrison from WLS of Chicago capture this tragic event on recording disks as the events played out.● This was the first recording ever used on NBC radio stations.
As One War Ends...● With the increase in commentary news networks, the lack of compliance from independent radio stations, and the increasing popularity of Roosevelts Fireside Chats, the Biltmore Agreement collapsed.● The spring of 1939 saw the official end of the Press-Radio War with the Associated Press lifting the ban on radio broadcasts of wire copy.● This new freedom of the radio press created numerous opportunities that continued to build its listener base.
...Another War Begins Troops Invade ● H.V. Kaltenborn took to the air and began broadcasting reports● One prime opportunity straight from Sudetenland was the commencement of for 18 days, creating more World War II. than 85 separate broadcasts covering the prewar Munich Crisis.
Another War Begins Cont.● The prewar and World War II era hastened the development of radio journalism bring it even closer to the Radio we see today.● In 1938 CBS was the first Network to broadcast from overseas, instead of taking news from the wire service.● This overseas coverage helped push listener-ship up, with over 40% of the population getting their news from radio stations.● Several radio hosts became house hold names.
Post War Problems● By the end of the war, nearly 60% of the population gathered their news from broadcast networks.● With the war over and radio at an all time high, it seemed like little could happen to stop its growth. But several technological advancements over the next decade took a huge bite out of radios population.
Televisions Hit the Market● Despite being introduced to the public in 1939, television did not become mainstream until the late 1940s. This was mostly due to the World War.● When it finally gained momentum, though, radio and newspaper publishers alike took a hard hit.● Radio stations not only lost listeners, but many lost their hosts as well. Several journalist like Walter Winchell migrated to TV programming to make a new name for themselves.
AM goes FM● Despite the weakening interesting in radio, the number of stations popping up kept growing, and the number of frequencies, that were empty, were declining.● In 1945, the Federal Communications Commission made a decision to move FM to its current frequency range of 88 to 108 MHz. This shift made all prewar receivers obsolete.● New standards set by the FCC continued to create a divide in radio listeners and a segmentation formed.
AM Goes FM Cont.● As FM became more mainstream, populations became more segmented. AM radio, known for its focus on entertainment was quickly losing out to the higher quality of stereophonic FM radio.● The 1960s quickly divided the populations, and stations became more targeted at specific audiences. – FM focused on entertainment with only short news bulletins throughout their shows. – AM focused on news, commentary, and talk shows.● With an increase in car radios, some stations became focused on segments targeted directly at those listening during their commute.
An FM Exception● Despite the FM bands becoming focused on high volumes of entertainment, and low volumes of news, there was one station that was an exception to this trend: National Public Radio(NPR)● NPR is the radio side to the Corporation for Public Broadcasting that was created by Congress in 1967.● At first it was mostly used by colleges and universities.● High quality journalism was brought back to radio, and created a niche in the market.● For the first time in 1979, FM radio took a step ahead of AM in its share of audience.
Maintaining a Presence● The 60s, 70s, and 80s ● Radio coped, however, and were tumultuous times for with the help of the the radio industry. The Communications Act of 1984- growing popularity of TV, which deregulated many parts the division of populations of radio- networks slid between AM and FM, and through the decades smoothly, the surviving publishing taking changes with strides. industry, truly strained all media mediums, especially radio.
Radio Today● Today radio and radio journalism are still changing. Broadcast media has flourished to a variety of mediums including: – AM Radio – FM Radio – HD Radio – Satellite Radio – Internet Radio
Radio Today Cont.● The advent of satellite/internet radio has allowed stations to return to the old days of large networks with syndicated broadcasts coming from a single source.● These two formats have also made a name for themselves due to its highly deregulated format, allowing for a larger variety of shows, low censorship, and the building of unique audiences.● Many cars in production today have grown from having just AM or FM receivers to having AM/FM/Satellite receivers, giving drivers an even greater diversity in listening choices.● It should be noted, however, that satellite radio often requires a paid subscription, something uncommon for radio markets.
The Future of Radio Journalism● Radio journalists will have to become more diverse in their work.● Despite declines in listener-ship, radio journalism will always exist in one form or another.● “Its not so much about quality of content, but rather quantity of content”● “People will pay for the truth”
The Future of Radio Cont.● While some shows and hosts continue to show strong ratings, such as The Rush Limbaugh Show(which has over 15 million listeners), declines only back up Dereks predictions for future journalists. ● Only 1/5 of young adults listen● Ratings are on a downward to radio now, and if the statistics trend, the latest from 2012 show are any indication, this number listener-ship down to 33% of the will also spiral downward. population from 43% in 2000. Yet these ratings remain above newspapers, which hover around only 29%.
The Future of Radio Cont.● Over the next decade and beyond internet radio is going to play an increasingly important role in the radio journalism industry.● Smartphones have opened up the industry to completely new mediums on which to develop radio journalims. Radio apps that create “smart” playlists are becoming increasingly popular.● Podcasts are also creating a place for themselves in the internet radio world. These allow for people to download specific segments and/or episodes of their favorite radio shows. – Today, around 18% of the population downloads podcasts.
Radio at Adelphi ● Adelphi University is no exception to the growing internet radio trend.● PAWS Web Radio is Adelphis very own radio station that streams 24/7 from their studio in the Earle Hall Media Center.
References● Asimov, I. Biographical Encyclopedia of Science and Technology; the Lives and Achievements of 1510 Great Scientists from Ancient Times to the Present, Chronologically Arranged, rev. ed. New York: NY: Avon, 1976.● Fuhring, John. "An Early Coherer Radio." An Early Coherer Radio. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Mar. 2013. <http://www.geojohn.org/Radios/MyRadios/Coherer/Coherer.html>.● "Guglielmo Marconi - Biography". Nobelprize.org. 16 Feb 2013 <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1909/marconi- bio.html>● "History of Communications - RADIO: The Ideas That Made Radio Possible." FCC.gov. Federal Communications Commision, 21 Nov. 2005. Web. 15 Feb. 2013.● Jones, R. Victor. "The Branly-Lodge "Coherer" Detector." "Coherer" Detectors. Harvard University, 03 Nov. 1999. Web. 24 Mar. 2013. <http://people.seas.harvard.edu/~jones/cscie129/nu_lectures/lecture6/coherers/coh erer.html>.
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