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Brian J King Literature Review Presentation Cte601


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Literature review presentation for CTE 601 @ BGSU ( by Brian J. King

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Brian J King Literature Review Presentation Cte601

  1. 1. Web 2.0 & Higher Education A Literature Review Brian J. King 16 December 2008 CTE 601 Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 1
  2. 2. Web 1.0 According to Hastings (CEO of Netflix) “Web 1.0 was dial-up, 50K average bandwidth, Web 2.0 is an average 1 megabit of bandwidth and Web 3.0 will be 10 megabits of bandwidth, which will be the full video Web, and that will feel like Web 3.0” (Web 1.0). According to Flew in his book New Media (3rd edition) he describes the differences in web 1.0 versus web 2.0 “move from personal websites to blogs and blog site aggregation, from publishing to participation, from web content as the outcome of large up-front investment to an ongoing an interactive process, and from content management systems to links based on tagging (folksonomy)” (Web 1.0). Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 2
  3. 3. Web 2.0 “Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the Internet as a platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform” (O’Reilly) Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 3
  4. 4. What implications? “We need to invent Digital Native methodologies for all subjects, at all levels, using our students to guide us” (Prensky). The technologies have been altered as well as the wiring of neural networks in Digital Natives; for our education system to continue to flourish we must invent ways of engaging these learners with the newest technologies that best match their learning styles. Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 4
  5. 5. Net-Generation Learners & Their Learning “Today’s students are no longer the people our educational system was designed to teach” (Prensky, 2001). “Collaborative learning is popular with millenials, increasing computer use among all teens and the use of beepers and cell phones suggest Millennials spend time tracking down and communicating with friends and family, Millennials appear more teamlike, Millenial teens are hard at work on a grossroots reconstruction of community, teamwork, and civic spirit, and lastly Millenials are adept at high tech research skills and using this research in real life” (Coyle). Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 5
  6. 6. Bridging the Gap? “Today’s students are ‘native speakers’ of the digital language of computers, video games, and the Internet. They process information and act differently than previous generations. Digital immigrants have had to adopt; their ‘accents’ are discernible” (Prensky 2001). Entire education system must be re-tooled and a paradigm shift must occur. Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 6
  7. 7. Paradigm Shift Old System Learning models with the focus being on instruction; where the term teacher has implications that they transmit or broadcast information to students. Content experts (assumed to be the teacher) develop and design the curriculum and give one-way broadcast type message to be lectured, read, or in some way assigned to the student. Teacher Student Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 7
  8. 8. Paradigm Shift cont. According to Tapscott “The Internet and other new media forms empowers and centers the learning experience on the individual learner as opposed to those broadcasting it (the teacher), this centers the learning on the students and allows them to create rich individualized learning experiences” (Tapscott, Ficek states “While Learning Management Systems like WebCT and Blackboard are course-centered and largely faculty-driven, Ficek says PLE’s are largely learner- centered and have four key features: communication and collaboration, formal and informal learning, flexible roles and structures, and electronic portfolios and organizers” (Bart/Ficek). Thompson similarly states that in the web 2.0 age where personal media flourishes students will arrive expecting a transformative form of education (Thompson). Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 8
  9. 9. Paradigm Shift cont. “The . . . describes are surrounded by digital media to such an extent that their brain structures may be different from those of the last generation” (VanSlyke). These learners described by Bart, Ficek, VanSlyke, and Prensky all point towards the idea that education is moving towards and/ or needs to move towards delivering learning that is delivered on a flexible schedule and one that is not already set to a specific time, place, or learning pace. Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 9
  10. 10. From Broadcast to Interactive Figure 1 - Broadcast Learning to Interactive Learning (source: Coyle) Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 10
  11. 11. Web 2.0 Technologies & Applications Web 2.0 tools will be an essential asset to assist higher education in educating and fully engaging the Digital Natives that Prensky and VanSlyke discuss. Rapidly changing needs of the 21st century learners need personalized learning environments (PLE’s) By no means is this a comprehensive list Strictly focused on the most important research for using these tools and technologies in various ways to enhance educational content delivery, and the overall paradigm shift that takes place due to the use of these potentially disruptive tools and how they benefit higher education. Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 11
  12. 12. Social Bookmarking Alexander notes that social bookmarking sites such as facilitate a new kind of collaborative research because “finding people with related interests can magnify one’s work by learning from others or by leading to new collaborations” (Alexander). Grosek asserts that social bookmarking services form a collective intelligence and allow users to have a more up-to-date research and makes it easier to find new and relevant sources. This creates what Grosek refers to as architecture of participation. (Grosek). Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 12
  13. 13. Collaborative Authoring Alexander states “Blogs can be used to expand course activities beyond the four walls of the classroom, so students are writing for a worldwide audience instead of only for classmates and the instructor. Student motivation may increase when their writing can be read by thousands instead of a handful of their peer students” (Alexander). Ferris and Wilder note that integrating collaborative authoring tools into coursework is essential “Pedagogigically one can imagine writing exercises based on these tools, building on the established body of collaborative composition practice . . . these tools offer an alternative platform for peer editing, supporting the now traditional elements of computer mediated writing” (Alexander, Ferris, Wilder). Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 13
  14. 14. Collaborative Authoring cont. Downes states that blogs can be used to have instructors provide course information and embed URLs to connect course content (Downes). Furthermore one of the best examples of employing the use of web 2.0 tools (especially social bookmarking, collaborative authoring tools, etc.) would be the web 2.0 pedagogical practice at a Columbia University course where students study the capabilities of social bookmarking, wikis, blogs, and other tools to employ them directly for their own coursework (Mejias) Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 14
  15. 15. Collaborative Authoring cont. They (JISC) found that Wikipedia is very popular with usage ranging between 70 and 84 percent across all the age groups included in the survey. They also state that this is mainly the group of users that are using Wikipedia and wikis to read the content as opposed to specifically contributing; they also state that because around 50% of all Wikipedia use is for study educators and educational institutions must recognize the power of Wikipedia and teach students how to use it in combination with other research techniques to gain breadth and depth of knowledge in a particular subject matter (Faughnan). Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 15
  16. 16. Micro-blogging According to Grossek “People use twitter to communicate, ask questions, to ask for directions, support, advice, and to validate open-ended interpretations or ideas by discussing with the others” (Grossek). From “Class chatter, to create classroom community, get a sense of the world and it’s opinion (through the use of twitter’s public timeline), track a word or content matter, track a conference, obtaining instant feedback, following a professional or famous person, rule based writing, maximize the teachable moment, a public notepad, and writing assignments (Twitter for Academia) Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 16
  17. 17. Virtual Worlds/MMOG Dodge discusses using Google Earth and SecondLife as well as other massive multiplayer online games/environments as he uses SecondLife to teach various graduate level classes; additionally he discusses the integration of Google Earth with the newly released Ancient Rome 3d plugins that have 3d renderings and information attached to the buildings dating back to June 21, 320AD, this is an excellent way for students to be empowered and to explore geographic regions they may not physically have the capacity to access, see artifacts that otherwise may be no longer structurally sound or available today (Dodge). Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 17
  18. 18. References See literature review document available online at: Education-Literature-Review-by-Brian-J-King Presentation is available online at username: brianjking Tuesday, 16 December, 2008 18