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70 640 Lesson01 Ppt 041009


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70 640 Lesson01 Ppt 041009

  1. 1. Overview of Active Directory Domain Services <ul><li>Lesson 1 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Identify Active Directory functions and Benefits. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the major components that make up an Active Directory structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify how DNS relates to Active Directory. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Forest and Domain Functional Levels. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Directory Service <ul><li>A network service that identifies all resources on a network and makes those resources accessible to users and applications. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common directory service standards are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>X.500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. X.500 <ul><li>Uses a hierarchical approach in which objects are organized in a similar way to the files and folders on a hard drive. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) <ul><li>Industry standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Slim-down version of X.500 modified to run over the TCP/IP network. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Active Directory <ul><li>A directory service that uses the “tree” concept for managing resources on a Windows network. </li></ul><ul><li>Stores information about the network resources and services, such as user data, printer, servers, databases, groups, computers, and security policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifies all resources on a network and makes them accessible to users and applications. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Active Directory <ul><li>Used in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows Server 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subsequent versions of Active Directory have introduced new functionality and security features. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Active Directory <ul><li>Windows Server 2008 provides two directory services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Directory Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Active Directory Domain Services (AD DS) <ul><li>Provides the full-fledged directory service that is referred to as Active Directory in Windows Server 2008 and previous versions of Windows Server. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Active Director Lightweight Directory Services (AD LDS) <ul><li>Provides a lightweight, flexible directory platform that can be used by Active Directory developers without incurring the overhead of the full-fledged Active Directory DS directory service. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Domain Controller (DC) <ul><li>Server that stores the Active Directory database and authenticates users with the network during logon. </li></ul><ul><li>Stores database information in a file called ntds.dit. </li></ul><ul><li>Active Directory is a multimaster database. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is automatically replicated between multiple domain controllers. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Active Directory Functions and Benefits <ul><li>Centralized resource and security administration. </li></ul><ul><li>Single logon for access to global resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Fault tolerance and redundancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified resource location. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Centralizing Resources and Security Administration <ul><li>Active Directory provides a single point from which administrators can manage network resources and their associates’ security objects: </li></ul><ul><li>MMC Consoles found in Administrator Tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Directory Users and Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Directory Sites and Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active Directory Domains and Trusts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADSI Edit </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Fault Tolerance and Redundancy <ul><li>Active Directory uses a multimaster domain controller design. </li></ul><ul><li>Changes made on one domain controller are replicated to all other domain controllers in the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>It is recommended to have two or more domain controllers for each domain. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Read-Only Domain Controller (RODC) <ul><li>Introduced with Windows Server 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>A domain controller that contains a copy of the ntds.dit file that cannot be modified and that does not replicate its changes to other domain controllers with Active Directory. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Simplifying Resource Location <ul><li>Allows file and print resources to be published within Active Directory. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared folders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Printers </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Active Directory Components <ul><li>Forests – One or more domain trees, with each tree having its own unique name space. </li></ul><ul><li>Domain trees – One or more domains with contiguous name space. </li></ul><ul><li>Domains – A logical unit of computers and network resources that defines a security boundary. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Active Directory Components <ul><li>Some of these common attributes are as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Globally unique identifier (GUID) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Required object attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optional object attributes </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Understanding the Schema <ul><li>Defines the objects stored within Active Directory the properties (attributes) associated within each object. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User has different properties, which has different properties than a group, which has different properties of a computer. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Active Directory Naming Standard <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cn=JSmith, ou=sales, dc=lucernepublishing, dc=com </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Domain Name System (DNS) <ul><li>Provides name resolution for a TPC/IP network. </li></ul><ul><li>Active Directory requires DNS as the default name resolution method. </li></ul><ul><li>Example Resource Records (RR): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Host (A) – Host name to IP. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pointer (PTR) – IP to Host name. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service (SRV) – Locator service for LDAP/Domain controllers services. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Functional Levels <ul><li>Allows interoperability with prior versions of Microsoft Windows. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher levels of functional level will not allow older versions of Windows to function but will add additional functionality or features. </li></ul><ul><li>Raising functional level is a one-way process. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Domain Functional Levels
  24. 24. Forest Functional Levels
  25. 25. Using Forest Functional Levels <ul><li>To raise the functional level of a forest, you must be logged on as a member of the Enterprise Admins group. </li></ul><ul><li>The functional level of a forest can be raised only on a server that holds the Schema Master role. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Trust Relationships <ul><li>Active Directory uses trust relationships to allow access between multiple domains and/or forests, either within a single forest or across multiple enterprise networks. </li></ul><ul><li>A trust relationship allows administrators from a particular domain to grant access to their domain’s resources to users in other domains. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Trust Relationships <ul><li>When a child domain is created, it automatically receives a two-way transitive trust with its parent domain. </li></ul><ul><li>Trusts are transitive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If domain A trusts domain B </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And domain B trusts C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Then domain A trusts domain C </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Active Directory is a database of objects that are used to organize resources according to a logical plan. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These objects include containers such as domains and OUs in addition to resources such as users, computers, and printers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Active Directory schema includes definitions of all objects and attributes within a single forest. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each forest maintains its own Active Directory schema. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Active Directory requires DNS to support SRV records. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft recommends that DNS support dynamic updates. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Domain and forest functional levels are new features of Windows Server 2008. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The levels defined for each of these are based on the type of server operating systems that are required by the Active Directory design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Windows Server 2003 forest functional level is the highest functional level available and includes support for all Windows Server 2003 features. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Two-way transitive trusts are automatically generated within the Active Directory domain structure. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent and child domains form the trust path by which all domains in the forest can traverse to locate resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ISTG is responsible for this process. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Chapter Summary <ul><li>Cross-forest trusts are new to Windows Server 2003, and they are only available when the forest functionality is set to Windows Server 2003. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They must be manually created and maintained. </li></ul></ul>