4G Integrated WiMAXA Detailed Introduction<br />By BRIAN RITCHIE<br />Twitter : brianritchie<br />Facebook : facebook.com/...
Who Am I ?<br />Co worked on the Enterprise Architecture for some of the largest regional as well as international compani...
Agenda<br />Introduction to WiMAX<br />Introduction to Network Access Control Layers<br />
Before We Go Further !!!<br />Case Study :<br />How would you cope with the increased need for bandwidth delivered at lowe...
What is WiMAX ?<br />A quick standards introduction<br />
What is WiMAX ?<br />WiMAX =  Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access<br />Aim : To provide long distance wireless...
What is 802.16 ?<br />Wireless Standards in IEEE Project 802<br />
What is 802.16 ?<br />IEEE 802.16 originally aimed to define fixed broadband wireless (FBW)<br />May possibly replace the ...
What is 802.16 ?<br />Advantages of 802.16 include :<br />Quick and easy deployment especially for areas that are difficul...
Wireless Architectures<br />What are the architectures behind WiMAX deployment<br />
Wireless Architectures<br />There are two types of wireless deployment<br />Point to Point (P2P)<br />Point to Multipoint ...
Wireless Architectures<br />Point to Point (P2P) Architecture<br />P2P is used where there are two points of interest<br /...
Wireless Architectures<br />Point to Multipoint (PMP)<br />PMP is used primarily for distribution<br />Able to serve hundr...
How does it affect WiMAX ?<br />Previous wireless technologies could not server NLOS<br />WiMAX functions best in LOS but ...
What is WiMAX ?<br />Types of WiMAXdeployments and what its not<br />
Terminology<br />Fixed WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d / 802.16-2004)<br />Mobile WiMAX(IEEE 802.16e / 802.16e-2005)<br />WiMAXvsWi-Fi...
Fixed WiMAX ( IEEE 802.16d )<br />The capability of Fixed WiMAX<br />One of the major limitations was that this architectu...
Mobile WiMAX ( IEEE 802.16e )<br />The capability of Mobile WiMAX<br />Enabled cell-phone like infrastructure on a large s...
WiMAXvsWi-Fi<br />
Hardware Architecture<br />End to End View on WiMAX hardware and the considerations<br />
WiMAX Architecture<br />Antenna/Base Station to Radio Relationship<br />Located outdoors<br />Located outdoors<br /><ul><l...
Radio = Core, contains a transmitter (send) and receiver (receive), can be likened to a router/bridge
Antenna = Broadcaster, connects to the WMAN network</li></ul>Located indoors<br />Located indoors<br />
Advantages<br />Advantage of Radio architecture – Radio is protected from weather extremes, this reduces interruptions/sig...
Hardware Architecture<br />Heliax (Pigtail)<br /><ul><li>The Antenna is connected to the Radio via a cable known as the He...
The rule for deploying Heliax cables = shorter the better
Heliax cables loses 1 dB for every 10 feet of cable</li></ul>WiMAX Radio<br />Heliax Cables<br />
Hardware Architecture<br /><ul><li>Omni Directional – Energy diffused, limited range and signal strength, good for lots of...
Sector – more focused, used more widely than Omni due to better performance
Panel – sometimes has the radio within the same enclosure, PoE power source, used for relays</li></li></ul><li>Subscriber ...
Deployment Considerations<br />Aspects to plan when deploying WiMAX technology<br />
Link Budget<br />Link Budget – Performance of the WMAN connection<br />Link Budget – Power received at each detector<br />...
Frequency Plan<br />Logic Exercise<br />Assuming you had a limit of three different frequencies for deployment to 9 base s...
Answer : This is also how cellular/wireless operators function with limited frequencies to cover the most surface area wit...
Network Architecture<br />How does WiMAX work from a networks perspective<br />
IEEE 802.16 Reference Model<br />Scope of Standard<br />CS SAP<br />Management Entity Service Specific Convergence Sublaye...
IEEE 802.16 MAC<br />MAC = Medium Access Control<br />Has a PMP network topology with support for mesh network topology<br...
IEEE 802.16 MAC<br />Has three sub-layers in the Reference Model<br />Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (CS) – Provide...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

WiMAX_Intro

1,472 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,472
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • - Before we delve in any further into WIMAX we need to understand a little more about the 802.16 standard.
  • Here we can see the IEEE Project 802’S evolvement from the 802.11 WLAN to 802.16 to cope with the growing needs and demands for better bandwidth with lower cost
  • It is a standard
  • Why did it actually take off, what made people decide on this technology
  • Here, before we delve any further into defining and understanding WIMAX, we need to take a step back and understand the different types of Wireless architectures that are required to enable this technology
  • Be careful not to confuse this terms with peer to peer and/ project management professional
  • Can anyone tell me why P2P has a higher throughput than PMP even though PMP has more users ?
  • Imagine a user/police car/ambulance moving between towers and are still able to communicate via VOIP or Video
  • [End of slide] While this gives you a brief overview of WiMAX, we will be back to go more indepth into its network Architecture. Lets first look into its Hardware Architecure
  • PoE – Power over Ethernet
  • CPE – Customer Premise Equipment
  • Antenna gain relates the intensity of an antenna in a given direction to the intensity that would be produced by a hypothetical ideal antenna that radiates equally in all directions (isotropically) and has no losses.Although the gain of an antenna is directly related to its directivity, the antenna gain is a measure that takes into account the efficiency of the antenna as well as its directional capabilities. In contrast, directivity is defined as a measure that takes into account only the directional properties of the antenna and therefore it is only influenced by the antenna pattern. However, if we assumed an ideal antenna without losses then Antenna Gain will equal directivity as the antenna efficiency factor equals 1 (100% efficiency). In practice, the gain of an antenna is always less than its directivity.
  • WiMAX_Intro

    1. 1. 4G Integrated WiMAXA Detailed Introduction<br />By BRIAN RITCHIE<br />Twitter : brianritchie<br />Facebook : facebook.com/brianritchie<br />
    2. 2. Who Am I ?<br />Co worked on the Enterprise Architecture for some of the largest regional as well as international companies<br />Rolled out the first official OSS Centre of Excellence strategy and implementation for a local Financial Institution<br />Experience with large scale Project Management for core systems<br />Designed and Implemented Research and Incubation Services for large scale corporations<br />
    3. 3. Agenda<br />Introduction to WiMAX<br />Introduction to Network Access Control Layers<br />
    4. 4. Before We Go Further !!!<br />Case Study :<br />How would you cope with the increased need for bandwidth delivered at lower costs to more subscribers ?<br />Assume the technologies available to you are the following :<br />Ethernet<br />Wi-Fi<br />Cell Towers, Base Stations, Data Centers, Traditional CDNs<br />
    5. 5. What is WiMAX ?<br />A quick standards introduction<br />
    6. 6. What is WiMAX ?<br />WiMAX = Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access<br />Aim : To provide long distance wireless broadband for applications similar to the coverage and quality of service (QOS) of cellular networks<br />Promotes the IEEE 802.16 standards <br />
    7. 7. What is 802.16 ?<br />Wireless Standards in IEEE Project 802<br />
    8. 8. What is 802.16 ?<br />IEEE 802.16 originally aimed to define fixed broadband wireless (FBW)<br />May possibly replace the past wireless local loop (WLL) in telecommunications<br />Able to deliver performance comparable to traditional cable, T1, xDSL, etc. <br />
    9. 9. What is 802.16 ?<br />Advantages of 802.16 include :<br />Quick and easy deployment especially for areas that are difficult to be wired.<br />No physical limitations compared to wired infrastructure<br />Cost effective for $/MB of data<br />Increased security through multi-level encryption<br />Highly scalable with significantly higher throughout<br />
    10. 10. Wireless Architectures<br />What are the architectures behind WiMAX deployment<br />
    11. 11. Wireless Architectures<br />There are two types of wireless deployment<br />Point to Point (P2P)<br />Point to Multipoint (PMP)<br />How does Line of Sight (LOS) affect these architectures ?<br />
    12. 12. Wireless Architectures<br />Point to Point (P2P) Architecture<br />P2P is used where there are two points of interest<br />Usually used for backend communication/data transfer (e.g: data center, co-lo, base stations) or as a point for distribution for PMP<br />Higher throughput than PMP<br />Transmitter<br />Receiver<br />
    13. 13. Wireless Architectures<br />Point to Multipoint (PMP)<br />PMP is used primarily for distribution<br />Able to serve hundreds of dissimilar subscribers simultaneously<br />
    14. 14. How does it affect WiMAX ?<br />Previous wireless technologies could not server NLOS<br />WiMAX functions best in LOS but is also able to serve NLOS with acceptable throughput which led to lower cost per subscriber because more subscribers could be served from one base station<br />Line of Sight (LOS)<br />Line of Sight<br />(LOS)<br />Non Line of Sight (NLOS)<br />
    15. 15. What is WiMAX ?<br />Types of WiMAXdeployments and what its not<br />
    16. 16. Terminology<br />Fixed WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d / 802.16-2004)<br />Mobile WiMAX(IEEE 802.16e / 802.16e-2005)<br />WiMAXvsWi-Fi<br />
    17. 17. Fixed WiMAX ( IEEE 802.16d )<br />The capability of Fixed WiMAX<br />One of the major limitations was that this architecture was not mobile. Users were not able to transition data between base towers <br />P2P : LOS = 30 Miles/48km , 72Mbps<br />PMP : NLOS = 6 Miles/9.6km , 40Mbps<br />
    18. 18. Mobile WiMAX ( IEEE 802.16e )<br />The capability of Mobile WiMAX<br />Enabled cell-phone like infrastructure on a large scale. This enabled users to move between base towers without loss of connection which allows for more mobile 0n-demand applications to be deployed<br />
    19. 19. WiMAXvsWi-Fi<br />
    20. 20. Hardware Architecture<br />End to End View on WiMAX hardware and the considerations<br />
    21. 21. WiMAX Architecture<br />Antenna/Base Station to Radio Relationship<br />Located outdoors<br />Located outdoors<br /><ul><li>WiMAX Architecture has two major components – Radio and Antenna
    22. 22. Radio = Core, contains a transmitter (send) and receiver (receive), can be likened to a router/bridge
    23. 23. Antenna = Broadcaster, connects to the WMAN network</li></ul>Located indoors<br />Located indoors<br />
    24. 24. Advantages<br />Advantage of Radio architecture – Radio is protected from weather extremes, this reduces interruptions/signal loss<br />Advantage of Antenna architecture – optimizes the performance of the WMAN connection between transmitter and receiver<br />
    25. 25. Hardware Architecture<br />Heliax (Pigtail)<br /><ul><li>The Antenna is connected to the Radio via a cable known as the Heliax (or pigtail)
    26. 26. The rule for deploying Heliax cables = shorter the better
    27. 27. Heliax cables loses 1 dB for every 10 feet of cable</li></ul>WiMAX Radio<br />Heliax Cables<br />
    28. 28. Hardware Architecture<br /><ul><li>Omni Directional – Energy diffused, limited range and signal strength, good for lots of subscribers in close proximity
    29. 29. Sector – more focused, used more widely than Omni due to better performance
    30. 30. Panel – sometimes has the radio within the same enclosure, PoE power source, used for relays</li></li></ul><li>Subscriber Hardware<br />Outdoor CPE<br />Better performance over indoor CPE due to lack of interference from physical structures, maximize reception<br />Costs more than an indoor CPE<br />Indoor CPE<br />Installed by the subscriber, reduces ISP cost, reduced reception<br />Costs less<br />Outdoor CPE<br />Indoor CPE<br />
    31. 31. Deployment Considerations<br />Aspects to plan when deploying WiMAX technology<br />
    32. 32. Link Budget<br />Link Budget – Performance of the WMAN connection<br />Link Budget – Power received at each detector<br />Prx = Ptx + Gtx – Apl + Grx – Am<br />Where<br />Prx= received power at detector (dBm)<br />Ptx = transmitter output power (dBm)<br />Gtx = transmitter antenna gain (dBi)<br />Grx = receiver antenna gain (dBi)<br />Apl = path loss (dB)<br />Am = miscellaneous attenuation (link margin, diffraction loss, connector loss, physical object interference (eg : wall, glass, trees, etc)<br />Transmitter<br />Receiver<br />
    33. 33. Frequency Plan<br />Logic Exercise<br />Assuming you had a limit of three different frequencies for deployment to 9 base stations, how would you do it ?<br />NOTE : Same frequencies in close proximity will cause interruption to your subscribers.<br />Assume frequencies are deployed by their base station using Omni directional antennas with equal range radius<br />
    34. 34. Answer : This is also how cellular/wireless operators function with limited frequencies to cover the most surface area without interference to the user <br />Frequency Plan<br />
    35. 35. Network Architecture<br />How does WiMAX work from a networks perspective<br />
    36. 36. IEEE 802.16 Reference Model<br />Scope of Standard<br />CS SAP<br />Management Entity Service Specific Convergence Sublayer<br />MAC SAP<br />Management Entity MAC Common Parte Sublayer<br />MAC<br />Network Management System<br />Privacy Sublayer<br />PHY SAP<br />Management Entity PHY Layer<br />PHY<br />Management Plane<br />Date/Control Plane<br />
    37. 37. IEEE 802.16 MAC<br />MAC = Medium Access Control<br />Has a PMP network topology with support for mesh network topology<br />Backhaul can either be ATM = Asynchronous Transfer Mode or packet based (eg : IP Networks)<br />
    38. 38. IEEE 802.16 MAC<br />Has three sub-layers in the Reference Model<br />Service Specific Convergence Sublayer (CS) – Provides any transformation/mapping of external network data through the CS Service Access Point (CS SAP)<br />MAC Common Part Sublayer (MAC CPS) – Classifies external network service data units (SDU) and associates these SDUs to propoer MAC Service flow and Connection Identifier (CID)<br />Privacy (or Security) Sublayer – Supports authentication, secure key exchange and encryption<br />
    39. 39. IEEE 802.16e Handover Arch.<br />In order to deal with mobility for the IEEE 802.16e, the MAC Layer specifies a MAC Layer Handover procedure<br />Handover happens in 2 possible situations:<br />When the mobile station (MS) moves and needs (due to signal fading/interference, etc) to change the base station (BS) that it is currently connected to, in order to provide better signal quality<br />When the mobile station can be served with higher QOS at another base station<br />
    40. 40. IEEE 802.16e Handover Arch.<br />Prior to handover, the network topology acquisition must be achieved in 3 steps :<br />Network topology advertisement – A BS broadcasts info regarding the network topology which must be obtained from the backbone<br />MS Scanning the neighboring BSs – BS can allocate time intervals for the MS to perform scans and once the BS is identified, MS may attempt to synchronize with its downlink connection and estimate quality of physical channel.<br />Association – Optional initial ranging procedure during scanning interval with respect to one of the neighboring BSs and functions to enable MS to acquire and record ranging parameters and service availability info.<br />
    41. 41. IEEE 802.16e Handover Arch.<br />Handover Procedure:<br />Cell re-selection – MS uses BS info or may request scanning interval to evaluate interest in handover<br />Handover decision and initiation – Handover begins with a decision from MS to switch from serving BS to target BS<br />Sync to Target BS Downlink – MS first syncs downlink transmissions from target Bs to obtain parameters. If target BS received previous handover notice from serving BS via backbone, the target BS allocates a non-contention initial range opportunity<br />Ranging – Target BS gets info from serving BS through backbone. MS and target BS will either conduct initial ranging or handover ranging to setup correct comm parameters<br />Termination of MS context – Terminate service at serving BS. <br />
    42. 42. Any Questions ?<br />
    43. 43. Thank you<br />By Brian Ritchie<br />Twitter : brianritchie<br />Facebook : facebook.com/brianritchie<br />Slide URL : <br />References :<br /><ul><li>WiMAX Forum
    44. 44. WiMax.com
    45. 45. Mobile WiMax by Kwang and De Marca</li>

    ×