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Key points for the electrolyte disorder of hyponatremia.

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  1. 1. Hyponatremia Brian Wells, MS-3, MSM, MPH
  2. 2. Background information • Most common electrolyte disorder. • Frequency is higher in females, the elderly, and in patients that are hospitalized. • A hospital incidence of 15-20% is common, while only 3-5% of patients who are hospitalized have a serum sodium level of less than 130 mEq/L. • Hyponatremia has been reported in up to 30% of elderly patients in nursing homes • 30% of depressed patients on SSRI • Common causes include diuretic use, diarrhea, heart failure, and renal disease.
  3. 3. Causes
  4. 4. Causes
  5. 5. Causes
  6. 6. Signs/Symptoms of Hyponatremia • Clinical manifestations are primarily neurologic (due to an osmotic shift of water into brain cells causing edema), especially in acute hyponatremia, and include headache, confusion, and stupor; seizures and coma may occur. • Symptoms generally occur when the effective plasma osmolality falls to < 240 mOsm/kg. • Symptoms can be subtle and consist mainly of changes in mental status, including altered personality, lethargy, and confusion. • In general, older chronically ill patients with hyponatremia develop more symptoms than younger otherwise healthy patients.
  7. 7. Other Signs/Symptoms • Nausea, vomiting, headache, confusion, lethargy, fatigue, appetite loss, restlessness and irritability, muscle weakness, spasms, or cramps, seizures, and decreased consciousness or coma.
  8. 8. Extrarenal fluid losses • Losses of Na-containing fluids as in protracted vomiting, severe diarrhea, or sequestration of fluids in a 3rd space can cause hyponatremia typically when losses are replaced by ingesting plain water or liquids low in Na or by hypotonic IV fluid. • Significant ECF fluid losses also cause release of ADH, causing water retention by the kidneys, which can maintain or worsen hyponatremia. • In extrarenal causes of hypovolemia, because the normal renal response to volume loss is Na conservation, urine Na concentration is typically < 10 mEq/L.
  9. 9. Renal fluid losses • Resulting in hypovolemic hyponatremia may occur with mineralocorticoid deficiency, diuretic therapy, osmotic diuresis, or salt-losing nephropathy. • Salt-losing nephropathy encompasses a loosely defined group of intrinsic renal disorders with primarily renal tubular dysfunction. This group includes interstitial nephritis, medullary cystic disease, partial urinary tract obstruction, and, occasionally, polycystic kidney disease. • Renal causes of hypovolemic hyponatremia can usually be differentiated from extrarenal causes by the history.
  10. 10. Renal fluid losses • Patients with ongoing renal fluid losses can also be distinguished from patients with extrarenal fluid losses because the urine Na concentration is inappropriately high (> 20 mEq/L). • Urine Na concentration may not help in differentiation when metabolic alkalosis (as occurs with protracted vomiting) is present and large amounts of HCO3 are spilled in the urine, obligating the excretion of Na to maintain electrical neutrality. • In metabolic alkalosis, urine Cl concentration frequently differentiates renal from extrarenal sources of volume depletion.
  11. 11. Euvolemic hyponatremia • Total body Na and thus ECF volume are normal or near-normal; however, TBW is increased. • May also result from excessive water intake in the presence of Addison's disease, hypothyroidism, or nonosmotic ADH release • Cyclophosphamide, NSAID, chlorpropamide potentiate the renal affect of ADH whereas drugs like oxytocin have a direct ADH-like affect on the kidneys. • A deficiency in water excretion is common in all these conditions. • Diuretics can cause or contribute to euvolemic hyponatremia if another factor causes water retention or excessive water intake.
  12. 12. Hypervolemic hyponatremia • Characterized by an increase in both total body Na (and thus ECF volume) and TBW with a relatively greater increase in TBW. • Various edematous disorders, including heart failure and cirrhosis, cause hypervolemic hyponatremia. • Rarely, hyponatremia occurs in nephrotic syndrome, although pseudohyponatremia may be due to interference with Na measurement by elevated lipids. • In each of these disorders, a decrease in effective circulating volume results in the release of ADH and angiotensin II.
  13. 13. Hypovolemic hyponatremia • Deficiencies in both TBW and total body Na exist, although proportionally more Na than water has been lost; the Na deficit produces hypovolemia. • In hypovolemic hyponatremia, both serum osmolality and blood volume decrease. • ADH secretion increases despite a decrease in osmolality to maintain blood volume. • The resulting water retention increases plasma dilution and hyponatremia.
  14. 14. Diagnosis • Diagnosis is by measuring serum Na. Serum and urine electrolytes and osmolality help determine the cause. • Hyponatremia is occasionally suspected in patients who have neurologic abnormalities and are at risk. • However, because findings are nonspecific, hyponatremia is often recognized only after serum electrolyte measurement.
  15. 15. Diagnostic Algorithm Hyponatremia Serum Na < 135 mEq/L Measure serum Osmolarity Hypo-osmolar < 275 mOsm/L Hyper-osmolar > 295 mOsm/L Normal 275-290 mOsm/L Pseudohyponatremia: - Hyperlipidemia - paraproteinemia Factitious hyponatremia 2˚ hyperglycemia (1.6 mEq/L dec. Na for every 100 mg/dL inc. in glucose > 150 mg/dL - Manitol Assess volume status Hypovolemia – Measure Urine Na Isovolemia – Measure Urine Na Hypervolemia – Measure Urine Na
  16. 16. Diagnostic Algorithm Hypovolemia – Measure Urine Na Isovolemia – Measure Urine Na Hypervolemia – Measure Urine Na Urine Na <10 mEq/L Extrarenal loss: - GI loss: vomiting, NG suction, diarrhea - Skin loss: fever, burns - 3rd spacing - pancreatitis Urine Na > 20 mEq/L Renal Loss: - Diuretics - Salt-wasting nephropathy - Low aldosterone Urine Na < 20 mEq/L - Water intoxication - Psychogenic polydipsia - Urine is very dilute (Urine Osm < 100 mEq/L) Urine Na > 20 mEq/L - SIADH - Hypothyroidism - Adrenal insufficiency - Drugs (NSAIDS, thiazides) - Renal failure - Urine is less dilute (Urine Osm > 100 mEq/L) Urine Na < 10 mEq/L - CHF - Nephrotic syndrome - Cirrhosis Urine Na > 20 mEq/L - Renal failure Hypo-osmolar < 275 mOsm/L
  17. 17. Of Codes and Algorithms
  18. 18. Treatment • Treatment involves restricting water intake and promoting its loss, replacing any Na deficit, and treating the cause. • When hypovolemic - 0.9% saline • When hypervolemic - fluid restriction and sometimes a diuretic • When euvolemic - treatment of cause • Rarely, cautious correction with hypertonic (3%) saline
  19. 19. Treatment - Severe hyponatremia • Hypertonic (3%) saline (containing 513 mEq Na/L) may be used, but only with frequent (q 2 to 4 h) electrolyte determinations. • For patients with seizures or coma, ≤ 100 mL/h may be administered over 4 to 6 h in amounts sufficient to raise the serum Na 4 to 6 mEq/L. This amount (in mEq) may be calculated using the Na deficit formula.
  20. 20. Sodium Deficit Formula • (Desired change in Na) × TBW • TBW is 0.6 × body weight in kg in men and 0.5 × body weight in kg in women. Example: The amount of Na needed to raise the Na from 106 to 112 in a 70-kg man can be calculated as follows: (112 mEq/L − 106 mEq/L) × (0.6 L/kg × 70 kg) = 252 mEq
  21. 21. IV Fluid Initial NaSerum per L infusate = NaInfusate – NaSerum ------------------------------- TBW + 1 Where TBW = 0.6 x IBW (x 0.85 if female and x 0.85 if elderly) Ex: 1 L hypertonic saline (513 mEq/L) given to 70 kg (IBW) man with Na = 110 mEq/L will NaSerum by 9.4 mEq (assuming full retention and no output of Na or H2O). Note: If patient is euvolemic as in SIADH, infused Na will be excreted therefore normal saline can worsen hyponatremia secondary to SIADH if UOsm > InfusateOsm
  22. 22. What happens if we correct too fast? • Rate of Na should not exceed 10 – 12 mEq/L to avoid osmotic demyelination syndrome (spastic/flaccid quadriplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia)
  23. 23. Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome • Central pontine myelinolysis was described in 1959 as a condition seen in alcoholic and malnourished patients. These patients developed spastic quadriplegia, pseudobulbar palsy (characterized by head and neck weakness, dysphagia, and dysarthria), or encephalopathy in association with noninflammatory demyelination centered within the pons. • In 1962, it was noted that this myelinolysis syndrome could occur outside the pons, a condition that is referred to as extrapontine myelinolysis. Sites of extrapontine myelinolysis include the basal ganglia and cerebral white matter and, less commonly, the peripheral cortex, hippocampi, and lateral geniculate bodies. Extrapontine myelinolysis commonly occurs in conjunction with central pontine myelinolysis; however, it also may be seen in isolation. • The term osmotic demyelination syndrome is used to encompass both entities.
  24. 24. T2 weighted magnetic resonance scan image showing bilaterally symmetrical hyperintensities in Caudate nucleus (small, thin arrow), Putamen (long arrow), with sparing of Globus Pallidus (broad arrow), suggestive of Extrapontine myelinolysis.
  25. 25. Review Questions – Cause and Symptom • What are the common causes of hyponatremia? • Volume depletion, edema states, SIADH, psychogenic polydipsia, diuretics • What are the symptoms and why do they occur? • Headache, N/V, lethargy, confusion, seizures, coma. • The lower osmolality of the ECF causes water to shift into cells resulting in cerebral edema.
  26. 26. Review Questions - Physiology • What’s the mathematical relationship between hyperglycemia and serum Na? • Each 100 mg/dL elevation of serum glucose above normal decreases serum Na by ~1.6 mEq/L (translocational hyponatremia => serum osmolality leads to water movement into intravascular space) • How is serum or Posm calculated? • Posm = 2 * Na + Glucose / 18 + BUN / 2.8
  27. 27. Review Questions - Treatment • What is the first step in management? • Determining volume status • How do you treat hyponatremia with • Hypovolemia? • Administration of normal saline IV • Hypervolemia? • Diuretics and fluid restriction • Euvolemia (SIADH)? • Fluid restriction. If the patient is symptomatic, correction of serum Na with hypertonic saline may be indicated • What are the indications for hypertonic saline with or without diuretics? • Serum Na < 120 mEq/L, particularly when CNS symptoms are present
  28. 28. Reivew Questions • What is the appropriate rate for administration of IV NaCl in the treatment of hyponatremia? • Rate is calculated as that necessary to increase serum Na by 0.5 – 1.0 mEq/L per hour (ex: raise serum Na from 115 to 125 mEq/L over 24 hours) • What can result from rapid correction of hyponatremia? • Osmotic demyelination syndrome with spastic/flaccid quadriplegia or other neurological symptoms