Chemical Methods of Vector Control

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Chemical Methods of Vector Control

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Chemical Methods of Vector Control

  1. 1. Chemical Methods of Vector Control Brian Wells University of Florida December 3, 2003
  2. 2. Why Control Mosquitoes? <ul><li>Mosquitoes are the world's most significant vectors </li></ul><ul><li>Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes are responsible for the deaths of millions of people every year. </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquitoes are the primary vector for several pathogens such as West Nile Virus </li></ul><ul><li>Story about FL: http://www.cnn.com/2001/HEALTH/07/07/florida.west.nile/ </li></ul><ul><li>Medical Alert: http://www.sawyerproducts.com/FLstate/O2402FLWestNileVirusAlert.html </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Control Mosquitoes? <ul><li>Mosquitoes also are the vector for St. Louis Encephalitis, Eastern Equine Encephalitis, and dengue fever. </li></ul><ul><li>WHO estimates that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 million cases of dengue (24,000 deaths) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200,000 cases of yellow fever (30,000 deaths) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>300M to 500M cases of malaria (1M deaths) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why Control Mosquitoes? <ul><li>The Most Important Reason: </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquitoes can make life very uncomfortable! </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mosquito Control in the Gainesville area <ul><li>Some quick facts on Gainesville: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45.52 square miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population of 117,182 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>87,509 households </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild winters, warm summers </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.cityofgainesville.org
  6. 6. City of Gainesville Mosquito Spray Zones
  7. 7. Chemicals – Attacking Mosquitoes at Every Level
  8. 8. Chemical Controls <ul><li>Commonly used pesticides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malathion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permethrin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resmethrin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sumithrin </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Chemical Controls <ul><li>Malathion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the most commonly used pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malathion is an adulticide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patented in 1951 by American Cyanamid Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also a contact insecticide – that is, it can kill pests if it touches them or if they eat a sprayed part of a plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered to be one of the safest organophosphate insecticides </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Chemical Controls <ul><li>Malathion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cholinesterase Inhibitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks neural transmission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects on human can potentially be muscle weakness, tremors, and even death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Although it is a generally safe pesticide, the real key to its safety is to use common sense and avoid unnecessary exposure. </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.napa.ufl.edu/oldnews/spray.htm
  11. 11. Chemical Controls <ul><li>Benefits of Malathion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps control the mosquito population and thus improves QOL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protects crops in Florida that yield $10 Billion worth of revenue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If these crops were lost, every man, woman, and child in Florida would have to contribute an additional $700 to maintain the standard of living </li></ul></ul>Source: http://fmel.ifas.ufl.edu/fmbuzz/wtchallenge2.htm
  12. 12. Chemical Controls <ul><li>Larvicides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methoprene – growth inhibitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temephos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral Oil can be used to form a thin film of the surface of water to cause the larvae and pupa to drown. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. How are Pesticides deployed? <ul><li>Airplane </li></ul><ul><li>Ground truck-mounted sprayers </li></ul><ul><li>Portable sprayers </li></ul>
  14. 14. Problems facing chemical-based vector control <ul><li>Relatively small pesticide market </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small market creates little economic incentive for chemical companies to spend large amounts of money to develop and label new chemical products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a new chemical does become available, it is usually because it has a side-effect of being lethal to mosquitoes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Quality Protection Act - will help to assure that valuable public health pesticides are not lost through a lack of registrant support or unwillingness to pay for the risk management studies because the mosquito control market is too small </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Problems facing chemical-based vector control <ul><li>Growing problem of mosquito resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insects have the innate ability to stay one step ahead of us by developing resistance to the relatively few products available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The AMCA advocates the practicing of resistance management techniques that attempt to minimize the risk of mosquitoes becoming resistant to the existing chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: not using sublethal amounts of insecticides, the rotating/alternating of available chemicals </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.epa.gov/oppbppd1/PESP/strategies/backgrounders/amca-bk.htm
  16. 16. What constitutes a successful Mosquito Control program? <ul><li>Source Reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impoundment Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Marsh Water Management </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larviciding </li></ul><ul><li>Adulticiding </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Controls (more on Friday) </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquito-transmitted Disease Surveillance </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cost of Mosquito Control <ul><li>In FY 2002, Gainesville spent $285,389 ($2.44 per person) </li></ul><ul><li>In FY 2003, Gainesville will spend $480,915 ($4.11 per person) </li></ul><ul><li>Individual chemical costs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Malathion – 5lbs - $6.15 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pyrethrin – 1qt of concentrate - $97.95 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permethrin – 1 qt of concentrate - $37.95 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BTI - $24.95 for 20 briquets </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. How is Gainesville Mosquito Control Doing? <ul><li>Citizen Opinion Survey – 1999 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5% - Excellent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>43% - Good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32% - Fair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% - Poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>61% - Very Important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32% - Somewhat Important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8% - Not Important </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.cityofgainesville.org/gov/issues/citsurv99.cfm
  19. 19. How is Gainesville Mosquito Control Doing? <ul><li>Citizen Opinion Survey – 2000 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9% - Excellent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>44% - Good </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>32% - Fair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16% - Poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>64% - Very Important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% - Somewhat Important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7% - Not Important </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.cityofgainesville.org/gov/issues/citsurv00.cfm
  20. 20. What can you do to help? <ul><li>Clean out eaves, troughs, and gutters. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove old tires or drill holes in those used in playgrounds to drain. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn over or remove empty plastic pots. </li></ul><ul><li>Pick up all beverage containers and cups. </li></ul><ul><li>Check tarps on boats or other equipment that may collect water. </li></ul>
  21. 21. What can you do to help? <ul><li>Pump out bilges on boats. </li></ul><ul><li>Replace water in birdbaths and pet or other animal feeding dishes at least once a week. </li></ul><ul><li>Change water in plant trays, including hanging plants, at least once a week. </li></ul><ul><li>Remove vegetation or obstructions in drainage ditches that prevent the flow of water. </li></ul>
  22. 22. How to Protect Yourself <ul><li>5 D’s and 1 S </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dusk and Dawn – avoid being outdoors during this time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dress – wear protective clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEET – mosquito repellant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drainage – get rid of standing water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screens – make sure windows are closed and sealed </li></ul></ul>Source: http://www.health.ufl.edu/shcc/pdf/wnv.pdf
  23. 23. Questions?
  24. 24. Question 1 <ul><li>Malathion is a ________ pesticide that kills mosquitoes in the _______ stage of life. </li></ul><ul><li>A. organophosphate, larvae </li></ul><ul><li>B. organophosphate, adult </li></ul><ul><li>C. organohalide, larvae </li></ul><ul><li>D. organohalide, adult </li></ul>
  25. 25. Question 2 <ul><li>Which of the following was not mentioned as a commonly used pesticide? </li></ul><ul><li>A. Malathion </li></ul><ul><li>B. Resmethrin </li></ul><ul><li>C. Permethrin </li></ul><ul><li>D. Atorvastatin </li></ul>
  26. 26. Question 3 <ul><li>DEET is: </li></ul><ul><li>A. a personal insect repellant </li></ul><ul><li>B. a sprayer used on trucks </li></ul><ul><li>C. the acronym for the law governing mosquito control </li></ul><ul><li>D. A brand of speakers at Best Buy </li></ul>
  27. 27. Additional Information <ul><li>This presentation is available for download at: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.destination-web.com/ees/vectors.pdf </li></ul>

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