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Pneumonia Micro2


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Pneumonia Micro2

  1. 1. Pneumonia<br />Prepared by:<br /> Brian Kieth C. Gonzales<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. What is pneumonia?<br />Pneumonia is an infection or inflammation of the lung, and can be caused by nearly any class of organism known to cause human infections, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. <br />
  4. 4. Different organisms are more frequently encountered by different age groups.  <br />Viruses cause the majority of pneumonias in young children (especially respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and influenza viruses, and adenovirus). <br />Adults are more frequently infected with bacteria (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus). <br />Pneumonia in older children and young adults is often caused by the bacteria-like Mycoplasma pneumoniae . <br />
  5. 5. Bacterial Pneumonia<br />Bacterial pneumonia is an infection that causes irritation, swelling, and congestion in the lungs. It is also called bacterial pneumonitis. <br />
  6. 6. Viral Pneumonia<br />is an infection or inflammation of the lungs. It can be in just one part of the lungs, or it can involve many parts.  <br />
  7. 7. Mycoplasmal pneumonia<br />It is a type of atypical pneumonia. It is caused by the bacteria M. pneumoniae. This type of pneumonia usually affects people younger than 40.<br />
  8. 8. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PCP)<br />A fungal infection of the lungs that is particularly common and life-threatening in premature or malnourished infants and in immunosuppressed persons. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is the most common opportunistic infection in people infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).<br />
  9. 9. Symptoms of Pneumonia<br /><ul><li>With bacterial pneumonia, the person may experience:
  10. 10. shaking
  11. 11. chills
  12. 12. chattering teeth
  13. 13. severe chest pain
  14. 14. cough that produces rust-colored or greenish mucus
  15. 15. very high fever
  16. 16. sweating
  17. 17. rapid breathing
  18. 18. rapid pulse rate</li></li></ul><li>With viral pneumonia, the person may experience:<br />fever<br />dry cough<br />headache<br />muscle pain and weakness<br />With mycoplasma pneumonia, the person may experience:<br />violent coughing attacks<br />chills<br />fever<br />nausea<br />vomiting<br />
  19. 19. <ul><li>bluish color to lips and nail beds
  20. 20. diarrhea
  21. 21. rash
  22. 22. muscle aches
  23. 23. Regardless of the type of pneumonia, the person may also experience the following symptoms:
  24. 24. a loss in appetite
  25. 25. feeling ill
  26. 26. Fatigue
  27. 27. joint and muscle stiffness
  28. 28. anxiety, stress and tension
  29. 29. abdominal pain</li></li></ul><li>Who is at greater risk of Pneumonia?<br /><ul><li>Those having the following risk factors are predisposed to developing Pneumonia:
  30. 30. Alcoholism,
  31. 31. Cigarette smoking,
  32. 32. Heart disease,
  33. 33. Infants and Seniors,
  34. 34. Diabetes,
  35. 35. Chronic renal failure
  36. 36. Dysphagia.</li></li></ul><li>Mode of transmission<br />Transmission occurs as the result of direct person-to-person contact via droplets and by people carrying the bacteria in their upper respiratory tract.<br />
  37. 37. Diagnosis<br />Chest radiographs - chest x-rays or CT scans<br />Sputum analysis - Culture <br />Blood test – A complete blood count may show a high white blood cell count, indicating the presence of an infection or inflammation.<br />Bronchoscopy<br />Lung Biopsy<br />
  38. 38. Complications<br />pleural effusion - is excess fluid that accumulates in the pleural cavity, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. <br />Endocarditis - is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium<br />or pericarditis - is an inflammation (-itis) of the pericardium (the fibrous sac surrounding the heart). <br />Otitis media in children<br />Empyema<br />Abscess in the lungs<br />Bacteria in the bloodstream (bacteremia)<br />
  39. 39. Epidemiology<br />Pneumonia is a common illness in all parts of the world. It is a major cause of death among all age groups. In children, the majority of deaths occur in the newborn period, with over two million deaths a year worldwide<br />More cases of pneumonia occur during the winter months than during other times of the year. Pneumonia occurs more commonly in males than females, and more often in Blacks than Caucasians due to differences in synthesizing Vitamin D from sunlight. Individuals with underlying illnesses such as Alzheimer&apos;s disease, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, tobacco smoking, alcoholism, or immune system problems are at increased risk for pneumonia. <br />These individuals are also more likely to have repeated episodes of pneumonia. People who are hospitalized for any reason are also at high risk for pneumonia.<br />
  40. 40. Treatment<br />Bacterial pneumonia is often treated with penicillin, ampicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin) and erythromycin. cefuroxime (Ceftin), ofloxacin (Floxin), and trimethoprim-sulfanethoxazole (Bactrim and Septra). seven to ten days<br />Viral pneumonia does not respond to antibiotic treatment, Antibiotics work only on illnesses caused by bacteria. This type of pneumonia usually resolves over time. If the lungs become infected with a secondary bacterial infection, the doctor will prescribe an appropriate antibiotic to eliminate the bacterial infection. caused by influenza A may be treated with rimantadine or amantadine, while viral pneumonia caused by influenza A or B may be treated with oseltamivir or zanamivir. These treatments are beneficial only if they are started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. <br />
  41. 41. Mycoplasma pneumonia is often treated with antibiotics, such as erythromycin, clarithromycin (Biaxin), tetracycline or azithromycin (Zithromax).<br />Pneumocystis pneumonia most commonly used medication is a combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. and Pentamidine, trimetrexate, dapsone, atovaquone , primaquine, pafuramidinemeleate, and clindamycin. AIDS patients are typically treated for 21 days, whereas non-AIDS patients are treated for 14 days. <br />
  42. 42. Prevention<br /><ul><li>Vaccinations
  43. 43. Pneumococcal Vaccine
  44. 44. pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine - PPV
  45. 45. Hib vaccine (haemophilusinfluenzae vaccine type b) in children
  46. 46. Healthy lifestyle
  47. 47. Diet and nutrition
  48. 48. Regular exercise
  49. 49. Enough sleep
  50. 50. Quit smoke</li>