Applied Ecological        Services, Inc.Sustainable Solutions for Over 30 Years
Treatment Biocells forContaminant Removal from    Landfill Leachate              March 13, 2012               Doug Eppich,...
Doug Eppich, Brian Tippetts, & John Roll
AES’ Landfill Overview:•Nearly thirty years of serving the natural resourcesindustry• Worked on a multitude of landfills w...
AES’ Landfill Overview:•Nearly thirty years of serving the natural resourcesindustry• Worked on a multitude of landfills w...
AES’ Landfill Solutions:• Challenging permits with environmental issues  (Threatened and Endangered species, surface  wate...
Leachate Problems:•   N, BOD/COD, salts, metals•   Public Treatment Works (POTW) limitations•   Trucking costs•   Active l...
Landfill Leachate Constituents        Constituent                             Typical Ranges1                          WQ ...
Landfill Leachate Constituents        Constituent                             Typical Ranges1                             ...
Treatment Biocell Benefits:• Cost reduction through reduced O & M• Reduced waste disposal costs• Added open space, green s...
Treatment Biocell Data:•   Pre-design leachate water quality data is essential•   Evaluate outflow concentrations of the c...
Treatment Biocell Types:•   Free water surface (FWS) – Similar to natural biocells with open water and    vegetation. Usua...
Biocell Treatment Processes:• Physical -- Physical processes include sorption and  sedimentation.• Chemical – Chemical pro...
Biocell Physical            Treatment Processes• Sedimentation (or settling) is the major removal pathway for  particulate...
Biocell Chemical            Treatment Processes• Volatilization – Different processes in the biocell create gaseous  produ...
Biocell Biochemical           Treatment Processes• Biochemical Activity – Constructed biofiltration biocells  provide favo...
Biocell Biological           Treatment Processes• Uptake By Plants & Algae - Pollutant uptake by plants and  algae in vacu...
• Treated Leachate Constituents – Organic Nitrogen,  Ammonia, Nitrite/Nitrate• Processes   - Ammonification   - Nitrificat...
• Treated Leachate Constituents – Organic  Phosphorus, Inorganic Phosphorus• Processes   - Macrophyte and microbiota growt...
• Treated Leachate Constituents – BOD/COD• Processes   - Microbiota growth   - Precipitation   - Decomposition producing C...
• Treated Leachate Constituents – Sodium  Chloride, Calcium Chloride• Processes   – Chlorides pass through   – Clay Sorpti...
• Treated Leachate Constituents –  Zinc, Copper, Lead, Chromium, Arsenic, Nickel, Cadmium  , Iron• Processes   –   Sorptio...
Project Examples
Saline County Landfill Biocell
Saline County Landfill           Design Considerations• Fe, BOD, TDS• Groundwater and leachate contaminants at the Saline ...
Saline County Landfill                Design Components• A two-cell treatment biocell is proposed to address contaminant  ...
Concept Plan - Vernon County Landfill    Biocell Treatment Processes
Concept Plan - Vernon County Landfill    Biocell Treatment Processes
Vernon County Landfill Biocell
Vernon County LandfillConstituent:                 Typical Ranges:1,1,1-Trichloroethane        ND-4.62 mg/LChlorobenzene  ...
Vernon County Landfill                                                Vernon County Landfill - Leachate Volume in tons    ...
Vernon County Landfill•   Nitrogen, vertical & horizontal flow•   Phase 1 storage and demonstration biocells built in 2012...
VernonCounty Landfill Design Components
Leachate Treatment Cells Webinar 03 13 12
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Leachate Treatment Cells Webinar 03 13 12

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The use of biocells or engineered wetland to treat landfill leachate. Ammonia, chlorides, BOD, COD, iron, metals, salts, pH

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  • Leachate Treatment Cells Webinar 03 13 12

    1. 1. Applied Ecological Services, Inc.Sustainable Solutions for Over 30 Years
    2. 2. Treatment Biocells forContaminant Removal from Landfill Leachate March 13, 2012 Doug Eppich, Ph.D., P.E. John Roll, Ph.D., P.E.
    3. 3. Doug Eppich, Brian Tippetts, & John Roll
    4. 4. AES’ Landfill Overview:•Nearly thirty years of serving the natural resourcesindustry• Worked on a multitude of landfills with partners inUSA and Canada• Expansions, closures and buffer land ecologicalrestoration (design-build )• Beneficial re-use planning (parks, conservation, etc.)
    5. 5. AES’ Landfill Overview:•Nearly thirty years of serving the natural resourcesindustry• Worked on a multitude of landfills with partners inUSA and Canada• Expansions, closures and buffer land ecologicalrestoration (design-build )• Beneficial re-use planning (parks, conservation, etc.)
    6. 6. AES’ Landfill Solutions:• Challenging permits with environmental issues (Threatened and Endangered species, surface water, neighbor/host agreement, wetlands and other ecosystems)• Beneficial re-use of landfills for conservation• Legal discovery and support• Closure and buffer restoration, plantings and stabilization (design-build)• Conservation storm water management and water quality• Environmental group negotiation
    7. 7. Leachate Problems:• N, BOD/COD, salts, metals• Public Treatment Works (POTW) limitations• Trucking costs• Active landfill concentrations• Regulatory acceptance, treatment “biocells”• 30-year post closure
    8. 8. Landfill Leachate Constituents Constituent Typical Ranges1 WQ Standards - *** 2 mg/L * 0.050 – 0.340 mg/L *** 1 mg/L *** 1 – 10 µg/L *,*** - * 5 µg/L *** 250 mg/L ** 0.050 mg/L *** 0.00001 - 0.2 µg/L ** 0.0000006 – 0.24 µg/L ** 0.300 mg/L * 50 µg/L *** 0.300 mg/L *** * Biocell Treatment ** Not Treated in Biocells *** Special Requirement (Ammend, Bacterial Inoculation, etc.)1. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Pgs. 735-742. Lewis Publishers, Inc. 1989.
    9. 9. Landfill Leachate Constituents Constituent Typical Ranges1 WQ Standards 6.5 – 8.5 *** 1 - 5 µg/L *,*** - * 4.6 – 10 µg/L *** - *,*** 5 – 6,000 µg/L *,*** - * 0.002 µg/L *,*** * Biocell Treatment ** Not Treated in Biocells *** Special Requirement (Ammend, Bacterial Inoculation, etc.)1. Constructed Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment. Pgs. 735-742. Lewis Publishers, Inc. 1989.
    10. 10. Treatment Biocell Benefits:• Cost reduction through reduced O & M• Reduced waste disposal costs• Added open space, green space, and wildlife elements• Enhanced aesthetic appeal• Minimal maintenance required• Enhanced community relations through favorable land use policy• Compliance with federal, state, and local regulations regarding storm water runoff and NPS pollution• Elimination of environmentally damaging contaminants from point and non-point sources
    11. 11. Treatment Biocell Data:• Pre-design leachate water quality data is essential• Evaluate outflow concentrations of the contaminants• Size treatment biocells• Determine if treatment biocells are feasible and warranted
    12. 12. Treatment Biocell Types:• Free water surface (FWS) – Similar to natural biocells with open water and vegetation. Usually a combination of interconnected aerobic (shallow water) and aneorbic (deep water) cells.• Horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) – Typically a gravel bed with biocell planted on the surface. Wastewater flows horizontally through the bed from inlet to outlet. The root zone layer is usually aerobic trending rapidly to anaerobic conditions in the saturated media bed.• Vertical flow (VF) – Wastewater is distributed over a bed of sand, gravel, or other porous media planted with emergent vegetation. Varies from aerobic to anaerobic conditions at the bottom.
    13. 13. Biocell Treatment Processes:• Physical -- Physical processes include sorption and sedimentation.• Chemical – Chemical processes include precipitation, volatilization , photodegradation and constituent conversion• Biochemical – Many chemical processes in biocells are mediated by specific bacteria such as the breaking of benzene rings and denitrification. The effectiveness of the treatment process depends on providing the proper environment (temperature, pH, nutrients) for these bacteria to function.• Biological– Biocell plants can provide important functions including oxygenation of soils, vascular contaminant storage, biofilm attachment surfaces and organic matter source
    14. 14. Biocell Physical Treatment Processes• Sedimentation (or settling) is the major removal pathway for particulate pollutants. Sheetflow conditions promote settling, and plant root stabilizes sediments, thereby reducing the potential for re-suspension.• Sorption The second primary removal pathway is by adsorption of pollutants to surfaces of sediments, biocell vegetation, and organic detritus.
    15. 15. Biocell Chemical Treatment Processes• Volatilization – Different processes in the biocell create gaseous products that are released to the atmosphere. Volatile organic compounds also diffuse to the atmosphere from biocells.• Photodegradation – Sunlight on biocells can degrade chemicals by direct photolysis or photooxidation.• Chemical Reactions – Addition of chemical amendments to biocells can be used to promote chemical reactions to convert toxic materials to non-toxic or to cause toxic materials to precipitate and be held in the bottom sediments.
    16. 16. Biocell Biochemical Treatment Processes• Biochemical Activity – Constructed biofiltration biocells provide favorable conditions for active microbial growth. Bacteria consume carbon and nitrogen compounds in the water column and sediments. Wetlands breakdown chemical species in sequential reaction steps that can remove complex contaminants (e.g. reductive dechlorination of chlorinated organic compounds) using specific bacteria to mediate the reactions.
    17. 17. Biocell Biological Treatment Processes• Uptake By Plants & Algae - Pollutant uptake by plants and algae in vacuole storage removes nutrients and metals from the water column and sediments. This plant material must be harvested to effect a lasting removal.• Accretion – Creation of new soil and sediment by stable biomass that is resistant to decay and has its own chemical composition.• Plant Support Role – Plant roots, leaves and stems provide a biofilm attachment location, the transport mechanism for oxygenating soils and organic matter.
    18. 18. • Treated Leachate Constituents – Organic Nitrogen, Ammonia, Nitrite/Nitrate• Processes - Ammonification - Nitrification - Denitrification - Macrophyte growth• Conditions – Aerobic and anaerobic zones, shallow & deep pool biocells, carbon source needed
    19. 19. • Treated Leachate Constituents – Organic Phosphorus, Inorganic Phosphorus• Processes - Macrophyte and microbiota growth - Sorption - Precipitation and Sedimentation• Conditions – Aerobic and anaerobic zones, shallow & deep pool biocells
    20. 20. • Treated Leachate Constituents – BOD/COD• Processes - Microbiota growth - Precipitation - Decomposition producing CO2 used by macrophytes• Conditions – Aerobic and anaerobic zones, shallow & deep pool biocells, nutrient source needed
    21. 21. • Treated Leachate Constituents – Sodium Chloride, Calcium Chloride• Processes – Chlorides pass through – Clay Sorption – Sulfate to Sulfide• Conditions – Maintain basic pH, submerged soils, soil amendments, harvest plant material, warm temps, oxidizing environment, nutrients, carbon, bacteria
    22. 22. • Treated Leachate Constituents – Zinc, Copper, Lead, Chromium, Arsenic, Nickel, Cadmium , Iron• Processes – Sorption and desorption (pH) – Dissolution of carbonate bound metals (pH) – Decomposition of metal organic complex compounds (pH) – Hydroxides and Oxyhydrates (redox) – Water column adsorption – Sedimentation – Soil amendments (peat)• Conditions – adjust pH (metal dependent)
    23. 23. Project Examples
    24. 24. Saline County Landfill Biocell
    25. 25. Saline County Landfill Design Considerations• Fe, BOD, TDS• Groundwater and leachate contaminants at the Saline County, Illinois landfill are less than what we see at other landfills• Hydraulic detention time (flow path, baffles)• Basin slope• Vegetative community for maximum treatment• Dry weather water balance• Addition of specialized treatment cell material (peat)
    26. 26. Saline County Landfill Design Components• A two-cell treatment biocell is proposed to address contaminant loads: 1. A shallow flow cell to reduce BOD concentrations. 2. A deeper, peat-based cell for treatment of metals and Total Dissolved Solids* Note: The TDS concentrations in the Saline County landfill leachate do not appear to reflect high concentrations of sodium or chloride, thereby making the removal more effective.
    27. 27. Concept Plan - Vernon County Landfill Biocell Treatment Processes
    28. 28. Concept Plan - Vernon County Landfill Biocell Treatment Processes
    29. 29. Vernon County Landfill Biocell
    30. 30. Vernon County LandfillConstituent: Typical Ranges:1,1,1-Trichloroethane ND-4.62 mg/LChlorobenzene 1.19-2.88 mg/LEthylbenzene ND-17.2 mg/LMethyl Ethyl Ketone ND-248 mg/Lm,p-Xylenes 11.2-39.2 mg/LMethyl Chloride ND-28.9 mg/Lo-Xylene 15.3-22.4 mg/LTetrahydrofuan 157-508 mg/LToluene ND-50.2 mg/Ltrans-1,2-Dichloroethylene ND-7.58 mg/LVinyl Chloride ND-2.03 mg/L* other organic constituents non detectable (ND)
    31. 31. Vernon County Landfill Vernon County Landfill - Leachate Volume in tons Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year End2010 625.7 646.85 414.25 696.49 721.74 1223.9 3034.86 2867.01 2013.1 549.54 429.19 379.15 13601.782009 448.78 495.51 903.81 862.86 868.5 848.11 573.72 534.69 801.87 842.35 701.59 355.24 8237.032008 827.4 653.02 870.64 1431.07 2471.46 1780.5 1542.59 430.03 621.74 585.4 566.21 300.18 12080.242007 289.15 196.84 866.8 680.66 612.52 557.84 491.6 2482.81 2066.47 1684.63 342.33 372.21 10643.86 Vernon County Landfill - Leachate Volume in gallons (gallon of leachate = 7.8 lb) Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year End2010 160,436 165,859 106,218 178,587 185,062 313,821 778,169 735,131 516,179 141,025 110,000 97,180 3,487,6672009 115,072 127,054 231,746 221,246 222,692 217,464 147,108 137,100 205,608 215,987 179,895 91,087 2,112,0592008 212,154 167,441 223,241 366,941 633,708 456,538 395,536 110,264 159,421 150,103 145,182 76,969 3,097,4972007 74,141 50,472 222,256 174,528 157,056 143,036 126,051 636,618 529,864 431,956 87,777 95,438 2,729,195
    32. 32. Vernon County Landfill• Nitrogen, vertical & horizontal flow• Phase 1 storage and demonstration biocells built in 2012• Bio-treatment demonstration, quantify results to WDNR• Phase 2 as a part of clay borrow for cap• Regulatory hurdles
    33. 33. VernonCounty Landfill Design Components

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