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Problem Based Learning: What It Is and How to Use It


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March. 2005

Presentation for a task in the "Learning" course; a third-year undergraduate cognitive psychology course. The assignment was to pretend we were sent to a university somewhere that did not use Problem-Based Learning and present it to them.

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Problem Based Learning: What It Is and How to Use It

  1. 1. Problem Based Learning: What It Is and How to Use It Brian Pagán i190330 Margje v/d Wiel Faculty of Psychology, Universiteit Maastricht March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Short intro to PBL </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivist learning theory </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional design vs. PBL </li></ul><ul><li>More PBL </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>( Self-assessment report ) </li></ul>March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning
  3. 3. 1. PBL: Short Intro <ul><li>Solving problems together </li></ul><ul><li>Education system </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Constructivist principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student collaboration </li></ul>March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning
  4. 4. 2. Constructivist Learning Theory <ul><li>People learn by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Constructing” upon previous knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giving meaning to new ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active coding and decoding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building schemas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different between learners </li></ul>March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning
  5. 5. 2. Constructivist Learning Theory <ul><li>Main aspects of learning process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ learning predisposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structuring knowledge for the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective sequencing of material presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type and application of rewards/punishments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critical factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active dialog </li></ul></ul>March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning
  6. 6. 3. Traditional design vs. PBL <ul><li>Three main (general) issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching, learning, and assessment methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating students’ prior knowledge </li></ul></ul>March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning
  7. 7. 3.a. Teaching, learning, and assessment methods <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: knowledge transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Information reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Content-first approach </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures or classroom teaching </li></ul><ul><li>PBL </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: stimulate active learning </li></ul><ul><li>Information comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Student-first approach </li></ul><ul><li>Tutorial groups </li></ul>March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning
  8. 8. March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning 3.b. Learning environment <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><li>One-way information flow </li></ul><ul><li>PBL </li></ul><ul><li>Student-centered </li></ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-directional information flow </li></ul>
  9. 9. March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning 3.c. Integrating students’ prior knowledge <ul><li>Traditional </li></ul><ul><li>System of prerequisites </li></ul><ul><li>PBL </li></ul><ul><li>System of prerequisites </li></ul><ul><li>Prior knowledge takes center stage </li></ul>
  10. 10. 4. More PBL <ul><li>The seven-step approach </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical justification of each step </li></ul><ul><li>Student and instructor roles </li></ul>March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning
  11. 11. 4. More PBL- 7 Step Approach <ul><li>Tutorial Group </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Define the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Classify the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Formulate learning objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Self study </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting </li></ul>March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning Evaluation
  12. 12. 5. Conclusion <ul><li>Constructivist learning paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional education systems don’t do it </li></ul><ul><li>PBL is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizes prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the seven step process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly improves through evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts the power of learning in learners’ hands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PBL does it! </li></ul>March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning
  13. 13. 6. References <ul><li>Aulls, M. W. (2002). The Contributions of Co-Occurring Forms of Classroom Discourse and Academic Activities to Curriculum Events and Instruction. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94 (3), 520–538. </li></ul><ul><li>Bines, H. (1992a). Course Delivery and Assessment. In Developing Professional Education (pp. 57-92). Oxford: SRHE and Open University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Bines, H. (1992b). Issues in Course Design. In Developing Professional Education (pp. 11-56). Oxford: SRHE and Open University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Boekaerts, M. (1996). Self-regulated Learning at the Junction of Cognition and Motivation. European Psychologist, 1 (2), 100-112. </li></ul><ul><li>Boekaerts, M. (1997). Self-regulated learning: A new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educators, teachers, and students. Learning and Instruction, 7 (2), 161-186. </li></ul><ul><li>Dolmans, D. H. J. M., Wolfhagen, I. H. A. P., & Vleuten, C. P. M. v. d. (1998). Motivational and cognitive processes influencing tutorial groups. Academic Medicine, 73 (Supplement 10), S22-S24. </li></ul><ul><li>Echevarria, M. (2003). Anomalies as a Catalyst for Middle School Students’ Knowledge: Construction and Scientific Reasoning During Science Inquiry. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95 (2), 357-374. </li></ul><ul><li>Hein, G. E. (1991, 15-22 October). Constructivist Learning Theory. Paper presented at the CECA (International Committee of Museum Educators) Conference, Jerusalem Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Kever, S. (2003, Mon Mar 3 6:59:24 US/Pacific 2003). Constructivist Classroom: An Internet Hotlist on Constructivist Class . Retrieved 22 January, 2004, from </li></ul><ul><li>McClure, J. R., Sonak, B., & Suen, H. K. (1999). Concept map assessment of classroom learning: reliability, validity, and logistical practicality. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36 (4), 475-492. </li></ul><ul><li>Mclnerney, V., Mclnerney, D. M., & Marsh, H. W. (1997). Effects of Metacognitive Strategy Training Within a Cooperative Group Learning Context on Computer Achievement and Anxiety: An Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89 (4), 686-695. </li></ul><ul><li>Mos, L. (2003). Jerome Bruner: Language, Culture, Self. Canadian Psychology, 44 (1), 77-83. </li></ul><ul><li>Schmidt, H. G. (1983). Problem Based Learning: Rationale and Description. Medical Education, 17 , 11-16. </li></ul><ul><li>Schmidt, H. G. (1993). Foundations of problem-based learning: some explanatory notes. Medical Education, 27 (5), 422-432. </li></ul><ul><li>Schmidt, H. G., & Moust, J. H. C. (1999). A taxonomy of problems used in problem-based curricula. In J. v. Merriënboer & G. v. Moerkerke (Eds.), Instructional design for problem-based learning: Proceedings of the third workshop of the EARLI SIG instructional design (pp. 3-12). Maastricht: Datawyse. </li></ul><ul><li>Schuh, K. L. (2003). Knowledge Construction in the Learner-Centered Classroom. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95 (2), 426-442. </li></ul><ul><li>Skaalid, B. (2003). Application of Constructivist Principles to the Practice of Instructional Technology . Retrieved January 28, 2004, from </li></ul><ul><li>Til, C. v., & Heijden, F. v. d. (2000). PBL Study Skills: an overview . Maastricht: Universiteit Maastricht. </li></ul>March 24, 2005 Elective 3.4 Learning